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Living Environment - New York Regents January 2013 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.   [30]
Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
1 Which two cell structures work together in the
  process of protein synthesis?
  (1) nucleus and chloroplast
  (2) ribosome and vacuole
  (3) nucleus and ribosome
  (4) mitochondrion and cell membrane
Answer: 3

2.
2 Prions are proteins that act as an infectious
  agent. They cause a variety of diseases, including
  “Mad Cow” disease. Prions cannot produce
  more prions on their own, but cause the host
  organism to replicate more prions. Most
  scientists do not consider prions to be alive. A
  valid reason for accepting that prions are
  nonliving things is that
  (1) no living thing can cause a disease
  (2) proteins are inorganic molecules
  (3) prions contain all of the material needed to
      reproduce
  (4) prions cannot carry out reproduction
      independently
Answer: 4

3.
3 Which molecule can diffuse from the digestive
  tract into the human bloodstream without first
  being digested?
  (1) protein             (3) fat
  (2) starch              (4) glucose
Answer: 4

4.
4 The nucleus of a cell coordinates processes and
  activities that take place in the cell. Which two
  systems perform a similar function in the human
  body?
  (1) nervous and endocrine
  (2) digestive and reproductive
  (3) circulatory and respiratory
  (4) skeletal and muscular
Answer: 1

5.
5 The letters in the diagram below indicate some
  parts of a cell.
The function of which cell part is most similar to
that of the human excretory system?
(1) A                    (3) C
(2) B                    (4) D
Answer: 1

6.
6 In the summer, the arctic fox appears brown
  because its cells produce a dark pigment.
  However, in the winter, the arctic fox appears
  white because the dark pigment is not produced.
  The color change is most likely due to the effect of
  (1) different genes produced in the different
      seasons
  (2) increased pollution on genetic mutations
  (3) environmental conditions on gene expression
  (4) poor nutrition on cell growth and development
Answer: 3

7.
7 Many years ago, a scientist grew pea plants that
  produced wrinkled peas. The peas from these
  plants produced new plants that also produced
  wrinkled peas. The scientist concluded that
  something in the parent plants was being
  transmitted to the next generation. This
  discovery is now known as
  (1) genetic engineering (3) heredity
  (2) biological evolution (4) natural selection
Answer: 3

8.
8 The process represented in the diagram below
  occurs in many cells.
The main function of this process is to
(1) provide an exact copy of the genetic code
(2) ensure genetic variation in a species
(3) synthesize cellular proteins
(4) produce antibodies to combat disease
Answer: 1

9.
9 The Old English Bulldog is extinct. To produce
  a new English Bulldog, dogs having the desired
  physical features, but not the aggressive nature
  of the old bulldogs, were mated. The result was
  a bulldog that was similar in appearance to the
  extinct bulldog, but without its fierce nature.
  Which technique was most likely used to
  develop this new variety of dog?
  (1) cloning
  (2) inducing mutations
  (3) genetic engineering
  (4) selective breeding
Answer: 4

10.
Base your answers to questions 10 and 11 on the
diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
The diagram represents the human female
reproductive system.
10 Structure A usually produces
   (1) sperm and eggs
   (2) testosterone and eggs
   (3) estrogen, progesterone, and eggs
   (4) estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone
Answer: 3

11.
11 The placenta forms from the combination of
   fetal tissue and tissue from structure
   (1) A                      (3) C
   (2) B                      (4) D
Answer: 3

12.
12 Which factor has the greatest influence on the
   development of new, inheritable characteristics?
   (1) combinations of genes resulting from mitosis
   (2) mutations of genes in reproductive cells
   (3) sorting of genes during asexual reproduction
   (4) recombining of genes during differentiation
Answer: 2

13.
13 In 2007, scientists broke open a fossil of a
   dinosaur bone and found some preserved
   tissues. Analysis showed that some proteins in
   these tissues are very similar to proteins found in
   modern chickens. The conclusion that these
   dinosaurs are related to modern chickens is
   based on
   (1) molecular similarities
   (2) natural selection
   (3) similarities in behavior
   (4) the occurrence of mutations
Answer: 1

14.
14 The diagram below represents the bone
   arrangements in the front limbs of three
   different species of mammals.
The similarities and differences in these limbs
suggest that all three species developed from the
same ancestor, but
(1) produced different numbers of offspring
(2) lived in different time periods
(3) adapted to different habitats
(4) migrated to similar habitats
Answer: 3

15.
15 For those individuals who have an allergic
   reaction to cats, a company in Los Angeles
   promises relief. They offer a new line of cats
   genetically modified to eliminate or reduce their
   allergy-causing properties. The development of
   this new line of cats most likely involved
   (1) using natural selection to produce a new
       variety of cat
   (2) altering the reproductive rate of cats
   (3) changing the behavior of cats
   (4) manipulating the DNA of cats
Answer: 4

16.
16 Which process allows a mammal to continue to
   grow in size?
   (1) mitosis of sex cells
   (2) mitosis of body cells
   (3) meiosis of sex cells
   (4) meiosis of body cells
Answer: 2

17.
17 In 1970, a deadly disease spread through corn
   crops in the United States. Scientists discovered
   that 80 percent of the corn contained the gene
   that made the plants more likely to be infected
   with the disease. This problem might have been
   avoided if the cornfields across the country had
   had more
   (1) large predators to control parasite populations
   (2) selective mutations
   (3) genetic diversity
   (4) breeding of infected plants
Answer: 3

18.
18 According to the fossil record, which statement
   is accurate?
   (1) Most of the species that have lived on Earth
       no longer exist.
   (2) Most of the species that have lived on Earth
       still exist today.
   (3) Fossils of species that never existed can be
       found.
   (4) Fossils of species that never existed, but will
       exist in the future, can be found.
Answer: 1

19.
19 An organism that reproduces asexually will have
   offspring that have
   (1) the same genetic information as both of its
       parents
   (2) different genetic information from either of
       its parents
   (3) the same genes as its parent
   (4) different genes from its parent
Answer: 3

20.
20 Some sea slugs store chloroplasts obtained from
   algae they have ingested. The chloroplasts
   continue to carry out photosynthesis within the
   slugs. What advantage would this activity be to
   these sea slugs?
   (1) The slugs with chloroplasts can synthesize
       some of their own food.
   (2) The slugs with chloroplasts no longer need
       to carry out respiration.
   (3) The chloroplasts provide the slugs with
       camouflage that protects them from UV
       radiation.
   (4) The chloroplasts contain enzymes that allow
       the slugs to digest starch.
Answer: 1

21.
21 The energy released when sugar molecules are
   broken down is stored in
   (1) minerals             (3) DNA
   (2) ATP                  (4) wastes
Answer: 2

22.
22 Responses of the immune system to usually
   harmless environmental substances are known as
   (1) antigen production
   (2) chromosomal mutations
   (3) pathogens
   (4) allergies
Answer: 4

23.
23 People have been warned about the dangers of
   excessive exposure to radiation during certain
   medical procedures. The most likely reason for
   this warning is that radiation exposure might
   (1) result in gene mutations and uncontrolled
       cell growth
   (2) cause the rejection of transplanted organs
   (3) increase body temperature by two to five
       degrees
   (4) prevent the transport of materials into cells
Answer: 1

24.
24 A scientist was studying a population of fish in a
   pond over a period of 10 years. He observed that
   the population increased each year for 3 years,
   and then remained nearly constant for the rest of
   the study. The best explanation for this
   observation is that the population had
   (1) stopped reproducing
   (2) reached carrying capacity
   (3) mutated into a different species
   (4) run out of food and migrated to a different
       pond
Answer: 2

25.
25 Increased human population growth usually
   results in
   (1) a decrease in the need for farming
   (2) a need for stronger environmental protection
       laws
   (3) lower levels of air and water pollution
   (4) an increase in natural wildlife habitats
Answer: 2

26.
26 Four levels of an energy pyramid are
   represented below.
Which statement about this energy pyramid is
correct?
(1) Organisms in level 4 receive their energy
    directly from the Sun.
(2) Organisms in level 2 are carnivores.
(3) Organisms in level 2 receive their energy
    from level 3.
(4) Organisms in level 1 are autotrophic.
Answer: 4

27.
27 Growing exotic (nonnative) plant species in
   parks and gardens could lead directly to an
   increase in the
   (1) biodiversity of the autotrophs that feed on
       them
   (2) populations of native carnivores
   (3) competition between them and native
       producers
   (4) breeding between them and native
       herbivores
Answer: 3

28.
28 Scientists have been concerned about the
   reduction of shark populations due to
   overfishing off the east coast of the United
   States. Sharks feed on rays, which feed on
   scallops. Scallops feed on microscopic algae,
   which they filter from seawater. Without sharks,
   the rays consume and eliminate scallop beds,
   harming the scallop fishing industry. This
   situation demonstrates that
   (1) sharks are not important for the stability of
       this ecosystem
   (2) reducing the shark population increases the
       quantity of scallops that can be harvested
   (3) humans can upset ecosystem stability by
       removing species
   (4) humans improve ecosystem diversity by
       removing predators
Answer: 3

29.
29 The diagram below represents changes in the sizes of openings present in leaves as a result of the actions
   of cells X and Y.
The actions of cells X and Y help the plant to
(1) maintain homeostasis by controlling water loss
(2) store excess heat during the day and remove the heat at night
(3) absorb light energy necessary for cellular respiration
(4) detect changes in the biotic factors present in the environment
Answer: 1

30.
30 The diagram represents the changes in an area over time.
This series of changes in the area over hundreds of years is known as
(1) evolution                                              (3) ecological succession
(2) feedback                                               (4) direct harvesting
Answer: 3


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part. [13]
Directions (31– 43): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of
the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31.
31 How much water should be added to the
   graduated cylinder shown below to increase the
   volume to 15 milliliters?
(1) 11 mL   (3) 3 mL
(2) 10 mL   (4) 4 mL
Answer: 4

32.
Base your answers to questions 32 and 33 on the
statement below and on your knowledge of biology.
       Scientists have found a gene in the DNA of
   a certain plant that could be the key to
   increasing the amount of lycopene, a cancerfighting substance, in tomatoes.
 32 The process of inserting this gene into the DNA
    of a tomato plant is known as
    (1) selective breeding    (3) cloning
    (2) genetic engineering (4) replication
Answer: 2

33.
33 The ability to produce increased amounts of
   lycopene will be passed on to new tomato cells as
   a direct result of
   (1) recycling             (3) enzyme action
   (2) mitosis               (4) gene expression
Answer: 2

34.
34 The graph below shows the changes in the number of individuals in a population who have a
   specific trait.
Which statement concerning this trait is a valid
inference?
(1) As time passed, an increasing number of
    individuals with this trait survived and
    reproduced.
(2) Individuals can acquire new survival
    characteristics over time and pass them on to
    their offspring.
(3) The longer a species is in an environment,
    the less likely it is that mutations will occur
    within the species.
(4) The number of traits a species possesses has
    a direct relationship to the amount of time
    the species will exist.
Answer: 1

35.
Base your answers to questions 35 through 37 on the diagram below and your knowledge of biology. The
diagram represents an ameba, a single-celled organism, carrying out an essential life process.
35 This process represents a step in
   (1) asexual reproduction            (3) photosynthesis
   (2) heterotrophic nutrition         (4) diffusion
Answer: 2

36.
36 This process is essential to the survival of the ameba because it
   (1) provides materials used in cellular respiration        (3) supplies the raw materials for photosynthesis
   (2) removes pathogens from the environment                 (4) protects the organism during development
Answer: 1

37.
37 Which two body systems allow humans to carry out the same life process as the ameba in the diagram?
   (1) endocrine and immune                               (3) digestive and circulatory
   (2) respiratory and reproductive                       (4) nervous and excretory
Answer: 3

38.
38 The diagram below represents how HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, interacts with a certain type of white
   blood cell called a helper T-cell.
What is one possible result of the cellular activity represented in the diagram?
(1) Immune responses of an infected individual will be weakened.
(2) The red blood cells of a person infected with AIDS will no longer be able to make antibodies.
(3) This virus will strengthen future immune responses against blood-related diseases.
(4) Immune responses will prevent the spread of AIDS in humans.
Answer: 1

39.
39 The diagram below represents the relationship between natural selection and variation. The arrow between
   them is labeled X.
Which phrase best indicates the meaning of the arrow labeled X?
(1) is dependent on                                     (3) decreases the rate of
(2) increases the rate of                               (4) is independent of
Answer: 1

40.
40 The chart below summarizes the effect of commercial fishing on a local Atlantic cod population over an
   9-year period.
According to the chart, it can be concluded that
(1) the number of fishing boats has less effect on the local cod population than pollution
(2) more fishing boats make the cod population estimates more accurate
(3) an increase in fishing boats has had a positive impact on cod population growth
(4) commercial fishing is having a negative effect on the local cod population
Answer: 4

41.
41 The diagram below represents some stages that occur in the formation of an embryo.
Which statement best describes stage X?
(1) Stage X is a zygote and contains half the number of chromosomes as the body cells of the parents.
(2) Stage X is formed by the process of meiosis and is known as a gamete.
(3) Stage X is a zygote and is formed as a result of the process of fertilization.
(4) Stage X is formed by mitosis and is known as an egg cell.
Answer: 3

42.
42 The diagram below represents a sequence of events that occurs in the human body throughout the day.
These events can best be described as an example of
(1) an energy cycle                                   (3) a feedback mechanism
(2) recycling of inorganic materials                  (4) a learned behavior
Answer: 3

43.
43 The graph below shows the changes in the size of a population over a period of time.
Which environmental condition could have caused the change in the population size at A?
(1) an increase in competition                        (3) a decrease in the size of its predators
(2) a constant availability of shelter                (4) an unlimited supply of its food
Answer: 1


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part. [12]
Directions (44–55): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on your separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.

44.
Directions (44–45): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid, following the
directions below.
 44 Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on each labeled axis. [1]
Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          In order to determine the effect of a certain antibiotic on a species of microorganism,
      an investigation was carried out. A sample of a specific species of microorganism was added
      to 100 mL of a liquid culture medium. One mL of a solution of the antibiotic was then
      added to that culture medium. Each day at 10 a.m., 1 mL of the experimental culture
      medium was removed and the number of microorganisms in the 1-mL sample was
      determined. The 1 mL of experimental culture medium was replaced by 1 mL of new
      sterile culture medium to maintain a constant volume. The results are shown in the table
      below.


Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on each labeled axis.



45.
45 Plot the data from the table. Surround each point with a small circle and connect the points. [1]


Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data and connecting the points.
Example of a 2-credit graph for questions 44 and 45:
Note: Allow credit if the points are plotted correctly but not circled.
       Do not assume the intersection of the xand y-axes is the origin (0,0) unless it is labeled.
       An appropriate scale only needs to include the data range in the data table. Do not allow
       credit for plotting points that are not in the data table, e.g., (0,0), or for extending lines
       beyond the data points.



46.
46 Why was the 1 mL of experimental culture medium that was removed each day replaced by 1 mL of
   sterile culture medium? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — to maintain a constant volume in the container of experimental culture medium
   — to lower the concentration of wastes
   — so it did not add more microorganisms to it
   — to replace nutrients that were removed



47.
47 The microorganisms present on day 5 were
   (1) newly added from the sterile culture medium
   (2) offspring of antibiotic-resistant individuals
   (3) organisms that were all present on day 1
   (4) offspring with no resistance to the antibiotic
Answer: 2

48.
Base your answers to questions 48 and 49 on the diagram of a compound light microscope below and on
your knowledge of biology.
48 The image of the specimen viewed using high power with this microscope will appear larger than when
   viewed using low power. State one other way the image of the specimen as seen using high power would
   differ from the image as seen using low power. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — More detail will be seen.
   — You might not see the entire specimen in the field of view.
   — The image might appear darker.



49.
49 What is the total magnification of this microscope using the high-power objective lens?
   (1) 43×                                                    (3) 100×
   (2) 53×                                                    (4) 430×
Answer: 4

50.
Base your answers to questions 50 and 51 on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology. The graph
shows interactions of moose and wolf populations on Isle Royale.
50 What is the relationship between a wolf and a moose?
   (1) wolf–prey; moose–predator                          (3) wolf–predator; moose–decomposer
   (2) wolf–parasite; moose–host                          (4) wolf–predator; moose–prey
Answer: 4

51.
51 State one possible reason for the change in the moose population between 1995 and 1997.   [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Disease killed large numbers of the moose.
            — The moose population overgrazed its habitat, resulting in starvation.
            — The moose population exceeded the carrying capacity of the environment.
            — overhunting
            — severe winter
         Note: Do not allow credit for “the wolves ate more moose” or “they died.”



52.
Base your answers to questions 52 and 53 on the table below and on your knowledge of biology.
         Species A, B, C, and D are all different heterotrophs involved in the same food chain in
      an ecosystem. The table below shows the population of each of these species on one
      summer day.
52 Which species is most likely an herbivore? Support your answer with data from the table. [1]
   Species: _______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit for B and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — In a food pyramid, the largest population of heterotrophs would be the herbivores and B is
              the largest group.
            — Most animals in an ecosystem are herbivores.
            — In most ecosystems, herbivores outnumber other heterotrophs.



53.
53 There are groups of organisms that must be present in this ecosystem that are not shown in the table.
   Identify one of these groups of organisms and state the role of this group in this ecosystem. [1]
   Group: _______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — producers; capture energy from the Sun
            — producers; provide food for other organisms in the ecosystem
            — decomposers; recycle the remains of dead organisms
            — bacteria; recycle nutrients/raw materials
            — fungi; decompose dead organisms



54.
Base your answers to questions 54 and 55 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
54 Identify the type of building block represented by the letters A, B, and C. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit for amino acids or peptides.



55.
55 If the sequence of building blocks were changed, what effect could it most likely have on the protein? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The shape of the protein could change.
            — The function of the protein could be different.
            — It might form a different protein.




Part C
Answer all questions in this part.   [17]
Directions (56–72): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.

56.
Base your answers to questions 56 and 57 on the data table below and on your knowledge of biology.
56 State the specific expected result of administering these vaccines to child B. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Child B should be immune to both measles and polio.
            — Child B will form antibodies against both diseases.
            — Child B will not get measles or polio.



57.
57 Identify the system that will directly respond to these vaccines, and state the specific expected
   response. [1]
   System: _______
   Response:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        System:
            — Immune system
        Response:
           — make antibodies
            — increase white blood cell production
            — produces cells that engulf the virus/pathogen



58.
58–59 Nutrients in a diet, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and minerals, play an important role in homeostasis
      within the human body. Lack of these nutrients can lead to malfunctions that disrupt this internal
      balance. Explain how diet can influence homeostasis. In your answer, be sure to:
      • select a nutrient from the passage and write it on the line below and state one role this nutrient plays
        in the body [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit for stating one role this nutrient plays in the body. Acceptable responses include,
       but are not limited to:
            — Carbohydrates are a source of energy. They can be used to produce the ATP needed for
              carrying out body activities.
            — Proteins are necessary for growth and repair.
            — Minerals are needed for strong bones and teeth.



59.
• describe, using one specific example, how a decrease in this nutrient can alter homeostasis [1]
Nutrient: _______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit for describing, using one specific example, how a decrease in this nutrient can alter
       homeostasis. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Decreased levels of carbohydrates might result in fatigue/less energy.
            — Lack of protein in the diet might lead to muscle loss/enzyme deficiency.
            — Lack of minerals might cause loss of bone density.



60.
Base your answers to questions 60 through 63 on the information below and on your knowledge of
biology.
             A student wants to bake the biggest loaf of bread in the local baking contest. Each
         contestant must use the same amounts of flour, sugar, and yeast, but is allowed to vary the
         type of sugar. Yeast is a microorganism that carries out cellular respiration, which produces
         carbon dioxide, making the bread rise. The student designs an experiment using the setup
         below to determine which sugar source (glucose, sucrose, or fructose) will cause the yeast
         to produce the most carbon dioxide and therefore, the biggest loaf of bread.
60 State one hypothesis this experiment would test. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — If sucrose (or glucose or fructose) is the best sugar, then it will result in the greatest amount
              of carbon dioxide being produced.
            — When yeast and sucrose (or glucose or fructose) are combined in a container with a balloon
              over it, the balloon will inflate the most.
            — If sucrose (or glucose or fructose) is the sugar used, the loaf of bread produced will be the
              biggest.
        Note: Do not allow credit for a hypothesis written in the form of a question.



61.
61 Describe the specific type of data to be collected. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — balloon size/circumference
            — amount of carbon dioxide in the balloon
        Note: The type of data must be measurable. Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the
              student’s hypothesis.



62.
62 In addition to bottles A, B, and C, the student sets up a control bottle, D. Write the contents of
   bottle D on the blank line on the diagram below. [1]


Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

62 [1] Allow 1 credit for writing the correct contents of bottle D.
        Example of a 1-credit response:



63.
63 State one assumption the student makes in deciding which type of sugar should be used to produce the
   biggest loaf of bread. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

63 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Yeast uses sugar for respiration.
            — The type of sugar used will make a difference.
            — When mixed in the bread dough, the yeast will undergo respiration the same as it does in the
              bottle.
            — The sugar that results in the greatest amount of carbon dioxide production in the
              experiment will produce the biggest loaf of bread.
            — It is the sugar that influences the size of the loaf of bread.
            — Changing the kind of sugar would make a greater difference than changing the kind of flour.



64.
64 Some owners of beautifully landscaped homes along the shores of the Finger Lakes use fertilizer on
   their lawns. When it rains, some fertilizer is washed into the lakes and causes increased plant growth in
   the lakes. State one effect that this increased plant growth could have on the aquatic ecosystem. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — Increased plant growth might block sunlight from penetrating the water, killing off other
               plant species.
             — Increased plant growth could disrupt the food chain by blocking light to the ecosystem.
             — There will be a change (increased/decreased) in the oxygen supply for fish.
             — There will be a change (decreased/increased) in the food supply for herbivores.
             — can result in more decaying material causing the lake to fill in
             — Excessive plant growth can limit animal movement/alter habitat.



65.
Base your answers to questions 65 through 68 on the diagrams below and on your knowledge of biology. The
diagrams represent how various populations interact in a forest environment.
65 Which diagram, A or B, most accurately represents interactions between biotic and abiotic factors in a
   forest environment? Support your answer. [1]
   Diagram: _______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit for A and for supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not
       limited to:
             — The diagram shows the Sun and living things.
             — There are both biotic and abiotic factors shown in diagram A.
             — Diagram A includes the Sun and raw materials.
             — There are no abiotic factors in food web B.
             — Diagram B does not show the original source of energy.
             — Diagram B is missing an energy source and raw materials from the soil.



66.
66 State what would most likely happen to one other population in this food web if all the squirrels and
   rabbits were suddenly killed by a viral disease. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit for stating what would most likely happen to one other population in this food web
       if all the squirrels and rabbits were suddenly killed by a viral disease and for supporting the answer.
       Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — The fox/weasel/cougar population would decrease because of less food.
             — The oak trees would increase because there would be more acorns.
             — The deer population might increase due to less competition for available food.
             — The deer population might decrease due to greater predation by cougars.
             — There would be more competition among foxes/weasels/cougars because of a decrease in
               food.



67.
67 If this forest community experienced a severe lack of rain throughout the spring and summer seasons,
   state what effect this drought could have on the grouse population. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit for stating what effect this drought could have on the grouse population and for
       supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — Lack of rain could cause plants to die off, decreasing the food available for the beetles,
               which would die off, causing the grouse population to also decrease.



68.
68 State one possible reason why the deer population could remain relatively constant, even though the
   number of berry bushes and berries varies from year to year. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — If there are not enough berries, then the deer population can eat more acorns and Hickory
               nuts.
             — The deer have other food sources.



69.
Base your answer to question 69–72 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of
biology.
            At an observatory in Mauna Loa, Hawaii, scientists have been measuring and collecting
        data related to changes in the atmosphere since the 195os. The remote location of the
        observatory makes it ideal for studying atmospheric conditions that can cause climate
        change. One specific measurement taken is the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
        Information for a 7-year period is shown in the graph below.
69–72 Analyze the data shown in the graph. In your answer, be sure to:
      • state the overall relationship between time and carbon dioxide levels [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit for stating the overall relationship between time and carbon dioxide levels.
       Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — As time increased, the levels of carbon dioxide increased.
            — As time went by, the amount of carbon dioxide increased.
            — Carbon dioxide production fluctuated with the seasons.



70.
• state one possible cause for the overall change in the carbon dioxide levels shown in the graph [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit for stating one possible cause for the overall change in the carbon dioxide levels
       shown in the graph. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — increase in human population
            — fewer photosynthetic organisms
            — deforestation
            — increased use of fossil fuels
            — increased volcanic activity
        Note: Do not accept just “pollution” without a source or explanation.



71.
• identify the biological process that might account for the decreases in carbon dioxide levels [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit for identifying the biological process that might account for the decreases in carbon
       dioxide levels. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — photosynthesis
            — autotrophic nutrition



72.
• identify two actions carried out by humans that could lower carbon dioxide levels [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit for identifying two actions carried out by humans that could lower carbon dioxide
       levels. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — planting more trees
            — reducing the use of fossil fuels
            — car pool/use public transportation/reduce driving
            — recycling
            — using alternative energy sources




Part D
Answer all questions in this part.   [13]
Directions (73–85): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on your separate answer sheet the
number of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this
part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.

73.
Base your answers to questions 73 and 74 on the
information and diagram below and on your
knowledge of biology.
       Finches on the Galapagos Islands are
   thought to have originated from South America
   and to have evolved into new species over the
   last 10,000 years. Some of this evolution is
   represented in the diagram below.
73 The success of the finches on the Galapagos was
   most likely due to the
   (1) large numbers of other birds competing for
       food
   (2) mutations occurring in every offspring
   (3) birds occupying the same island
   (4) birds adapting to different niches
Answer: 4

74.
74 The seed-eating finch was most likely the
   (1) largest finch
   (2) common ancestor
   (3) parent of the other finches
   (4) most successful
Answer: 2

75.
Base your answers to questions 75 and 76 on the
information below and on your knowledge of biology.
        A student is opening and closing clothespins as part of a lab activity. The student begins
  to experience muscle fatigue, and the rate at
  which the student is opening and closing the
  clothespins slows.
75 The fatigue is due to
   (1) an increase of metabolic waste products in
       the muscles
   (2) an increase in the pulse rate of the student
   (3) a decrease of metabolic waste products in the
       muscles
   (4) a decrease in the pulse rate of the student
Answer: 1

76.
76 In order for the muscle fatigue to end, the
   muscle cells must be provided with
   (1) oxygen               (3) carbon dioxide
   (2) nitrogen             (4) amino acids
Answer: 1

77.
Base your answers to questions 77 and 78 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
         The chart describes the beaks of various types of birds that live in a small island
      ecosystem containing flowering land plants, aquatic plants, many small mammals,
      amphibians, and several species of trees.
77 Identify the beak type that would be characteristic of predators of small mammals. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — shredder
            — sharp, curved beak



78.
78 Identify one kind of bird that would show an immediate decrease in number if the flowering land plants
   were destroyed by an environmental change. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit for identifying one kind of bird that would show an immediate decrease in
       number if the flowering land plants were destroyed by an environmental change and for
       supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — hummingbirds–no flowers available to obtain nectar from
            — sparrows–no seeds available for food
            — birds with cracker beaks–no seeds available for food



79.
79 To determine the effect of fatigue on the action of muscles, each of five boys was given a 12-cm clothespin
   and each of five girls was given a 10-cm clothespin. The students squeezed the clothespins for 30 seconds
   and recorded the results. After the first trial, the girls rested and the boys jogged in place for 1 minute. A
   second trial was then done to determine how many times each student could squeeze the clothespin in
   45 seconds. Identify one error in the design of this experiment. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Each trial should have more students.
            — The clothespins were of two different sizes.
            — The time intervals for the two trials were unequal.
            — The boys and girls should not have been in separate groups.



80.
80 The diagram below represents the results of chromatography of leaf pigments from four plant species,
   A, B, C, and D.
Which plant species has pigments most similar to those in A? Support your answer using data from the
chromatogram. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit for indicating plant C and for supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include,
       but are not limited to:
            — A and C have the most bands in common.
            — A and C have the same pigments.
            — Only A and C have yellow, orange, and green.
            — The same pigments moved the same distance in A and C.



81.
Base your answers to questions 81 and 82 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The
diagram represents a model cell setup. The locations of three different substances are indicated in the diagram.
81 Which statement best describes what will most likely happen after several minutes?
   (1) The contents of the model cell will change color.    (3) The model cell will shrink.
   (2) The liquid outside the model cell will change color. (4) The model cell will rupture.
Answer: 1

82.
82 Which row in the chart below best explains the movement of some molecules between the model cell and
   the solution in the beaker?
     Row    Direction of Flow of Molecules            Energy Use
      (1)    from high to low concentration   without using cellular energy
      (2)    from high to low concentration       using cellular energy
      (3)    from low to high concentration   without using cellular energy
      (4)    from low to high concentration       using cellular energy
Answer: 1

83.
Base your answers to questions 83 through 85 on the chart below and on your knowledge of biology. The
DNA Sequences chart shows a portion of the code for insulin in humans and cows. These DNA sequences are
repeated in the Human Insulin and Cow Insulin charts.
 83 In the DNA Sequences chart, circle the number over each three-letter portion of the DNA that is
    different in humans and cows. [1]


Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit for circling 1, 3, and 8.
        Note: All three differences must be circled to receive credit. Allow credit if the student circled
              the correct DNA sequences rather than just the number.



84.
84 For each number circled for the DNA sequences above, write the complementary mRNA base sequence
   in the Human Insulin and Cow Insulin charts that each of these circled portions would produce. Be sure
   to complete only the circled portions. [1]


Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

 Allow 1 credit for indicating the mRNA sequences for the DNA sequences indicated by the
       student for question 83.
        Note: If additional mRNA sequences are filled in all must be correct to receive 1 credit.



85.
85 Use the Universal Genetic Code Chart below to determine the amino acid coded for by each mRNA base
   sequence written in the Human Insulin and Cow Insulin charts. [1]


Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

Allow 1 credit for indicating the amino acid coded for by each mRNA written for question 84.
Note: Allow credit based on the mRNA base sequence in question 84. If additional sequences are
      filled in, all must be correct to receive 1 credit.
Example of a 3-credit response for questions 83–85:




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