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Earth Science - New York Regents August 2003 Exam


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: Multiple choice

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1.

Which statement correctly compares the size, composition, and density of Neptune to Earth?
(1) Neptune is smaller, more gaseous, and less dense.
(2) Neptune is larger, more gaseous, and less dense.
(3) Neptune is smaller, more solid, and more dense.
(4) Neptune is larger, more solid, and more dense.

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2.

A person in New York State worked outdoors in sunlight for several hours on a day in July. Which type of clothing should the person have worn to absorb the least electromagnetic radiation?
(1) dark colored with a rough surface
(2) dark colored with a smooth surface
(3) light colored with a rough surface
(4) light colored with a smooth surface

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3.

The diagram below shows an observer on Earth measuring the altitude of Polaris.

What is the latitude of this observer?
(1) 43° N
(2) 43° S 
(3) 47° N
(4) 47° S

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4.

The diagram below represents Earth at a specific position in its orbit as viewed from space. The shaded area represents nighttime.

Which Earth latitude receives the greatest intensity of insolation when Earth is at the position shown in the diagram?
(1) 0°
(2) 23½° N
(3) 66½° N
(4) 90° N

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5.

Surface ocean currents curve to the right in the Northern Hemisphere because
(1) the Moon spins on its axis
(2) the Moon travels in an orbit around Earth
(3) Earth spins on its axis
(4) Earth travels in an orbit around the Sun

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6.

Which star color indicates the hottest star surface temperature?
(1) blue
(2) white
(3) yellow
(4) red

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7.

What is the dewpoint temperature when the drybulb temperature is 12°C and the wet-bulb temperature is 4°C?
(1) −9°C
(2) 19°C 
(3) 8°C
(4) 4°C

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8.

Letters A, B, C, D, and X on the map below represent locations on Earth. The map shows the latitude-longitude grid.

Solar time is based on the position of the Sun. If the solar time is 1 p.m. at location X, at which location is the solar time 5 p.m.?
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D

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9.

The table below shows the duration of insolation (hours of daylight) measured by four observers, W, XY and Z, at four different Earth latitudes on both March 21 and June 21. There were clear skies at all four latitudes on both days.

Which observer was located at the Equator?
(1) W
(2) X 
(3) Y
(4) Z

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10.

Adjacent land and ocean surfaces have the same temperature at sunrise on a clear, calm, summer day. Then the land and water are heated by the Sun for several hours. Which cross section shows the most likely direction of surface winds that will develop at this ocean shore?

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11.

The diagram below represents Earth at four different positions, A, B, C, and D, in its orbit around the Sun.

Between which positions would New York State be experiencing the summer season?
(1) A and B
(3) C and D
(2) B and C
(4) D and A

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12.

An air mass classified as mP usually forms over which type of Earth surface?
(1) warm land
(2) warm ocean 
(3) cool land
(4) cool ocean

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13.

The air-pressure field map below represents a high-pressure system over the central United States. Isobars show the air pressure, in millibars. Letters A through E represent locations on Earth’s surface.

Between which two locations is the wind speed greatest?
(1) A and B
(2) B and C
(3) C and D
(4) D and E

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14.

Surface ocean currents located at 40° south latitude, 90° west longitude generally flow toward the
(1) northeast
(2) southeast
(3) southwest
(4) west

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15.

The arrows on the two maps below show how the monsoon winds over India change direction with the seasons.

How do these winds affect India’s weather in summer and winter?
(1) Summer is cooler and less humid than winter.
(2) Summer is warmer and more humid than winter.
(3) Winter is warmer and less humid than summer.
(4) Winter is cooler and more humid than summer.

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16.

Most water vapor enters Earth’s atmosphere by the processes of
(1) condensation an precipitation
(2) radiation and cementation
(3) conduction and convection
(4) evaporation and transpiration

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17.

At an altitude of 95 miles above Earth’s surface, nearly 100% of the incoming energy from the Sun can be detected. At 55 miles above Earth’s surface, most incoming x-ray radiation and some incoming ultraviolet radiation can no longer be detected. This missing radiation was most likely
(1) absorbed in the thermosphere
(2) absorbed in the mesosphere
(3) reflected by the stratosphere
(4) reflected by the troposphere

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18.

Weather along most fronts is usually cloudy with precipitation because the warm air along most fronts is usually
(1) sinking and cooling, causing water to evaporate
(2) sinking and warming, causing water to evaporate
(3) rising and cooling, causing water vapor to condense
(4) rising and warming, causing water vapor to condense

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19.

Which cross section below best represents the crustal plate motion that is the primary cause of the volcanoes and deep rift valleys found at midocean ridges?

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20.

The diagram below shows a classroom demonstration. Two identical flashlights were placed in the positions shown and they illuminated areas of varying size, A and B, on a classroom globe. Thermometers were then placed at the center of each illuminated area to measure the rate of temperature increase. Readings were taken over a period of 30 minutes.

Students most likely observed that the temperature of area A increased at a
(1) slower rate than the temperature of area B because area A received rays that were less concentrated
(2) slower rate than the temperature of area B because area A received rays that were more slanted
(3) faster rate than the temperature of area B because area A received rays that were more perpendicular to the surface
(4) faster rate than the temperature of area B because area A received rays with less total energy

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21.

The photograph below shows a broken piece of the mineral calcite.

The calcite breaks in smooth, flat surfaces because calcite
(1) is very dense
(2) is very soft
(3) contains certain impurities
(4) has a regular arrangement of atoms

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22.

Most inferences about the characteristics of Earth’s mantle and core are based on
(1) the behavior of seismic waves in Earth’s interior
(2) well drillings from Earth’s mantle and core
(3) chemical changes in exposed and weathered metamorphic rocks
(4) comparisons between Moon rocks and Earth rocks

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23.

What is the minimum rate of flow at which a stream of water can maintain the transportation of pebbles 1.0 centimeter in diameter?
(1) 50 cm/sec
(2) 100 cm/sec
(3) 150 cm/sec
(4) 200 cm/sec

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24.

Which activity demonstrates chemical weathering?
(1) freezing of water in the cracks of a sandstone sidewalk
(2) abrasion of a streambed by tumbling rocks
(3) grinding of talc into a powder
(4) dissolving of limestone by acid rain

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25.

Unsorted, angular, rough-surfaced cobbles and boulders are found at the base of a cliff. What most likely transported these cobbles and boulders?
(1) running water
(2) wind
(3) gravity
(4) ocean currents

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26.

The seismogram below shows P-wave and S-wave arrival times at a seismic station following an earthquake.

The distance from this seismic station to the epicenter of the earthquake is approximately
(1) 1,600 km
(2) 3,200 km
(3) 4,400 km
(4) 5,600 km

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27.

The table below gives information about the radioactive decay of carbon-14. Part of the table has been deliberately left blank for student use.

After how many years will 1/128 gram of the original carbon-14 remain?
(1) 22,800 yr
(2) 28,500 yr
(3) 34,200 yr
(4) 39,900 yr

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28.

In which layer of Earth's interior is the pressure inferred to be 1.0 million atmospheres?
(1) outer core
(2) inner core
(3) rigid mantle
(4) stiffer mantle

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29.

Which event occurred earliest in geologic history?
(1) appearance of the earliest grasses
(2) appearance of the earliest birds
(3) the Grenville Orogeny
(4) the intrusion of the Palisades Sill

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30.

A very large, circular, impact crater under the coast of Mexico is believed to he approximately 65 million years old. This impact event is inferred to be related to the
(1) appearance of the earliest trilobites
(2) advance and retreat of the last continental ice sheet
(3) extinction of the dinosaurs
(4) formation of Pangea

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31.

The greatest amount of rainwater infiltration occurs on the side of a hill if the surface of a permeable soil has
(1) small soil particles and a steep slope
(2) small soil particles and a gentle slope
(3) large soil particles and a steep slope
(4) large soil particles and a gentle slope

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32.

Which element is most abundant in Earth’s lithosphere?
(1) oxygen
(2) silicon
(3) hydrogen
(4) nitrogen

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33.

A student incorrectly measured the volume of a mineral sample as 83 cubic centimeters when the actual volume was 89 cubic centimeters. What was the student’s approximate percent deviation (percentage of error)?
(1) 6.7%
(2) 7.2%
(3) 9.3%
(4) 14.8%

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34.

The characteristic of the radioactive isotope uranium-238 that makes this isotope useful for accurately dating the age of a rock is the isotope’s
(1) organic origin
(2) constant half-life
(3) common occurrence in sediments
(4) resistance to weathering and erosion

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35.

In which New York State landscape region is Niagara Falls located?
(1) Tug Hill Plateau
(2) St. Lawrence Lowlands
(3) Allegheny Plateau
(4) Erie-Ontario Lowlands

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