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Earth Science - New York Regents August 2007 Exam


Directions (1−35): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.

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: Multiple choice

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1.

Scientists can plan to photograph a solar eclipse because most astronomical events are
(1) cyclic and predictable
(2) cyclic and unpredictable
(3) random and predictable
(4) random and unpredictable

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2.

The Coriolis effect causes winds in New York State to generally curve
(1) to the right of the direction of travel
(2) to the left of the direction of travel
(3) upward away from Earth’s surface
(4) downward toward Earth’s surface

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3.

In New York State, the constellation Pisces can be seen in the night sky between the middle of summer and the middle of winter. The constellation Scorpio can be seen in the night sky between early spring and early fall. The reason these two constellations can be viewed only at these times is a direct result of Earth’s
(1) spin on its axis
(2) movement around the Sun
(3) axis having a 23.5° tilt
(4) distance from the Sun

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4.

Approximately how many degrees per day does Earth revolve in its orbit around the Sun?
(1) 1°
(2) 13°
(3) 15°
(4) 23.5°

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5.

Compared with our Sun, the star Betelgeuse is
(1) smaller, hotter, and less luminous
(2) smaller, cooler, and more luminous
(3) larger, hotter, and less luminous
(4) larger, cooler, and more luminous

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6.

Astronomers viewing light from distant galaxies observe a shift of spectral lines toward the red end of the visible spectrum. This shift provides evidence that
(1) orbital velocities of stars are decreasing
(2) Earth’s atmosphere is warming
(3) the Sun is cooling
(4) the universe is expanding

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7.

How many calories are required to evaporate 1 gram of boiling water?
(1) 1
(2) 80
(3) 540
(4) 620

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8.

A weather instrument is shown below.

Which weather variable is measured by this instrument?
(1) wind speed
(2) precipitation
(3) cloud cover
(4) air pressure

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9.

The diagram below represents the Sun’s rays striking Earth and the Moon. Numbers 1 through 4 represent positions of the Moon in its orbit around Earth.


The highest tides on Earth occur when the Moon is in positions
(1) 1 and 3
(2) 2 and 4
(3) 3 and 2
(4) 4 and 1

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10.

Most of the solar radiation absorbed by Earth's surface is later radiated back into space as which type of electromagnetic radiation?
(1) x ray
(2) ultraviolet
(3) infrared
(4) radio wave

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11.

In the United States, most tornadoes are classified as intense
(1) low-pressure funnel clouds that spin clockwise
(2) low-pressure funnel clouds that spin counterclockwise
(3) high-pressure funnel clouds that spin clockwise
(4) high-pressure funnel clouds that spin counterclockwise

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12.

Which type of air mass is associated with warm, dry atmospheric conditions?
(1) cP
(2) cT
(3) mP
(4) mT

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13.

The approximate latitude of Utica, New York, is
(1) 43°05' N
(2) 43°05' S
(3) 75°15' E
(4) 75°15' W

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14.

Earth’s surface winds generally blow from regions of higher
(1) air temperature toward regions of lower air temperature
(2) air pressure toward regions of lower air pressure
(3) latitudes toward regions of lower latitudes
(4) elevations toward regions of lower elevations

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15.

The diagram below shows how prevailing winds cause different weather conditions on the windward and leeward sides of a mountain range.

Clouds usually form on the Windward sides of mountains because this is where air
(1) rises and cools
(2) rises and warms
(3) sinks and cools
(4) sinks and warms

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16.

The diagrams below represent three containers, A, B, and C, which were filled with equal volumes of uniformly sorted plastic beads. Water was poured into each container to determine porosity and infiltration time.

Which data table best represents the porosity and infiltration time of the beads in the three containers?

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17.

Which ocean current brings warm water to the western coast of Africa?
(1) Agulhas Current
(2) North Equatorial Current
(3) Canaries Current
(4) Guinea Current

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18.

The map below shows the large delta that formed as the Mississippi River emptied into the Gulf of Mexico.

Which process was primarily responsible for the formation of the delta?
(1) glacial erosion
(2) cementation of sediment
(3) deposition of sediment
(4) mass movement

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19.

The diagrams below show the crystal shapes of two minerals.

Quartz and halite have different crystal shapes primarily because
(1) light reflects from crystal surfaces
(2) energy is released during crystallization
(3) of impurities that produce surface variations
(4) of the internal arrangement of the atoms

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20.

A student created the table below by classifying six minerals into two groups, A and B, based on a single property.

Which property was used to classify these minerals?
(1) color
(2) luster
(3) chemical composition
(4) hardness

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21.

Which igneous rock has a vesicular texture and contains the minerals potassium feldspar and quartz?
(1) andesite
(2) pegmatite
(3) pumice
(4) scoria

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22.

Dolostone is classified as which type of rock?
(1) land-derived sedimentary rock
(2) chemically formed sedimentary rock
(3) foliated metamorphic rock
(4) nonfoliated metamorphic rock

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23.

A stream is transporting the particles W, X, Y, and Z, shown below.

Which particle will most likely settle to the bottom first as the velocity of this stream decreases?
(1) W
(2) X
(3) Y
(4) Z

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24.

What is Earth’s inferred interior pressure, in millions of atmospheres, at a depth of 3500 kilometers?
(1) 1.9
(2) 2.8
(3) 5500
(4) 6500

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25.

The map below shows the location of an earthquake epicenter in New York State. Seismic stations A, B, and C received the data used to locate the earthquake epicenter.

The seismogram recorded at station A would show the
(1) arrival of P-waves, only
(2) earliest arrival time of P-waves
(3) greatest difference in the arrival times of P-waves and S-waves
(4) arrival of S-waves before the arrival of P-waves

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26.

An earthquake’s first P-wave arrives at a seismic station at 12:00:00. This P-wave has traveled 6000 kilometers from the epicenter. At what time will the first S-wave from the same earthquake arrive at the seismic station?
(1) 11:52:20
(2) 12:07:40
(3) 12:09:20
(4) 12:17:00

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27.

The movement of tectonic plates is inferred by many scientists to be driven by
(1) tidal motions in the hydrosphere
(2) density differences in the troposphere
(3) convection currents in the asthenosphere
(4) solidification in the lithosphere

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28.

Which two tectonic plates are separated by a mid-ocean ridge?
(1) Indian-Australian and Eurasian
(2) Indian-Australian and Pacific
(3) North American and South American
(4) North American and Eurasian

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29.

The presence of brachiopod, nautiloid, and coral fossils in the surface bedrock of a certain area indicates the area was once covered by
(1) tropical vegetation
(2) glacial deposits
(3) volcanic ash
(4) ocean water

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30.

New York State’s Catskills are classified as which type of landscape region?
(1) mountain
(2) plateau
(3) lowland
(4) plain

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31.

What is the relative humidity if the dry-bulb temperature is 22°C and the wet-bulb temperature is 17°C?
(1) 5%
(2) 14%
(3) 60%
(4) 68%

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32.

The time line below represents the entire geologic history of Earth.

Which letter best represents the first appearance of humans on Earth?
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D

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33.

Three extinct organisms are shown in the diagrams below.

Which other life-form reached its peak development during the same period in geologic history that these three life-forms first appeared on Earth?
(1) dinosaurs
(2) stromatolites
(3) mastodonts
(4) eurypterids

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34.

The graph below shows the radioactive decay of a 50-gram sample of a radioactive isotope.

According to the graph, what is the half-life of this isotope?
(1) 100 years
(2) 150 years
(3) 200 years
(4) 300 years

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35.

Which diagram represents a landscape where fine-grained igneous bedrock is most likely to be found?

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