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Living Environment - New York Regents June 2000 Exam

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Part A
Answer all 35 questions in this part. [35]
Directions (1-35): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. An experiment was performed to determine the effect of different mineral salts on plant growth. Forty pots containing genetically identical plants were divided into four equal groups and placed in a well-lighted greenhouse. Each pot contained an equal amount of nonmineral potting soil and one plant. Minerals were then added in equal amounts to each experimental group of pots as shown below.

For the experiment to be valid, what should be added to the control group of pots?
(1) water
(2) nitrogen salts
(3) potassium salt
(4) potassium and phosphorus salts
1

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2. A biologist observed a plant cell in a drop of water as shown in diagram A.The biologist added a 10% salt solution to the slide and observed tlie cell as shown in diagram B.


The change in appearance of the cell resulted from
(1) more salt moving out of the cell than into the cell
(2) more salt moving into the cell than out of the cell
(3) more water moving into the cell than out of the cell
(4) more water moving out of the cell than into the cell
4

Contribute Your Answer / Explanation

3. Which statement describing the cells in a body system is correct?
(1) Each cell in the system is identical to the other cells in the system, and each cell works independently of the other cells.
(2) Some cells in the system may be different from the other cells in the system, but all cells are coordinated and work together.
(3) Each cell in the system is different from the other cells in the system, and each cell works independently of the other cells.
(4) All cells in the system are identical to each other and work together.
2

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4. The process of active transport requires the most direct use of
(1) carbon dioxide
(2) amino acids
(3) AT
(4) glucose
3

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5. Which substances may form in the human body due to invaders entering the blood?
(1) nutrients
(2) vaccines
(3) antibodies
(4) red blood cells
3

Contribute Your Answer / Explanation

6. To communicate between cells, many multi- cellular animals use
(1) nerve signals and respiratory gases
(2) respiratory gases and hormones
(3) bones and muscles
(4) nerve signals and hormones
4

Contribute Your Answer / Explanation

7.


1

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8. The function of the coded instructions contained in the body cells of an organism is to
(1) form a variety of gametes that will pass on hereditary information
(2) direct the synthesis of proteins necessary for proper cell function
(3) synthesize different kinds of amino acids in a specific sequence
(4) produce the inorganic molecules needed for normal cell growth
2

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9. Which characteristic allows enzymes to function in a specific way?
(1) Enzymes are complex compounds composed of starch.
(2) Each enzyme has a characteristic shape.
(3) Enzymes are long, complex fats.
(4) Each enzyme is made up of four subunits.
2

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10. Flower color in primrose plants is controlled by an individual gene. The sudden appearance of one white flowering primrose in a plant breeder’s field of red primrose plants is most likely due to
(1) a change in the amount of glucose produced during photosynthesis
(2) the use of a new natural fertilizer on the field
(3) rapid mitotic divisions within the developing seeds
(4) a random change in the structure of DNA during meiosis
4

Contribute Your Answer / Explanation

11. White short-horned cattle and Black Angus cattle have been crossed to produce offspring with superior beef and rapid growth qualities. This process of choosing organisms with the most desirable traits for mating is known as
(1) cloning
(2) biodiversit
(3) selective breeding
(4) genetic engineering
3

Contribute Your Answer / Explanation

12. When the antibiotic penicillin was first introduced, it was immediately effective in combating staphylococcus bacterial infections. After a number of years, there were outbreaks of staphylococcal infections that did not respond to treatment with penicillin. The best explanation for this situation is that
(1) members of the original population of bacteria that were penicillin resistant survived and reproduced, creating a more resistant population
(2) the bacteria that survived exposure to penicillin learned to avoid it
(3) the bacteria that caused the new outbreaks were from populations that had never been exposed to penicillin
(4) during each generation, the bacteria modified their own DNA to increase their ability to resist penicillin and passed this ability on to their descendants
1

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13. The diagram below illustrates some key steps of a procedure in one area of biotechnology.


The diagram below illustrates some key steps of a procedure in one area of biotechnology.
(1) bacterial cells that are unable to synthesize insulin
(2) human cells that are able to synthesize antibodies
(3) bacterial cells that are able to synthesize insulin
(4) human cells that are unable to resist antibiotics
3

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14. Which statement about the rates of evolution for different species is in agreement with the theory of evolution?
(1) They are identical, since the species live on the same planet.
(2) They are identical, since each species is at risk of becoming extinct.
(3) They are different, since each species has different adaptations that function within a changing environment.
(4) They are different, since each species has access to unlimited resources within its environment.
3

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15. Which concept is not a part of the theory of evolution?
(1) Present-day species developed from earlier species.
(2) Some species die out when environmental changes occur.
(3) Complex organisms develop from simple organisms over time.
(4) Change occurs according to the needs of an individual organism to survive.
4

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16. Warts result when certain viruses cause skin cells to reproduce at a high rate. This rapid reproduction of skin cells is due to the viruses stimulating
(1) cellular digestion
(2) mitotic cell division
(3) synthesis processes
(4) meiotic cell division
2

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17. Even though the environment changes, a population that occupies a given geographic area will most likely continue to be found in this area if the
(1) variations in the population decrease over time
(2) members of the population decrease in number
(3) members of the population exceed the carrying capacity
(4) population passes on those genes that result in favorable adaptations
4

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18. The diagram below represents a reproductive process that takes place in humans.

Which statement does not correctly describe this process?
(1) The normal species chromosome number is restored.
(2) Males and females each contribute DNA to the offspring.
(3) The zygote will develop to become identical to the dominant parent.
(4) The sex of the zygote is determined by DNA in the gametes.
3

Contribute Your Answer / Explanation

19. The diagrams below represent some events in a cell undergoing normal meiotic cell division.



1

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20. When a pregnant woman ingests toxins such as alcohol and nicotine, the embryo is put at risk because these toxins can
(1) diffuse from the mother’s blood into the embryo’s blood within the placenta
(2) enter the embryo when it eats
(3) transfer to the embryo since the mother’s blood normally mixes with the embryo’s blood in the placenta
(4) enter the uterus through the mother’s navel
1

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21. The energy found in ATP molecules synthesized in animal cells comes directly from
(1) sunlight
(2) organic molecules
(3) minerals
(4) inorganic molecules
2

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22. Which substances are necessary for the synthesis of most materials in an organism?
(1) hormones
(2) carbohydrates
(3) antibodies
(4) enzymes
4

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23. A certain mutant bacterial cell cannot produce substance X. The mutation was most likely the result of a change in the
(1) structure of the cell membrane
(2) ability of the DNA to replicate
(3) amino acid sequence of DNA
(4) gene that codes for a specific protein
4

Contribute Your Answer / Explanation

24. Which statement best describes an immune response?
(1) It always produces antibiotics.
(2) It usually involves the recognition and destruction of pathogens.
(3) It stimulates asexual reproduction and resistance in pathogens.
(4) It releases red blood cells that destroy parasites.
2

Contribute Your Answer / Explanation

25. Which statement describes a feedback mechanism involving the human pancreas?
(1) The production of estrogen stimulates the formation of gametes for sexual reproduction.
(2) The level of oxygen in the blood is related to heart rate.
(3) The level of sugar in the blood is affected by the amount of insulin in the blood.
(4) The production of urine allows for excretion of cell waste.
3

Contribute Your Answer / Explanation

26. A green plant is kept in a brightly lighted area for 48 hours. What will most likely occur it the light intensity is reduced slightly during the next 48 hours?
(1) Photosynthesis will stop completely.
(2) The rate at which nitrogen is used by the plant will increase.
(3) The rate at which oxygen is released from the plant will decrease.
(4) Glucose production inside each plant cell will increase.
3

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27. Which sequence shows a correct pathway for the flow of energy in a food chain?
(1) bacteria grass fox owl
(2) grass grasshopper frog snake
(3) fungi beetle algae mouse
(4) algae snake duck deer
2

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28. Before it was banned, the insecticide DDT was used to combat an organism called the red mite. An unexpected result of the use of DDT was that the population of the red mite increased rather than decreased, while the population of insect predators of the red mite decreased. What can be inferred from this situation?
(1) Environmental changes that affect one population can affect other populations.
(2) The red mite and its insect predators were all competing for the same resources.
(3) The red mites were immune to the effects of insecticides.
(4) Using insecticides is a reliable way to eliminate all insect predators.
1

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29. Chittenango Falls State Park in central New York State is the only known habitat for an endangered species of aquatic snail. Contamination of its water supply and reduction of its habitat have threatened the future of this snail. Which step could be taken to protect this species of snail?
(1) banning human activities that damaged the habitat
(2) introducing a new snail predator into the habitat
(3) transferring the snail to a terrestrial environment
(4) crossbreeding the snail with another species
1

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30. When humans use more ground water for industry than is being replaced, the soil above the ground water may collapse and disrupt natural habitats. This human activity is an example of
(1) species exploitation
(2) renewal of natural resources
(3) a disposal problem
(4) poor use of finite resources
4

Contribute Your Answer / Explanation

31. Decomposition and decay of organic matter are accomplished by the action of
(1) green plants
(2) bacteria and fungi
(3) viruses and algae
(4) scavengers
2

Contribute Your Answer / Explanation

32. For many decades, certain areas of New York State have remained as hardwood forests containing predominantly oak and hickory trees. These forested areas will most likely
(1) remain indefinitely and not be affected by environmental influences
(2) reach maturity and change in the near future
(3) be destroyed by environmental changes and never return to their present forms
(4) continue in their present forms unless affected by environmental factors
4

Contribute Your Answer / Explanation

33. What is a characteristic of a stable environment?
(1) It usually contains only one type of producer.
(2) It usually contains a great diversity of species.
(3) It contains simple food chains that have more consumers than producers.
(4) It contains complex food webs that have more heterotrophs than autotrophs.
2

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34. Which human activity has probably contributed most to the acidification of lakes in the Adirondack region?
(1) passing environmental protection laws
(2) establishing reforestation projects in lumbered areas
(3) burning fossil fuels that produce air pollutants containing sulfur and nitrogen
(4) using pesticides for the control of insects that feed on trees
3

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35. To ensure environmental quality for the future, each individual should
(1) acquire and apply knowledge of ecological principles
(2) continue to take part in deforestation
(3) use Earth’s finite resources
(4) add and take away organisms from ecosystems
1

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Part B
Answer all 27 questions in this part. [30]
Base your answers to questions 36 through 38 on the information and data below and on your knowledge of biology.

  


36. Which hypothesis was most likely being tested in this investigation?
(1) A plant grown in the dark will not be green.
(2) The type of soil a plant is grown in influences how tall it will be.
(3) Plants need water to grow.
(4) Plants grown in red light are taller than plants grown in green light.
1

Contribute Your Answer / Explanation

37. State two ways that this investigation could be modified to lead to a more reliable conclusion. [2]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

The student must state two ways the investigation could be modified to lead to a more reliable conclusion. Allow 1 credit for each correct statement up to a maximum of 2 credits.
—use more plants in each location
—include a setup with full-time light —use other species in the experiment



38. Which statement correctly explains why chlorophyll production decreased in the seedlings kept in the closet?
(1) Lack of sunlight altered the expression of the gene for chlorophyll production.
(2) The enzymes involved in chlorophyll production mutate in cooler temperatures.
(3) Chloroplasts migrate to the center of the cell when light is not available.
(4) Chlorophyll is converted to another pigment when light is not present.
1

Contribute Your Answer / Explanation


39. A coverslip should be used for preparing a
(1) frog for dissection
(2) solution of iodine for food testing
(3) wet mount of elodea (a simple plant)
(4) test to determine the pH of a solution
3

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40. A sample of food containing one type of a large molecule was treated with a specific digestive enzyme. Nutrient tests performed on the resulting products showed the presence of simple sugars, only. Based on these test results, the original large molecules contained in the sample were molecules of
(1) protein
(2) glucose
(3) starch
(4) DNA
3

Contribute Your Answer / Explanation

41. A television commercial for a weight-loss pill claims that it has been “scientifically tested? The advertisement includes statements from 10 people who say that the pill worked for them. State two reasons why someone should question the claims made in this advertisement. [2]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

The student should state two reasons that someone should question the claims made in the advertisement. Allow 1 credit for each correct statement up to a maximum of 2 credits.
—do not know what the people ate along with taking the pill
—do not know if the people were truthful
—do not know how many people were in the study —ten people too few for making a valid conclusion



42. When HIV, which causes AIDS, invades the body of a person, that person often develops diseases. These diseases are caused by organisms that usually do not harm people who are not infected with HIV .Explain why the organisms are more harmful to people with HIV than to people without HIV [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

—HIV attacks the immune system.
—Their resistance is lowered by HIV infection.




Base your answers to questions 43 through 45 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. 




43. Which letter indicates a structure that secretes a hormone that promotes maturation of gametes? [1]
A

Contribute Your Answer / Explanation

44. Which letter indicates a structure that is not involved in the production or delivery of gametes? [1]
D

Contribute Your Answer / Explanation

45. B and E provide nutrients and fluid for the gametes. Why are these substances necessary for fertilization? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

—Sperm cells need to swim to the egg.
—Sperm cells need nutrients to provide energy.




46. Describe one error that was made in the preparation of the graph shown below. [1]


MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

—Intervals on the y-axis are not appropriate.
—The title is incorrect.




Base your answers to questions 47 through 49 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.




47. State one reason that algae form the base of this pyramid. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

—They are producers.
—They contain the most energy.



48. Which term best describes the mosquito larvae?
(1) producer
(2) parasite
(3) carnivore
(4) consumer
4

Contribute Your Answer / Explanation

49. Explain why each level of the pyramid decreases in area from bottom to top. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

—There is less energy available at each succeeding level.
—Energy is lost as heat at each level.




50. Describe the role of scavengers in an ecosystem. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

—Scavengers remove dead organisms from the environment.
—Scavengers break down dead organisms.



51. Explain how carbohydrates provide energy for life functions. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

—Energy in carbohydrate molecules is transferred to ATP.
—Carbohydrates have energy in their bonds that can be used to make ATP for carrying on life functions.



52. In the demonstration shown below, which process performed by the peas when they start to grow causes the drop of liquid to move to the left?


(1) protein synthesis
(2) photosynthesis
(3) digestion
(4) cellular respiration
4

Contribute Your Answer / Explanation


Base your answers to questions 53 through 56 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.


Organ Transplants of the Future

While most people take good health for granted, thousands of others desperately need to replace a failing organ with one that is healthy. Most healthy organs come from people who agreed to donate them upon their death, although it is possible to remove some tissue and organs (such as kidneys and bone marrow) from living donors. Unfortunately, organs for transplant are in short supply. As of 1992, over 22,000 Americans were waiting for a transplant.

Although increasingly common, transplants are risky procedures. During the operation, veins and arteries must be blocked to prevent blood loss. This deprives parts of the body of oxygen and nutrients and may result in permanent damage. In addition, the body may recognize the transplanted organ as foreign and mount an immune response in which specialized white blood cells (T-cells) attack the transplanted organ.

Drugs called immunosuppressants are given to transplant patients to prevent their immune system from rejecting the transplanted organ. However, these drugs weaken the ability of the body to fight disease and leave the patient less able to fight infection.

Scientists are exploring new technology for producing transplant tissues and organs. Unspecialized cells called stem cells are removed from the patient and then grown in a laboratory. Treating stem cells with the appropriate chemicals causes them to differentiate into various specialized tissues. In the future, scientists hope to develop chemical treatments that will cause stem cells to grow into complete organs needed for transplants. Transplants produced by this process would not be foreign material and, therefore, would not be rejected by the immune system of the patient.
53. Explain why a transplant might be dangerous to the health of a patient. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

—Veins and arteries may be blocked and tissue damage may result.
—The body may reject the new organ.



54. State one reason that transplant patients might take an immunosuppressant drug. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

To prevent rejection of a transplanted organ



55. State one specific disadvantage of taking an immunosuppressant drug. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

—The drug might weaken the ability of the body to fight diseases. —The drug may leave the patient less able to fight infection.



56. Explain why doctors would consider using tissues or organs that havc been grown from stem cells. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

—The organs would not be rejected.
—Organs produced by this process would not be foreign material and would not be attacked by the patients immune system.




Base your answers to questions 57 and 58 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

Before the Industrial Revolution, a light-colored variety of peppered moth was well camouflaged among light-colored lichens that grew on the bark of trees around London. A dark-colored variety of the peppered moth probably existed but was rarely observed because it was so easily seen by birds and eaten. When industry was introduced in London, soot killed the pollution-sensitive lichens, exposing dark tree bark. As a result, the dark- colored variety of the moth became the better carnoutlaged of the two moth varieties.
57. In this situation, what is the relationship between the birds and the moths?
(1) producer-consumer
(2) predator-prey
(3) parasite-host
(4) autotroph-heterotroph
2

Contribute Your Answer / Explanation

58. Identify one Way in which humans influenced the change in the populations of the peppered moth. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

—They introduced industry to the area.
—They built factories that produced soot (pollution).




Base your answers to questions 59 through 62 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology. 
Directions (59-61):  Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid provided below.





59. Write an appropriate title for this graph in the space provided. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

—Effoct of Gibberellin on Growth of Corn
—Effoct of Gibberellin on Corn Seedling Height —Relationship of Gibberellin to Corn Growth



60. Mark an appropriate scale on each labeled axis. [2]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

Allow one credit for each of the following:
• marking an appropriate scale on the axis labeled "Amount of Gibberellin
• marking an appropriate scale on the axis labeled "Average Height



61. Plot the data on the grid. Surround cacli point with a small circle and connect the points. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

Allow one credit for plotting the data correctly, surrounding each point with a small circle, and connecting the points.

graph



62. Explain the effect on corn seedling height of increasing the application amount of gibberellin from 0.05 to 0.50 microgram. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

—Increasing the amount of gibberellin applied to corn plants causes the plants to grow taller.
—As the amount of gibberellin is increased from 0.05 to 0.50 microgram, the average height of the corn plants increased from 40 to 75 cm.





Part C
Answer all 7 questions in this part. [20]
63. The food web below shows some of the relationships that exist between organisms in a field and pond ecosystem.

a Write one or more paragraphs describing some of the relationships in this food web.
In your answer, be sure to:
• identify a carnivore from the food web [1]
• describe the complete path of energy from the Sun to that carnivore [1]
• explain why decomposers are necessary in this food web [1]
b A significant decrease in the wolf population occurs. After a period of one year, what change in the grass population would most likely be observed? [1]
c A farmer sprayed pesticides on a field next to the pond. Using one or more complete sentences, explain why several years later the fish population would contain higher pesticide levels than any other pond organisms would contain. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

a The student should write one or more paragraphs describing some of the relationships in the food web. The student’s answer should include:
• an identification of one carnivore (e.g., wolf, worm, or fish) [1 credit]
• a description of the path of energy from the Sun to that carnivore (e.g., Sun pond algae rotifers worms fish) [1 credit]
• an explanation of why decomposers are necessary in this food web. (The explanation should include reference to the return of resources to the environment or to the recycling of materials in the environment.) [1 credit]
b The student should write a statement about the probable effect on the grass population a year after a significant decrease in the wolf population (e.g., the grass population would decrease). [1 credit]
c The student should write one or more complete sentences explaining why there were higher levels of pesticide in fish than in any other pond organism several years later. (The explanation should mention pond algae taking in pesticides and the pesticides becoming more concentrated at each succeeding level.) [1 credit]



64. All living things carry out a variety of life func- tions such as coordination, excretion, digestion, circulation, and synthesis. Select two of the life functions listed. Define the two life functions you selected and explain how they interact to keep an organism alive. [4]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

The student should select two life functions from the list, define both life functions, and explain how they interact to keep an organism alive. —Award 1 credit for each correct definition.
—Award either 1 or 2 credits for the explanation of the interaction.
The following example shows a full—credit response:
circulation—moves materials through the body from one place to another
excretion—gets rid of cellular wastes from the body
The circulatory system moves cell wastes to places where they can be removed from the body.



65. When Charles Darwin was developing his theory of evolution, he considered variations in a population important. However, he could not explain how the variations occurred. Name two processes that can result in variation in a population. Explain how these processes actually cause variation. [4]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

The student should name two processes that can result in variation in a population and explain how these processes cause variation.
Appropriate responses include, but are not limited to, the following:
• Mutations change DNA, resulting in new traits.
• Crossing over during meiosis may produce new gene combinations.
• Fertilization involves union of sex cells from each of two parents, resulting in offspring different from either parent.



66. Write one or more paragraphs that compare the two methods of reproduction, asexual and sexual. Your answer must include at least:
one similarity between the two methods [1]
one difference between the two methods [1]
one example of an organism that reproduces by asexual reproduction [1]
one example of an organism that reproduces by sexual reproduction [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

The student should write one or more paragraphs comparing asexual and sexual reproduction. Appropriate responses may include, but are not limited to, the following:
Similarities between asexual and sexual reproduction:
• both produce new organisms
• both transfer genetic material [1 credit]
Differences between asexual and sexual reproduction:
• no fusion of nuclei in asexual reproduction; fusion of gamete nuclei in sexual reproduction
• asexual reproduction involves no sex cells; sexual reproduction involves sex cells, the sperm and the egg
• offspring of asexual reproduction is from one parent; offspring of sexual reproduction is from a combination of two parents’ DNA
• in asexual reproduction, there is little or no variation (e.g., binary fission); in sexual reproduction, there is greater variation [1 credit]
Examples of organisms that reproduce by asexual reproduction:
• bacteria • hydra
• yeast • planaria [1 credit]
• ameba • bread mold
Examples of organisms that reproduce by sexual reproduction:
• humans • fish • grasshoppers
• most animals • earthworms • flowering plants [1 credit]




Base your answers to questions 67 through 69 on the information below.

In a rural area, there is a swamp with a large population of mosquitos. Nearby residents are concerned because the mosquitos are always annoying and occasionally carry diseases. The community decides to have an insecticide sprayed from an airplane on the area during the prime mosquito season. Whenever they stop spraying, the mosquito population quickly rebounds to a higher level than existed before the spraying program began. After 10 years, the spraying became much less effective at reducing the mosquito population. Higher doses of insecticide were required to accomplish the same population decreases.
67. State one possible disadvantage of spraying the insecticide from an airplane. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

The student should state one possible disadvantage of spraying insecticide from an airplane.
Appropriate responses include, but are not limited to, the following:
—The spray may reach other areas (not targeted) and harm people, pets, or other animals in that area.
—The spray could kill beneficial insects.



68. State one alternative method of mosquito control that may have a more lasting impact on the mosquito population. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

The student should state one alternative method of mosquito control that may have a more lasting impact on the mosquito population. Appropriate responses include, but are not limited to, the following:
—Predators (or parasites) of mosquitos could be released into the area to control them.
—Swamp areas could be drained to reduce breeding areas.
—Sterilized male mosquitos could be released to mate with females to reduce the rate of reproduction.



69. Give one positive effect or one negative effect, other than killing mosquitos, of the alternative method of mosquito control you stated in question 68. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

The student should state one positive or one negative effect, other than killing mosquitos, of the alternative method stated in the response to question 68. Appropriate responses include, but are not limited to, the following:
Positive:
—No pesticide to harm other species
Negative:
—Habitat modifications could be detrimental to other species.
—Predators or parasites released could harm other species or spread disease.




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