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Earth Science - New York Regents January 2005 Exam


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: Multiple choice

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1.

Which planet’s orbit around the Sun is most nearly circular?
(1) Mercury
(2) Neptune  
(3) Pluto
(4) Venus

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2.

How many times will the Sun’s perpendicular rays cross Earth’s Equator between March 1 of one year and March 1 of the next year?
(1) 1
(2) 2 
(3) 3
(4) 4

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3.

Which star’s surface temperature is closest to the temperature at the boundary between Earth's mantle and core?
(1) Sirius
(2) Rigel 
(3) the Sun
(4) Betelgeuse

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4.

Which graph best represents the relationship between soil particle size and the rate at which water infiltrates permeable soil?

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5.

The diagram below shows a standard spectrum compared to a spectrum produced from a distant star.

Which conclusion can be made by comparing the standard spectrum to the spectrum produced from this distant star?
(1) The star’s spectral lines have shifted toward the ultraviolet end of the spectrum and the star is moving toward Earth.
(2) The star’s spectral lines have shifted toward the ultraviolet end of the spectrum and the star is moving away from Earth.
(3) The star’s spectral lines have shifted toward the infrared end of the spectrum and the star is moving toward Earth.
(4) The star’s spectral lines have shifted toward the infrared end of the spectrum and the star is moving away from Earth.

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6.

Scientists are concerned about the decrease in ozone in the upper atmosphere primarily because ozone protects life on Earth by absorbing certain wavelengths of
(1) x-ray radiation
(2) ultraviolet radiation
(3) infrared radiation
(4) microwave radiation

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7.

It is inferred that during the early Archean Era the atmosphere of Earth contained water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and other gases in small amounts. These gases probably came from
(1) precipitation of groundwater
(2) volcanic eruptions
(3) evaporation of Paleozoic oceans
(4) convection currents in the mantle

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8.

Which ocean current flows northeast along the eastern coast of North America?
(1) Gulf Stream
(2) North Equatorial 
(3) California
(4) Labrador

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9.

Which type of land surface would probably reflect the most incoming solar radiation?
(1) light colored and smooth
(2) light colored and rough
(3) dark colored and smooth
(4) dark colored and rough

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10.

There is evidence that an asteroid or a comet crashed into the Cult of Mexico at the end of the Mesozoic Era. Consequences of this impact event may explain the
(1) extinction of many kinds of marine animals, including trilobites
(2) extinction of ammonoids and dinosaurs
(3) appearance of the earliest birds and mammals
(4) appearance of great coal-forming forests and insects

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11.

What is the approximate location of the Canary Islands hot spot?
(1) 32° S 18° W
(2) 32° S 18° E 
(3) 32° N 18° W
(4) 32° N 18° E

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12.

How long would it take for the first S-wave to arrive at a seismic station 4,000 kilometers away from the epicenter of an earthquake?
(1) 5 min 40 sec
(2) 7 min 0 sec 
(3) 12 min 40 sec
(4) 13 min 20 sec

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13.

Which New York State river flows generally southward?
(1) St. Lawrence River
(2) Niagara River 
(3) Genesee River
(4) Hudson River

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14.

The map below shows the stream drainage patterns for a region of Earth’s surface. Points A, B, C, and D are locations in the region.

The highest elevation most likely exists at point
(1) A
(2) B 
(3) C
(4) D

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15.

Outwash plains are formed as a result of deposition by
(1) landslides
(2) ocean waves
(3) winds from hurricanes
(4) meltwater from glaciers

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16.

A stream with a velocity of 100 centimeters per second flows into a lake. Which sediment-size particles would the stream most likely deposit first as it enters the lake?
(1) boulders
(2) cobbles 
(3) pebbles
(4) sand

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17.

The cross section below shows a soil profile.

This soil was formed primarily by
(1) erosion by glaciers
(2) erosion by running water
(3) capillarity and human activity
(4) weathering and biological activity

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18.

Which type of rock most likely contains fossils?
(1) scoria
(2) gabbro 
(3) schist
(4) shale

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19.

In which New York State landscape region is most of the surface bedrock composed of metamorphic rock?
(1) Adirondacks
(2) Catskills
(3) Erie-Ontario Lowlands
(4) Newark Lowlands

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20.

A human fingernail has a hardness of approximately 2.5. Which two minerals are softer than a human fingernail?
(1) calcite and halite
(2) sulfur and fluorite
(3) graphite and talc
(4) pyrite and magnetite

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21.

The photograph below shows an escarpment (cliff) located in the western United States. The directions for north and south are indicated by arrows. A fault in the sedimentary rocks is shown on the front of the escarpment.

The photograph shows that the fault most likely formed
(1) after the rock layers were deposited, when the north side moved downward
(2) after the rock layers were deposited, when the north side moved upward
(3) before the rock layers were deposited, when the south side moved downward
(4) before the rock layers were deposited, when the south side moved upward

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22.

Which mountain range resulted from the collision of North America and Africa, as parts of Pangea joined together in the late Pennsylvanian Period?
(1) Appalachian Mountains
(2) Acadian Mountains
(3) Taconic Mountains
(4) Grenville Mountains

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23.

Which physical characteristic best describes the rock phyllite?
(1) glassy texture with gas pockets
(2) clastic texture with angular fragments
(3) bioclastic texture with cemented shell fragments
(4) foliated texture with microscopic mica crystals

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24.

The diagram below represents a part of the crystal structure of the mineral kaolinite.

An arrangement of atoms such as the one shown in the diagram determines a mineral’s
(1) age of formation
(2) infiltration rate 
(3) physical properties
(4) temperature of formation

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25.

The map below shows the path of a river. The arrow shows the direction the river is flowing. Letters A and B identify the banks of the river.

The water depth is greater near bank A than bank B because the water velocity near bank A is
(1) faster, causing deposition to occur
(2) faster, causing erosion to occur
(3) slower, causing deposition to occur
(4) slower, causing erosion to occur

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26.

Which home-building material is made mostly from the mineral gypsum?
(1) plastic pipes
(2) window glass
(3) drywall panels
(4) iron nails

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27.

The two most abundant elements by mass in Earth’s crust are oxygen and
(1) potassium
(2) hydrogen 
(3) nitrogen
(4) silicon

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