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Living Environment - New York Regents August 2015 Exam


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: Multiple choice

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1.

                                                  Part A
                                Answer all questions in this part.     [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1 Which statement describes a situation that
  would reduce the stability of a forest ecosystem?
  (1) A fierce predator is removed from the
      ecosystem.
  (2) The number of producers remains constant
      in the ecosystem.
  (3) Organisms frequently interact within the
      ecosystem.
  (4) The energy in the ecosystem flows from the
      Sun.

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

2.

2 Although the digestive system is primarily
  responsible for the breakdown of food, this
  process can be disrupted if the circulatory
  system malfunctions. The best explanation for
  this disruption is that
  (1) human body systems interact with each
      other to perform life functions
  (2) the circulatory system is the control center of
      the body
  (3) the digestive system and the circulatory
      system have many organs in common
  (4) the circulatory system is responsible for the
      coordination of life functions, including the
      breakdown of food

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

3.

3 When an organism reproduces asexually, it usually
  has
  (1) only one parent, and half as much DNA as
      the parent
  (2) only one parent, and the same chromosome
      number as the parent
  (3) two parents, and twice as much DNA as
      either parent
  (4) two parents, and the same chromosome
      number as each parent

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

4.

4 The diagram below represents a food pyramid in
  an ecosystem.
The best explanation for the decrease in the
amount of energy transferred to each succeeding
level is that much of the energy is
(1) consumed by predators
(2) released as heat
(3) stored within inorganic materials
(4) used in photosynthesis

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

5.

5 The corn we eat today is larger and has more
  kernels than the corn people first grew thousands
  of years ago. Which process is most likely
  responsible for the changes that have occurred?
  (1) mitosis               (3) direct harvesting
  (2) succession            (4) selective breeding

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

6.

6 Which statement is correct concerning hereditary
  information?
  (1) A chromosome is composed of many genes.
  (2) A gene is composed of many chromosomes.
  (3) Each chromosome carries the same
      information.
  (4) Each gene carries the same information.

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

7.

7 Which process is most closely associated with
  the regulation of water loss from the leaves of
  trees?
  (1) digestion of water within the cytoplasm in
      the leaf cells of the trees
  (2) synthesis of protein by the chloroplasts in the
      leaf cells of the trees
  (3) movement of water through leaf openings
      controlled by the guard cells
  (4) absorption of nitrogen through leaf openings
      controlled by the guard cells

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

8.

8 A mutation occurring in a human can be passed
  from parent to offspring when it occurs in a
  (1) lung cell, due to exposure to a toxic gas
  (2) gamete formed in the ovary
  (3) body cell undergoing mitosis
  (4) heart cell with chromosome damage

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

9.

9 If the concentration of sodium is greater outside
  a cell than inside the cell, which process could
  move sodium out of the cell?
  (1) diffusion
  (2) carbohydrate synthesis
  (3) active transport
  (4) digestion

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

10.

10 The basic building blocks of a protein are
   (1) glucose molecules    (3) hormones
   (2) amino acids          (4) fats

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

11.

11 Over time, data that support the successful
   evolution of a species would include observations
   that describe
   (1) an increase in the genetic changes occurring
       in body cells
   (2) a decrease in the genetic variety carried in
       sex cells
   (3) an increase in the proportion of offspring
       that have favorable characteristics
   (4) a decrease in the proportion of the population
       that has beneficial traits

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

12.

12 Caffeine is a compound found in the seeds of
   many different plants, such as coffee beans, cola
   nuts, and cacao beans (the source of chocolate).
   The presence of this chemical in all three types
   of plants suggests that these plants
   (1) inherited identical mutations
   (2) share a common ancestry
   (3) were exposed to the same type of radiation in
       the past
   (4) were cloned from a caffeine plant

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

13.

13 Male turkeys are birds that naturally strut and
   display their large tail feathers, which attracts
   female turkeys. This display is an example of
   (1) a behavioral adaptation
   (2) selective breeding
   (3) asexual reproduction
   (4) a learned behavior

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

14.

14 A scientist at a large natural history museum has
   a collection of fossils that were found throughout
   the world. Only a few of the fossils represent
   species that are still alive on Earth today. One
   reason for this is that
   (1) most of the species that have ever lived on
       Earth are alive today
   (2) most of the species that have ever lived on
       Earth are extinct
   (3) fossils of only extinct species have been
       found
   (4) species alive today will not form any fossils
       for future discovery by scientists

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

15.

15 Which statement concerning sexual reproduc-
   tion is correct?
   (1) It is not necessary in order for the individual
       to survive.
   (2) The offspring are identical to the parent.
   (3) It is necessary in order for the individual to
       survive.
   (4) The offspring are identical to each other.

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  Half-n-half Clue
 
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