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Earth Science - New York Regents June 2008 Exam


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: Multiple choice

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1.

As viewed from Earth, most stars appear to move across the sky each night because
(1) Earth revolves around the Sun
(2) Earth rotates on its axis
(3) stars orbit around Earth
(4) stars revolve around the center of the galaxy

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2.

The star Algol is estimated to have approximately the same luminosity as the star Aldebaran and approximately the same temperature as the star Rigel. Algol is best classified as a
(1) main sequence star
(2) red giant star  
(3) white dwarf star
(4) red dwarf star

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3.

The explosion associated with the Big Bang theory and the formation of the universe is inferred to have occurred how many billion years ago?
(1) less than 1
(2) 2.5 
(3) 4.6 
(4) over 10

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4.

The diagram below represents the constellation Lyra.

Which statement best explains why Lyra is visible to an observer in New York State at midnight in July but not visible at midnight in December?
(1) Earth spins on its axis.
(2) Earth orbits the Sun.
(3) Lyra spins on its axis.
(4) Lyra orbits Earth.

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5.

The Coriolis effect provides evidence that Earth
(1) rotates on its axis
(2) revolves around the Sun
(3) undergoes cyclic tidal changes
(4) has a slightly eccentric orbit

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6.

The altitude of the ozone layer near the South Pole is 20 kilometers above sea level. Which temperature zone of the atmosphere contains this ozone layer?
(1) troposphere
(2) stratosphere  
(3) mesosphere
(4) thermosphere

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7.

A low-pressure system in the Northern Hemisphere has a surface air-circulation pattern that is
(1) clockwise and away from the center
(2) clockwise and toward the center
(3) counterclockwise and away from the center
(4) counterclockwise and toward the center

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8.

Air masses are identified on the basis of temperature and
(1) type of precipitation
(2) wind velocity
(3) moisture content
(4) atmospheric transparency

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9.

During some winters in the Finger Lakes region of New York State, the lake water remains unfrozen even though the land around the lakes is frozen and covered with snow. The primary cause of this difference is that water
(1) gains heat during evaporation
(2) is at a lower elevation
(3) has a higher specific heat
(4) reflects more radiation

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10.

The reaction below represents an energy-producing process.

Hydrogen       +        Hydrogen        →          Helium          +      Energy
(lighter element)        (lighter element)         (heavier element)

The reaction represents how energy is produced
(1) in the Sun by fusion
(2) when water condenses in Earth’s atmosphere
(3) from the movement of crustal plates
(4) during nuclear decay

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11.

The diagram below shows the spectral lines for an element.

Which diagram best represents the spectral lines of this element when its light is observed coming from a star that is moving away from Earth?

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12.

Diagram 1 shows the Moon in its orbit at four positions labeled A, B, C, and D. Diagram 2 shows a phase of the Moon as viewed from New York State.

At which labeled Moon position would the phase of the Moon shown in diagram 2 be observed from New York State?
(1) A
(2) B 
(3) C 
(4) D

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13.

The diagram below shows an observer measuring the altitude of Polaris.

What is the latitude of the observer?
(1) 20° N
(2) 20° S 
(3) 70° N 
(4) 70° S

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14.

The weather instrument shown below can be used to determine dewpoint.

Based on the values shown, the dewpoint is
(1) −5°C
(2)   2°C 
(3)   8°C 
(4) 33°C

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15.

Which arrangement of the Sun, the Moon, and Earth results in the highest high tides, and the lowest low tides on Earth? (Diagrams are not drawn to scale.)

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16.

Which station model correctly represents the weather conditions in an area that is experiencing winds from the northeast at 25 knots and has had a steady drop in barometric pressure of 247 millibars during the last three hours?

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17.

The diagram below shows weather instruments A and B.

Which table correctly indicates the name of the weather instrument and the weather variable that it measures?

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18.

Which ocean current carries cool water toward Earth's equator?
(1) Alaska Current
(2) East Australia Current
(3) Peru Current  
(4) North Atlantic Current

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19.

Equal areas of which surface would most likely absorb the most insolation?
(1) smooth, white surface
(2) rough, white surface
(3) smooth, black surface  
(4) rough, black surface

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20.

On the map below, the darkened areas represent locations where living corals currently exist. The arrow points to a location where coral fossils have been found in Devonian-age bedrock in New York State.

Devonian-age coral fossils found in some New York State bedrock are not located in the same general region that present-day corals are living because during the Devonian Period
(1) corals migrated to New York State
(2) corals lived everywhere on Earth
(3) New York State was closer to the equator
(4) New York State had a colder climate

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21.

Which index fossil may be found in the surface bedrock near Ithaca, New York?

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22.

The cross sections below represent three widely separated outcrops of exposed bedrock. Letters A, B, C, and D represent fossils found in the rock layers.

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23.

Active volcanoes are most abundant along the
(1) edges of tectonic plates
(2) eastern coastline of continents
(3) 23.5° N and 23.5° S parallels of latitude
(4) equatorial ocean floor

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24.

Which part of Earth’s interior is inferred to have convection currents that cause tectonic plates to move?
(1) rigid mantle
(2) asthenosphere 
(3) outer core 
(4) inner core

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25.

Compared to the continental crust, the oceanic crust is
(1) less dense and less felsic
(2) less dense and less mafic
(3) more dense and more felsic
(4) more dense and more mafic

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26.

The pie graph below shows the elements comprising Earth’s crust in percent by mass.

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27.

The block diagrams below show two landscape regions labeled A and B.

What is the most probable cause of the difference in surface features between A and B?
(1) A is the result of a humid climate, while B is the result of a dry climate.
(2) A is at a high elevation, while B is located at sea level.
(3) A is a plateau region, while B is a mountainous region.
(4) A is composed of igneous bedrock, while B is composed of sedimentary bedrock.

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28.

The block diagram below shows a region that has undergone faulting.

Which map shows the stream drainage pattern that would most likely develop on the surface of this region?

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29.

The map below shows the bend of a large meandering stream. The arrows show the direction of stream flow. Letters A, B, and C are positions on the streambed where erosion and deposition data were collected.

Which table best represents the locations where erosion and deposition are dominant and where an equilibrium exists between the two processes? [A check mark represents the dominant process for each lettered location.]

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30.

Which graph best represents the relationship between the discharge of a stream and the velocity of stream flow?

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31.

The diagrams below represent four different examples of one process that transports sediments.

Which process is shown in these diagrams?
(1) chemical weathering
(2) wind action 
(3) mass movement
(4) rock abrasion

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32.

The cross section below shows a stream flowing downhill. Points A through D are locations in the stream.

At which point would most deposition occur?
(1) A
(2) B 
(3) C 
(4) D

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33.

A stream flowing at a velocity of 250 centimeters per second is transporting sediment particles ranging in size from clay to cobbles. Which transported particles will be deposited by the stream if its velocity decreases to 100 centimeters per second?
(1) cobbles, only
(2) cobbles and some pebbles, only
(3) cobbles, pebbles, and some sand, only
(4) cobbles, pebbles, sand, silt, and clay

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34.

Which rock is sedimentary in origin and formed as a result of chemical processes?
(1) granite
(2) shale  
(3) breccia
(4) dolostone

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35.

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