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Living Environment - New York Regents August 2016 Exam


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: Multiple choice

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1.

                                                  Part A
                                Answer all questions in this part.     [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1 Which sequence represents structures organized
  from most complex to least complex?
  (1) chloroplast → guard cell → leaf → oak tree
  (2) guard cell → chloroplast → leaf → oak tree
  (3) oak tree → guard cell → leaf → chloroplast
  (4) oak tree → leaf → guard cell → chloroplast

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

2.

2 Autotrophs differ from heterotrophs in that only
  autotrophs
  (1) require carbon dioxide for cellular respiration
  (2) release oxygen as a product of cellular
      respiration
  (3) synthesize nutrients using carbon dioxide and
      water
  (4) break down sugars to assemble other molecules

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

3.

3 Burmese pythons are large snakes that have
  been introduced into the Florida Everglades
  ecosystem. Burmese pythons and alligators hunt
  the same prey. One likely effect of the
  introduction of the pythons is that
  (1) alligators will have more prey available
  (2) pythons will become native to the
      Everglades
  (3) alligator populations will decline
  (4) pythons will become an endangered species

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

4.

4 Which activity enables humans to produce new
  genetic combinations in other organisms?
  (1) selecting and breeding the organisms for
      specific traits
  (2) increasing the number of enzymes available
      to the organisms
  (3) growing organisms that reproduce asexually
  (4) decreasing the amount of DNA in the diet of
      the organisms

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

5.

5 Before a cell divides, an exact copy of each
  chromosome is made by the process of
  (1) genetic engineering (3) mutation
  (2) replication         (4) recombination

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

6.

6 Some time ago, there were thousands of
  California condors in North America. Large
  numbers were poisoned from lead in bullets that
  were used to kill the animals the condors fed on.
  An effort was made to help save this large
  scavenger. There are now more than 350
  California condors in North America. The
  condors most likely increased in number
  because humans decided to
  (1) produce lead-resistant condors through
      asexual reproduction
  (2) pass laws against using lead bullets to kill
      animals used by condors for food
  (3) introduce plants that didn’t absorb the lead
      from discharged bullets
  (4) produce lead-resistant prey for the condors
      through genetic engineering

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

7.

7 In humans, the maintenance of a stable internal
  temperature is a direct result of
  (1) detection of and reaction to stimuli in the
      environment
  (2) digestion of starches and absorption of
      protein from the internal environment
  (3) diffusion of water and excretion of glucose to
      the external environment
  (4) transport of ATP and locomotion through
      the environment

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

8.

8 Which molecules are needed to cut and copy
  segments of DNA?
  (1) reproductive hormones
  (2) carbohydrates
  (3) antibodies
  (4) biological catalysts

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

9.

9 Evolution can occur at different rates; however,
  for evolution to occur, there must be
  (1) variations within a species
  (2) extinction of the species
  (3) asexual reproduction
  (4) no change in the genes of an organism

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

10.

10 The two reactions illustrated in the diagrams below often occur when a foreign substance enters the body.
The cells labeled A and B are examples of cells known as
(1) guard cells                                          (3) white blood cells
(2) reproductive cells                                   (4) specialized skin cells

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11.

11 The diagram below represents a protein molecule present in some living things.
This type of molecule is composed of a sequence of
(1) amino acids arranged in a specific order
(2) simple sugars alternating with starches arranged in a folded pattern
(3) large inorganic subunits that form chains that interlock with each other
(4) four bases that make up the folded structure

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12.

12 Three human actions that have been made possible in recent times are:
     • Doctors are able to diagnose and treat some fetal problems prior to the birth of a child.
     • Cloning can produce large numbers of plants that are resistant to drought.
     • Male insects can be sterilized with radiation to prevent them from mating successfully.
   Which statement summarizes these three actions?
   (1) Reproductive technology has medical, agricultural, and ecological applications.
   (2) Development is a highly regulated process involving mitosis and differentiation.
   (3) Reproduction and development are subject to environmental effects.
   (4) Human development, birth, and aging should be viewed as a predictable pattern of events.

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

13.

13 Natural selection is best described as
   (1) a change in an organism in response to a
       need of that organism
   (2) a process of nearly constant improvement
       that leads to an organism that is nearly
       perfect
   (3) differences in survival rates as a result of
       different inherited characteristics
   (4) inheritance of characteristics acquired
       during the life of an organism

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

14.

14 Which statement best describes a situation
   where competition occurs in an ecosystem?
   (1) A deer outruns an attacking wolf.
   (2) A deer, during the winter, consumes tree
       bark.
   (3) A deer and a rabbit consume grass in a field.
   (4) A deer and a rabbit are both startled by a
       hawk flying overhead.

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

15.

15 A woman changes her hair color to red; however,
   her children will not inherit this red hair color
   because the woman does not have
   (1) genes for red hair in her skin
   (2) genes for red hair in her sex cells
   (3) proteins for red hair in the placenta
   (4) proteins for red hair in her egg cells

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  Half-n-half Clue
 
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