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Earth Science - New York Regents June 2002 Exam


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: Multiple choice

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1.

The dashed line on the map below shows a ship’s route from Long Island, New York, to Florida. As the ship travels south, the star Polaris appears lower in the northern sky each night.

The best explanation for this observation is that Polaris
(1) rises and sets at different locations each day
(2) has an elliptical orbit around Earth
(3) is located directly over Earth’s Equator
(4) is located directly over Earth’s North Pole

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2.

When the dry-bulb temperature is 22°C and the wet-bulb temperature is 13°C, the relative humidity is
(1) 10%
(2) 33%
(3) 41%
(4) 59%

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3.

As the altitude increases within Earth’s stratosphere, air temperature generally
(1) decreases, only
(2) increases, only
(3) decreases, then increases
(4) increases, then decreases

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4.

The diagrams below represent four rock samples. Which rock was formed by rapid cooling in a volcanic lava flow? [The diagrams are not to scale.]

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5.

On June 21, some Earth locations have 24 hours of daylight. These locations are all between the latitudes of
(1) 0° and 23½° N
(2) 23½° N and 47° N
(3) 47° N and 66½° N
(4) 66½° N and 90° N

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6.

The Milky Way galaxy is best described as
(1) a type of solar system
(2) a constellation visible to everyone on Earth
(3) a region in space between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
(4) a spiral-shaped formation composed of billions of stars

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7.

The diagram below shows the Moon at four positions in its orbit around Earth as viewed from above the North Pole.

Beginning with the Moon at position X (the new-Moon phase), which sequence of Moon phases would be seen by an observer on Earth during 1 month?

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8.

The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X?

(1) Earth
(2) Sun
(3) Moon
(4) Polaris

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9.

Which condition would cause surface runoff to increase in a particular location?
(1) covering a dirt road with pavement
(2) reducing the gradient of a steep hill
(3) planting grasses and shrubs on a hillside
(4) having a decrease in the annual rainfall

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10.

An increase in which gas would cause the most greenhouse warming of Earth’s atmosphere?
(1) nitrogen
(2) oxygen
(3) carbon dioxide
(4) hydrogen

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11.

Scientists believe that Earth’s early atmosphere changed in composition as a result of
(1) the appearance of oxygen-producing organisms
(2) the drifting of the continents
(3) the changes in Earth’s magnetic field
(4) a transfer of gases from the Sun

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12.

Which atmospheric conditions would cause smoke from a campfire on a beach to blow toward the ocean?
(1) warm air over the land and cool air over the ocean
(2) humid air over the land and dry air over the ocean
(3) low-density air over the land and high-density air over the ocean
(4) high air pressure over the land and low air pressure over the ocean

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13.

Which characteristics of a building material would provide the most energy-absorbing exterior covering for a house?
(1) dark colored and smooth textured
(2) dark colored and rough textured
(3) light colored and smooth textured
(4) light colored and rough textured

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14.

When the time of day for a certain ship at sea is 12 noon, the time of day at the Prime Meridian (0° longitude) is 5 p.m. What is the ships longitude?
(1) 45° W
(2) 45° E
(3) 75° W
(4) 75° E

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15.

The occurrence of parallel scratches on bedrock in a U-shaped valley indicates that the area has most likely been eroded by
(1) a glacier
(2) a stream
(3) waves
(4) wind

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16.

Which weather change usually occurs when the difference between the air temperature and the dewpoint temperature is decreasing?
(1) The amount of cloud cover decreases.
(2) The probability of precipitation decreases.
(3) The relative humidity increases.
(4) The barometric pressure increases.

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17.

In which list are the forms of electromagnetic energy arranged in order from longest to shortest wavelengths?
(1) gamma rays, x rays, ultraviolet rays, visible light
(2) radio waves, infrared rays, visible light, ultraviolet rays
(3) x rays, infrared rays, blue light, gamma rays
(4) infrared rays, radio waves, blue light, red light

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18.

On a clear summer day, the surface of land is usually warmer than the surface of a nearby body of water because the water
(1) receives less insolation
(2) reflects less insolation
(3) has a higher density
(4) has a higher specific heat

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19.

The diagram below represents the present number of decayed and undecayed atoms in a sample that was originally 100% radioactive material.

If the half-life of the radioactive material is 1,000 years, what is the age of the sample represented by the diagram?
(1) 1,000 yr
(2) 2,000 yr
(3) 3,000 yr
(4) 4,000 yr

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20.

Earth’s outer core is best inferred to be
(1) liquid, with an average density of approximately 4 g/cm3
(2) liquid, with an average density of approximately 11 g/cm3
(3) solid, with an average density of approximately 4 g/cm3
(4) solid, with an average density of approximately 11 g/cm3

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21.

The table below shows the rate of erosion and the rate of deposition at four stream locations.

A state of dynamic equilibrium exists at location
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D

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22.

The diagram below shows land features that have been disrupted by an earthquake.

Which type of crustal movement most likely caused the displacement of features in this area?
(1) vertical lifting of surface rock
(2) folding of surface rock
(3) down-warping of the crust
(4) movement along a transform fault

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23.

The Coriolis effect provides evidence that Earth
(1) rotates
(2) has a tilted axis
(3) has seasons
(4) revolves

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24.

Which interaction between the atmosphere and the hydrosphere causes most surface ocean currents?
(1) cooling of rising air above the ocean surface
(2) evaporation of water from the ocean surface
(3) friction from planetary winds on the ocean surface
(4) seismic waves on the ocean surface

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25.

On a field trip 40 kilometers east of the Finger Lakes, students observed a boulder of gneiss on the surface bedrock. This observation best supports the inference that the
(1) surface sedimentary bedrock was weathered to form a boulder of gneiss
(2) surface sedimentary bedrock melted and solidified to form a boulder of gneiss
(3) gneiss boulder was formed from sediments that were compacted and cemented together
(4) gneiss boulder was transported from its original area of formation

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26.

The diagram below shows granite bedrock with cracks. Water has seeped into the cracks and frozen. The arrows represent the directions in which the cracks have widened due to weathering.

Which statement best describes the physical weathering shown by the diagram?
(1) Enlargement of the cracks occurs because water expands when it freezes.
(2) This type of weathering occurs only in bedrock composed of granite.
(3) The cracks become wider because of chemical reactions between water and the rock.
(4) This type of weathering is common in regions of primarily warm and humid climates.

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27.

The table below shows the density of four mineral samples.

If the shape and size of the four mineral samples are the same, which mineral will settle most slowly in water?
(1) cinnabar
(2) magnetite
(3) quartz
(4) siderite

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28.

Which stream-drainage pattern most likely developed on the surface of a newly formed volcanic mountain?

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29.

The cross section below shows sedimentary rocks being eroded by water at a waterfall.

The sedimentary rock layers are being weathered and eroded at different rates primarily because the rock layers
(1) formed during different time periods
(2) contain different fossils
(3) have different compositions
(4) are horizontal

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