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Biology : Plant & Animal Cells III (Parts & Functions)

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Answer each question below related to parts of plant and animal cells & their functions based on the clues given.

1. It provides shape to the cell. It is semi-permeable, regulating the entry and exit of substances, namely solutes and ions.
Answer: Cell Membrane

The cell membrane is also known as the plasma membrane. It is the outermost covering of the animal cell. It protects the cell and regulates the entry and exit of substances, namely ions and solutes.



2. It provides protection, shape and rigidity to the cell. It is freely permeable, allowing substances in the form of solutions to enter and leave the cell without any hindrance.
Answer: Cell Wall

The cell wall is the outermost covering of the plant cell made up of cellulose, and surrounds the cell membrane. It protects the cell, provides mechanical support and is responsible for maintaining pressure inside the cell.



3. It initiates and regulates cell division. It also helps in forming spindle fibres, with the help of asters.
Answer: Centrosome

The centrosome of the animal cell contains one or two centrioles, and is surrounded by microtubules or the centrosphere. It initiates and regulates cell division.



4. It is a plastid, containing a pigment called chlorophyll. This chlorophyll captures energy from sunlight and helps in the manufacture of food by the process of photosynthesis.
Answer: Chloroplast

The chloroplast of the plant cell is a green-colored plastid. Chlorophyll contained in the chloroplast captures energy from sunlight and helps in the manufacture of food by the process of photosynthesis.



5. It is a plastid, containing pigments such as xanthophyll (yellow in color) and carotene (orangish-red in color). These pigments impart color to flowers and fruits of plants.
Answer: Chromoplast

The chromoplast of the plant cell is a plastid that is colored differently in different cells. It contains pigments such as xanthophyll (yellow in color) and carotene (orangish-red in color). It imparts color to flowers and fruits of plants.



6. It is the house of all metabolic activities and functions in the cell. In other words, it contains most of the cell organelles, each of which perform a specific function.
Answer: Cytoplasm

The cytoplasm is composed of a mixture of water and soluble organic & inorganic compounds, and contains most of the cell organelles. It is the house of all metabolic functions and activities of the animal cell. 



7. It provides support to the cell. It also helps in the synthesis and transport of proteins and fats.
Answer: Endoplasmic Reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum consists of tubular structures (convoluted tubules) lying near the nucleus. It provides support to the plant cell and the animal cell. It is of two types, namely the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (does not have ribosomes attached to it) and the rough endoplasmic reticulum (has ribosomes attached to it).Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum



8. It synthesizes and secretes certain substances, namely hormones and enzymes. It also helps in the formation of acrosome of sperm.
Answer: Golgi Apparatus

The golgi apparatus of the animal cell consists of flat vesicular structures placed one on top of the other. It synthesizes and secretes certain substances, namely hormones and enzymes.Golgi Apparatus



9. It is a plastid. It helps in the storage of starch.
Answer: Leucoplast

The leucoplast of the plant cell is a colorless plastid. It helps in the storage of starch.



10. It performs intracellular digestion. It also helps in destroying foreign substances.
Answer: Lysosome

The lysosome of the animal cell is a membranous sac budded off from the golgi apparatus, and contains several types of enzymes. It performs intracellular digestion and destroys foreign substances.



11. It is the site of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) synthesis. It also synthesizes respiratory enzymes.
Answer: Mitochondrion

The mitochondrion of the cell has two layers of membrane, of which the inner one is folded to form cristae. It is the site of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) synthesis.Mitochondrion



12. It is semi-permeable, allowing substances to enter and leave the nucleus of the cell. It also provides protection to the nucleus of the cell.
Answer: Nuclear Membrane

The nuclear membrane is the covering of the nucleus of the cell, and has numerous pores. It allows substances to enter and leave.



13. It synthesizes proteins by producing and storing RNA (Ribonucleic acid). At the same time, it orders ribosomes to synthesize proteins.
Answer: Nucleolus

The nucleolus is contained in the nucleus of the cell, and is round in shape. It synthesizes proteins by producing and storing RNA (Ribonucleic acid).



14. It contains chromatin fibres, which are made up of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid). After cell division takes place, these chromatin fibres undergo certain structural changes, and are called chromosomes. These chromosomes carry the hereditary information of the genes.
Answer: Nucleoplasm

The nucleoplasm is a dense fluid containing chromatin fibres, which are made up of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid). After cell division takes place, these chromatin fibres undergo certain structural changes, and are called chromosomes. These chromosomes carry the hereditary information of the genes.



15. It controls and coordinates all the activities and functions of the cell. It plays a vital role in cell division.
Answer: Nucleus

The nucleus is the most important part of the cell, and contains large amounts of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid). It controls and coordinates all the activities and functions of the cell.



16. It is known as the 'site of protein synthesis in the cell', and synthesizes proteins. It is chiefly composed of RNA (Ribonucleic acid).
Answer: Ribosome

The ribosome is chiefly composed of RNA (Ribonucleic acid). It synthesizes proteins.



17. It helps in the storage of water and several other substances, namely food, waste products and pigments. It also provides turgidity to the cell.
Answer: Vacuole

The vacuole of the plant cell is a very large and abundant vesicle. It is filled with fluids, and helps in the storage of water and other substances.



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