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Living Environment - New York Regents August 2001 Exam


Directions (1-35): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

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: Multiple choice

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1.

Which statement describes the best procedure to determine if a vaccine for a disease in a certain bird species is effective?
(1) Vaccinate 100 birds and expose all 100 to the disease.
(2) Vaccinate 100 birds and expose only 50 of them to the disease.
(3) Vaccinate 50 birds, do not vaccinate 50 other birds, and expose all 100 to the disease.
(4) Vaccinate 50 birds, do not vaccinate 50 other birds, and expose only the vaccinated birds to the disease.

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2.

Scientists have cloned sheep but have not yet cloned a human. The best explanation for this situation is that
(1) the technology to clone humans has not been explored
(2) human reproduction is very different from that of other mammals
(3) there are many ethical problems involved in cloning humans
(4) cloning humans would take too long

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3.

In an ecosystem, what happens to the atoms of certain chemical elements such as carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen?
(1) They move into and out of living systems.
(2) They are never found in living systems.
(3) They move into living systems and never return.
(4) They move into living systems and remain there.

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4.

The main function of the human digestive system is to
(1) rid the body of cellular waste materials
(2) process organic molecules so they can enter cells
(3) break down glucose in order to release energy
(4) change amino acids into proteins and carbohydrates

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5.

The normal sodium level in human blood is 135 mEq/L. If a blood test taken immediately after a meal reveals a sodium level of 150 mEq/L, what will most likely result?
(1) Antibody production will increase.
(2) The person will move to an ecosystem with a lower sodium level.
(3) The nutritional relationships between humans and other organisms will change.
(4) An adjustment within the human body will be made to restore homeostasis.

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6.

The diagram below represents a process that occurs within a cell in the human pancreas.

This process is known as
(1) digestion by enzymes
(2) protein synthesis
(3) energy production
(4) replication of DNA

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7.

When a person’s teeth are being x rayed, other body parts of this person are covered with a protective lead blanket to prevent
(1) loss of hair
(2) increase in cell size
(3) changes in DNA molecules
(4) changes in glucose structure

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8.

The diagrams below represent portions of the genes that code for wing structure in two organisms of the same species. Gene 1 was taken from the cells of a female with normal wings, and gene 2 was taken from the cells of a female with abnormal wings. 

The abnormal wing structure was most likely due to
(1) an insertion
(2) a substitution
(3) a deletion
(4) normal replication

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9.

The diagram below represents a cell in water. Formulas of molecules that can move freely across the cell membrane are shown. Some molecules are located inside the cell and others are in the water outside the cell.

Based on the distribution of these molecules, what would most likely happen after a period of time?
(1) The concentration of O2 will increase inside the cell.
(2) The concentration of CO2 will remain the same inside the cell.
(3) The concentration of O2 will remain the same outside the cell.
(4) The concentration of CO2 will decrease outside the cell.

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10.

During the warm temperatures of summer, the arctic fox produces enzymes that cause its fur to become reddish brown. During the cold temperatures of winter, these enzymes do not function. As a result, the fox has a white coat that blends into the snowy background. This change in fur color shows that
(1) the genes of a fox are made of unstable DNA
(2) mutations can be caused by temperature extremes
(3) random alteration of DNA can occur on certain chromosomes
(4) the expression of certain genes is affected by temperature

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11.

Which phrases best identify characteristics of asexual reproduction?
(1) one parent, union of gametes, offspring similar to but not genetically identical to the parent
(2) one parent, no union of gametes, offspring genetically identical to parents
(3) two parents, union of gametes, offspring similar to but not genetically identical to parents
(4) two parents, no union of gametes, offspring genetically identical to parents

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12.

To determine the identity of their biological parents, adopted children sometimes request DNA tests. These tests involve comparing DNA samples from the child to DNA samples taken from the likely parents. Possible relationships may be determined from these tests because the
(1) base sequence of the father determines the base sequence of the offspring
(2) DNA of parents and their offspring is more similar than the DNA of nonfamily members
(3) position of the genes on each chromosome is unique to each family
(4) mutation rate is the same in closely related individuals

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13.

Although all the body cells in an animal contain the same hereditary information, they do not all look and function the same way. The cause of this difference is that during differentiation
(1) embryonic cells use different portions of their genetic information
(2) the number of genes increases as embryonic cells move to new locations
(3) embryonic cells delete portions of chromosomes
(4) genes in embryonic body cells mutate rapidly

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14.

According to the theory of natural selection, why are some individuals more likely than others to survive and reproduce?
(1) Some individuals pass on to their offspring new characteristics they have acquired during their lifetimes.
(2) Some individuals are better adapted to exist in their environment than others are.
(3) Some individuals do not pass on to their offspring new characteristics they have acquired during their lifetimes.
(4) Some individuals tend to produce fewer offspring than others in the same environment.

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15.

The energy an organism requires to transport materials and eliminate wastes is obtained directly from
(1) DNA
(2) starch
(3) hormones
(4) ATP

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16.

New inheritable characteristics would be least likely to result from
(1) mutations which occur in muscle cells and skin cells
(2) mutations which occur in male gametes
(3) mutations which occur in female gametes
(4) the sorting and recombination of existing genes during meiosis and fertilization

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17.

The diagram below shows the human female reproductive system.

The fetus normally develops within structure
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D

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18.

One way to produce large numbers of genetically identical offspring is by
(1) cloning
(2) fertilization
(3) changing genes by agents such as radiation or chemicals
(4) inserting a DNA segment into a different DNA molecule

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19.

Most cells in the body of a fruit fly contain eight chromosomes. How many of these chromosomes were contributed by each parent of the fruit fly?
(1) 8
(2) 2
(3) 16
(4) 4

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20.

Which disease damages the human immune system, leaving the body open to certain infectious agents?
(1) flu
(2) AIDS
(3) chicken pox
(4) pneumonia

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21.

According to the interpretation of the fossil record by many scientists, during which time interval shown on the time line below did increasingly complex multicellular organisms appear on Earth?

(1) A to B
(2) B to C
(3) C to D
(4) D to E

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22.

Which characteristic of sexual reproduction has specifically favored the survival of animals that live on land?
(1) fusion of gametes in the outside environment
(2) male gametes that may be carried by the wind
3) fertilization within the body of the female
(4) female gametes that develop within ovaries

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23.

What usually results when an organism fails to maintain homeostasis?
(1) Growth rates within organs become equal.
(2) The organism becomes ill or may die.
(3) A constant sugar supply for the cells is produced.
(4) The water balance in the tissues of the organism stabilizes.

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24.

Which activity is not a response of human white blood cells to pathogens?
(1) engulfing and destroying bacteria
(2) producing antibodies
(3) identifying invaders for destruction
(4) removing carbon dioxide

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25.

In some individuals, the immune system attacks substances such as grass pollen that are usually harmless, resulting in
(1) an allergic reaction
(2) a form of cancer
(3) an insulin imbalance
(4) a mutation

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26.

A characteristic shared by all enzymes, hormones, and antibodies is that their function is determined by the
(1) shape of their molecules
(2) DNA they contain
(3) inorganic molecules they contain
(4) Organelles present in their structure

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27.

The diagram below shows the relationships between the organisms in and around a pond.
One additional biotic factor needed to make this a stable ecosystem is the presence of
(1) producers
(2) herbivores
(3) decomposers
(4) consumers

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28.

What is the major environmental factor limiting the numbers of autotrophs at great depths in the ocean?
(1) type of seafloor
(2) amount of light
(3) availability of minerals
(4) absence of biotic factors

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29.

The diagram below shows a food chain.

If the population of bobcats decreases, what will most likely be the long-term effect on the rabbit population?
(1) It will increase, only.
(2) It will decrease, only.
(3) It will increase and then decrease.
(4) It will decrease and then increase.

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30.

An owl cannot entirely digest the animals upon which it preys. Therefore, each day it expels from its mouth a pellet composed of materials such as fur, bones, and cartilage. By examining owl pellets, ecologists are able to determine the
(1) autotrophs that owls prefer
(2) organisms that feed on owls
(3) pathogens that affect owls
(4) consumers that owls prefer

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31.

In some areas, foresters plant one tree for every tree they cut. This activity is an example of
(1) lack of management of nonrenewable natural resources
(2) a good conservation practice for renewable natural resources
(3) a good conservation practice for nonrenewable natural resources
(4) lack of concern for renewable natural resources

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32.

To minimize negative environmental impact, a community should
(1) approve the weekly spraying of pesticides on the plants in a local park
(2) grant a permit to a chemical manufacturing company to build a factory by one of its lakes, with no restrictions on waste disposal
(3) make a decision about building a new road in a hiking area based only on the economic advantages
(4) set policy after considering both the risks and benefits involved in building a toxic waste site within its boundaries

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33.

Deforestation would most immediately result in
(1) the disappearance of native species
(2) industrialization of an area
(3) the depletion of the ozone shield
(4) global warming

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34.

El Niño is a short-term climatic change that causes ocean waters to remain warm when they should normally be cool. The warmer temperatures disrupt food webs and alter weather patterns. Which occurrence would most likely result from these changes?
(1) Some species would become extinct, and other species would evolve to take their place.
(2) Some populations in affected areas would be reduced, while other populations would increase temporarily.
(3) The flow of energy through the ecosystem would remain unchanged.
(4) The genes of individual organisms would mutate to adapt to the new environmental conditions.

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35.

Toxic chemicals called PCBs, produced as a result of manufacturing processes, were dumped into the Hudson River. What was most likely a result of this action on fish in the Hudson River?
(1) Some fish became unfit to eat.
(2) The fish populations increased.
(3) Thermal pollution of the river increased, decreasing the fish population.
(4) The carrying capacity for fish increased in the river.

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