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Living Environment - New York Regents January 2016 Exam


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: Multiple choice

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1.

                                                  Part A
                                Answer all questions in this part.     [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1 Bacteria and humans are similar in that they
  both
  (1) contain genetic material
  (2) are single-celled
  (3) lack cell organelles
  (4) carry out autotrophic nutrition

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2.

2 Which cell structure is mainly responsible for
  releasing energy from food molecules in some
  single-celled organisms?
  (1) ribosome             (3) cell membrane
  (2) chloroplast          (4) mitochondrion

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3.

3 During gas exchange, the cell membrane of a
  single-celled organism has the same function as
  which organ system in humans?
  (1) nervous              (3) digestive
  (2) reproductive         (4) respiratory

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4.

4 An ecosystem is self-sustaining as long as organ-
  isms have sufficient quantities of energy, oxygen,
  minerals, and water. When organisms die, some
  of these materials are recycled back to plants in
  the ecosystem primarily through the activity of
  (1) predators             (3) pathogens
  (2) decomposers           (4) parasites

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5.

5 Which sequence represents structures organized
  from least complex to most complex?

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6.

6 Which group consists entirely of organic molecules?
  (1) protein, oxygen, fat
  (2) protein, starch, fat
  (3) water, carbon dioxide, oxygen
  (4) water, starch, protein

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7.

7 A scientist plans to cut a segment of DNA so that
  it can be inserted into the DNA of a bacterium,
  a single-celled organism. The scientist needs to
  use a special type of organic molecule to perform
  this cutting process. This molecule is
  (1) a lipid                 (3) an enzyme
  (2) a carbohydrate          (4) a hormone

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8.

8 A finite resource in the environment that keeps
  a population from steadily increasing is known as
  (1) dynamic equilibrium
  (2) a limiting factor
  (3) a reproductive enzyme
  (4) ecological succession

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9.

9 Human reproduction usually involves
  (1) internal fertilization and internal development
  (2) external fertilization and external development
  (3) internal fertilization and external development
  (4) external fertilization and internal development

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10.

10 Even though human proteins are synthesized
   from only 20 different amino acids, there are
   thousands of different proteins found in human
   cells. This great variety of proteins is possible
   because the
   (1) size of a specific amino acid can vary within
       a protein
   (2) chemical composition of a specific amino
       acid can vary
   (3) sequence and number of amino acids can be
       different in each protein
   (4) same amino acid can have many different
       properties

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11.

11 Aphids, small insects that feed on the sap of
   plants, undergo asexual reproduction during the
   summer months. They produce eggs that are
   formed without the separation of chromosomes.
   These eggs do not need to be fertilized, and all
   of the resulting offspring are female.
The best explanation for all of these offspring
being female is that
(1) there is not enough food to support male
    aphids
(2) asexual reproduction produces offspring
    with many mutations
(3) only the females are able to feed on the sap
    of the plants
(4) asexual reproduction produces offspring that
    are genetically identical to the parent

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12.

12 Potato farmers in Ireland during the mid 1800s
   all grew the same type of potato. The potato
   plants were all produced as clones of one another.
   When a fungus infected the crop, all of the
   potatoes were destroyed. This occurred because
   these potato plants
   (1) had little genetic variability
   (2) had increased biodiversity
   (3) were the product of fertilization
   (4) were the result of biotechnology

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13.

13 A cell is represented in the diagram below.
The coded information that the cell uses to
synthesize many different proteins is stored in
structure
(1) A                   (3) C
(2) B                   (4) D

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14.

14 Wildflowers grow and reproduce during the
   spring snowmelt in the desert region of Death
   Valley, California. Which environmental factor
   would most likely have the greatest influence on
   these activities?
   (1) percentage of nitrogen in the atmosphere
   (2) number of plant species in the area
   (3) variety of scavengers in the ecosystem
   (4) amount of time that water is present

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15.

15 Which statement best describes how a major
   change in the size of one population affects an
   ecosystem?
   (1) It will immediately affect every population
       and the physical conditions.
   (2) It will affect the physical conditions, but not
       the other populations.
   (3) It could directly or indirectly affect the
       physical conditions and any population.
   (4) It affects every population, not the physical
       conditions.

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