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Earth Science - New York Regents June 2007 Exam


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: Multiple choice

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1.

The best evidence that Earth spins on its axis is the motion of
(1) tectonic plates
(2) Polaris
(3) a wind vane
(4) a Foucault pendulum

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2.

When viewed from Earth, the light from very distant galaxies shows a red shift. This is evidence that these distant galaxies are
(1) revolving around the Sun
(2) revolving around the Milky Way
(3) moving away from Earth
(4) moving toward Earth

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3.

The arrows on the cross section below show the prevailing wind that flows over a mountain. Points A and B represent locations on opposite sides of the mountain.

Which statement correctly describes the differences in the climates of locations A and B?
(1) Location A is warmer and drier than location B.
(2) Location A is cooler and wetter than location B.
(3) Location B is warmer and wetter than location A.
(4) Location B is cooler and drier than location A.

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4.

The average temperature at Earth’s equator is higher than the average temperature at Earth’s South Pole because the South Pole
(1) receives less intense insolation
(2) receives more infrared radiation
(3) has less land area
(4) has more cloud cover

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5.

Which statement best summarizes the general effects of ocean currents at 20° S latitude on coastal regions of South America?
(1) The east coast and west coast are both warmed.
(2) The east coast and west coast are both cooled.
(3) The east coast is warmed and the west coast is cooled.
(4) The east coast is cooled and the west coast is warmed.

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6.

Which type of electromagnetic energy has the longest wavelength?
(1) infrared radiation
(2) radio wave radiation
(3) ultraviolet radiation
(4) x-ray radiation

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7.

Under which atmospheric conditions will water most likely evaporate at the fastest rate?
(1) hot, humid, and calm
(2) hot, dry, and windy
(3) cold, humid, and windy
(4) cold, dry, and calm

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8.

Which temperature zone of Earth’s atmosphere contains the most water vapor?
(1) mesosphere
(2) stratosphere  
(3) thermosphere
(4) troposphere

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9.

The diagram below shows the result of leaving an empty, dry clay flowerpot in a full container of water for a period of time. The water level in the container dropped to level A. The top of the wet area moved to level B.

Level B is higher than level A because water
(1) is less dense than the clay pot
(2) is more dense than the clay pot
(3) traveled upward in the clay pot by capillary action
(4) traveled downward in the clay pot by capillary action

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10.

Which weather condition most directly determines wind speeds at Earth’s surface?
(1) visibility changes
(2) amount of cloud cover
(3) air-pressure gradient
(4) dewpoint differences

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11.

Which statement best explains why an increase in the relative humidity of a parcel of air generally increases the chance of precipitation?
(1) The dewpoint is farther from the condensation point, causing rain.
(2) The air temperature is closer to the dewpoint, making cloud formation more likely.
(3) The amount of moisture in the air is greater, making the air heavier.
(4) The specific heat of the moist air is greater than the drier air, releasing energy.

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12.

The two elements that make up the largest percentage by mass of Earth’s crust are oxygen and
(1) silicon
(2) potassium 
(3) hydrogen
(4) nitrogen

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13.

The weather instrument below can be used to determine relative humidity.

Based on the temperatures shown, the relative humidity is
(1) 19%
(2) 2% 
(3) 33%
(4) 40%

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14.

Which two minerals have cleavage planes at right angles?
(1) biotite mica and muscovite mica
(2) sulfur and amphibole
(3) quartz and calcite
(4) halite and pyroxene

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15.

Which property would best distinguish sediment deposited by a river from sediment deposited by a glacier?
(1) mineral composition of the sediment
(2) amount of sediment sorting
(3) thickness of sediment layers
(4) age of fossils found in the sediment

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16.

Salt deposits are found in the surface bedrock near which New York State location?
(1) Oswego
(2) Syracuse
(3) Old Forge
(4) Albany

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17.

The photograph below shows a sand dune that formed in a coastal area.

This sand dune was most likely formed by
(1) water flowing from the left
(2) water flowing from the right
(3) wind blowing from the left
(4) wind blowing from the right

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18.

What is the origin of fine-grained igneous rock?
(1) lava that cooled slowly on Earth’s surface
(2) lava that cooled quickly on Earth’s surface
(3) silt that settled slowly in ocean water
(4) silt that settled quickly in ocean water

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19.

Why does the oceanic crust sink beneath the continental crust at a subduction boundary?
(1) The oceanic crust has a greater density.
(2) The oceanic crust is pulled downward by Earth’s magnetic field.
(3) The continental crust has a more mafic composition.
(4) The continental crust is pulled upward by the Moon’s gravity.

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20.

Based on fossil evidence, most scientists infer that
(1) life has not changed significantly throughout Earth’s history
(2) life has evolved from complex to simple forms
(3) many organisms that lived on Earth have become extinct
(4) mammals developed early in the Precambrian time period

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21.

The block diagram below shows a displacement of rock layers.

Which process describes the downward sliding of the rock material?
(1) tidal changes
(2) glacial erosion 
(3) mass movement
(4) lava flow

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22.

The presence of which index fossil in the surface bedrock most likely indicates that a forest environment once existed in the region?
(1) Aneurophyton
(2) Cystiphyllum
(3) Centroceras
(4) Bothriolepis

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23.

Which two types of rock are most commonly found as outcrops in New York State’s Newark Lowlands landscape region?
(1) rock salt and gypsum
(2) limestone and granite
(3) gneiss and quartzite
(4) conglomerate and sandstone

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24.

Which processes most likely formed the shale bedrock found near Ithaca, New York?
(1) uplift and solidification
(2) burial and compaction
(3) heat and pressure
(4) melting and recrystallization

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25.

The symbols below are used to represent different regions of space.

Which diagram shows the correct relationship between these four regions? [If one symbol is within another symbol, that means it is part of, or included in, that symbol.]

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26.

A student in New York State looked toward the eastern horizon to observe sunrise at three different times during the year. The student drew the following diagram that shows the positions of sunrise, A, B, and C, during this one-year period.

Which list correctly pairs the location of sunrise to the time of the year?
(1) A—June 21
B—March 21
C—December 21
(2) A—December 21
B—March 21
C—June 21
(3) A—March 21
B—June 21
C—December 21
(4) A—June 21
B—December 21
C—March 21

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27.

Which graph best represents the average monthly temperatures for one year at a location in the Southern Hemisphere?

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28.

The diagram below shows four surfaces of equal area that absorb insolation.

Which letter represents the surface that most likely absorbs the greatest amount of insolation?
(1) A
(2) B 
(3) C
(4) D

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29.

Which station model shows the correct form for indicating a northwest wind at 25 knots and an air pressure of 1023.7 mb?

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30.

The data table below shows the mass and volume of three samples of the same mineral. [The density column is provided for student use.]

Which graph best represents the relationship between the density and the volume of these mineral samples?

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