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Earth Science - New York Regents August 2002 Exam


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: Multiple choice

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1.

The apparent rising and setting of the Sun, as viewed from Earth, is caused by
(1) Earth’s rotation
(2) Earth’s revolution
(3) the Sun’s rotation
(4) the Sun’s revolution

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2.

In which direction on the horizon does the Sun appear to rise on July 4 in New York State?
(1) due north
(2) due south 
(3) north of due east
(4) south of due east

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3.

Which graph best represents the change in gravitational attraction between the Sun and a comet as the distance between them increases?

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4.

The best evidence that Earth spins on its axis is provided by
(1) variations in atmospheric density
(2) apparent shifts in the swing of a Foucault pendulum
(3) changes in the position of sunspots on the Sun
(4) eclipses of the Moon

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5.

A major belt of asteroids is located between Mars and Jupiter. What is the approximate average distance between the Sun and this major asteroid belt?
(1) 110 million kilometers
(2) 220 million kilometers
(3) 390 million kilometers
(4) 850 million kilometers

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6.

A cycle of Moon phases can be seen from Earth because the
(1) Moon’s distance from Earth changes at a predictable rate
(2) Moon’s axis is tilted
(3) Moon spins on its axis
(4) Moon revolves around Earth

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7.

Which diagram represents the approximate altitude of Polaris as seen by an observer located in Syracuse, New York?

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8.

Compared to Earth’s crust, Earth's core is believed to be
(1) less dense, cooler, and composed of more iron
(2) less dense, hotter, and composed of less iron
(3) more dense, hotter, and composed of more iron
(4) more dense, cooler, and composed of less iron

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9.

Which graph best represents the relative periods of rotation of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars?

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10.

An environmental scientist needs to prepare a report on the potential effects that a proposed surface mine in New York State will have on the watershed where the mine will be located. In which reference materials will the scientist find the most useful data with which to determine the watershed’s boundaries?
(1) topographic maps
(2) geologic time scales
(3) tectonic plate maps
(4) planetary wind maps

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11.

Which two kinds of adjoining bedrock would most likely have a zone of contact metamorphism between them?
(1) shale and conglomerate
(2) shale and sandstone
(3) limestone and sandstone
(4) limestone and granite

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12.

Which graph best shows the relationship between the probability of precipitation and the difference between air temperature and dewpoint?

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13.

A high air-pressure, dry-climate belt is located at which Earth latitude?
(1) 0°
(2) 15° N 
(3) 30° N
(4) 60° N

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14.

The Canaries Current along the west coast of Africa and the Peru Current along the west coast of South America are both
(1) warm currents that flow away from the Equator
(2) warm currents that flow toward the Equator
(3) cool currents that flow away from the Equator
(4) cool currents that flow toward the Equator

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15.

Which two gases in Earth’s atmosphere are believed by scientists to be greenhouse gases that are major contributors to global warming?
(1) carbon dioxide and methane
(2) oxygen and nitrogen
(3) hydrogen and helium
(4) ozone and chlorine

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16.

The average temperature at Earth’s North Pole is colder than the average temperature at the Equator because the Equator
(1) receives less ultraviolet radiation
(2) receives more intense insolation
(3) has more cloud cover
(4) has a thicker atmosphere

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17.

On a certain day, the isobars on a weather map are very close together over eastern New York State. To make the people of this area aware of possible risk to life and property in this situation, the National Weather Service should issue
(1) a dense-fog warning
(2) a high-wind advisory
(3) a heat-index warning
(4) an air-pollution advisory

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18.

During which geologic time period did the earliest reptiles and great coal-forming forests exist?
(1) Devonian
(2) Quaternary
(3) Mississippian
(4) Pennsylvanian

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19.

In the diagram below, the spectral lines of hydrogen gas from three galaxies, A, B, and C, are compared to the spectral lines of hydrogen gas observed in a laboratory.

What is the best inference that can be made concerning the movement of galaxies A, B, and C?
(1) Galaxy A is moving away from Earth, but galaxies B and C are moving toward Earth.
(2) Galaxy B is moving away from Earth, but galaxies A and C are moving toward Earth.
(3) Galaxies A, B, and C are all moving toward Earth.
(4) Galaxies A, B, and C are all moving away from Earth.

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20.

What is the dewpoint temperature when the dry-bulb temperature is 16°C and the wet-bulb temperature is 11°C?
(1) 5°C
(2) 7°C
(3) 9°C
(4) −17°C

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21.

A strong west wind steadily blew over Lake Ontario picking up moisture. As this moist air flowed over the Tug Hill Plateau, the plateau received a 36-inch snowfall. This snow fell from clouds that formed when rising air was
(1) cooled by expansion, causing water vapor to condense
(2) cooled by compression, causing water vapor to condense
(3) warmed by expansion, causing water vapor to evaporate
(4) warmed by compression, causing water vapor to evaporate

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22.

The map below shows a meandering river. AA' is the location of a cross section. The arrows show the direction of the riverflow.

Which cross section best represents the shape of the river bottom at AA' ?

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23.

During which phase change of water is the most energy released into the environment?
(1) water freezing
(2) ice melting
(3) water evaporating
(4) water vapor condensing

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24.

During a rainfall, surface runoff will probably be greatest in an area that has a
(1) steep slope and a clay-covered surface
(2) steep slope and a gravel-covered surface
(3) gentle slope and a grass-covered surface
(4) gentle slope and a tree-covered surface

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25.

The cross section below illustrates the general sorting of sediment by a river as it flows from a mountain to a plain.

Which factor most likely caused the sediment to be sorted in the pattern shown?
(1) velocity of the river water
(2) hardness of the surface bedrock
(3) mineral composition of the sediment
(4) temperature of the water

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26.

The map below shows the location of four cities, A, B, C, and D, in the western United States where prevailing winds are from the southwest.

Which city most likely receives the least amount of average yearly precipitation?
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D

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27.

Earth’s troposphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere contain relatively large amounts of which element?
(1) iron
(2) oxygen
(3) hydrogen
(4) potassium

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28.

The long, sandy islands along the south shore of Long Island are composed mostly of sand and rounded pebbles arranged in sorted layers. The agent of erosion that most likely shaped and sorted the sand and pebbles while transporting them to their island location was
(1) glaciers
(2) landslides
(3) wind
(4) ocean waves

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29.

Which river is a tributary branch of the Hudson River?
(1) Delaware River
(2) Susquehanna River
(3) Mohawk River
(4) Genesee River

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30.

What are the largest particles that a stream can transport when its velocity is 200 centimeters per second?
(1) silt
(2) sand
(3) pebbles
(4) cobbles

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31.

The diagrams below show the relative sizes of particles from soil samples A, B, and C. Equal volumes of each soil sample were placed in separate containers. Each container has a screen at the bottom. Water was poured through each sample to determine the infiltration rate.

Which graph best shows how the infiltration rates of the three soil samples would compare?

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32.

Which common rock is formed from the solidification of molten material?
(1) rock gypsum
(2) slate
(3) rhyolite
(4) coal

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33.

Rocks can be classified as sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic based primarily upon differences in their
(1) color
(2) density
(3) origin
(4) age

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34.

Buffalo, New York, and Plattsburgh, New York, are both located in landscape regions called
(1) mountains
(2) highlands
(3) plateaus
(4) lowlands

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35.

The diagram below shows how a sample of the mineral mica breaks when hit with a rock hammer.

This mineral breaks in smooth, flat surfaces because it
(1) is very hard
(2) is very dense
(3) contains large amounts of iron
(4) has a regular arrangement of atoms

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