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Living Environment - New York Regents August 2003 Exam


Directions (1-35): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

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: Multiple choice

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1.

The pancreas produces one hormone that lowers blood sugar level and another that increases blood sugar level. The interaction of these two hormones most directly helps humans to
(1) maintain a balanced internal environment
(2) digest needed substances for other body organs
(3) dispose of wastes formed in other body organs
(4) increase the rate of cellular communication

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2.

Two types of human cells are shown in the diagram below.

Cell A causes the cells at B to contract. This activity would be most useful for
(1) lifting a book from a bookshelf
(2) coordinating the functions of organelles
(3) digesting food in the small intestine
(4) carrying out the process of protein synthesis

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3.

The equation below represents a chemical reaction that occurs in humans.

What data should be collected to support the hypothesis that enzyme C works best in an environment that is slightly basic?
(1) the amino acid sequence of enzyme C
(2) the amount of substance W produced in five minutes at various pH levels
(3) the shapes of substances X and Y after the reaction occurs
(4) the temperature before the reaction occurs

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4.

A student hypothesized that lettuce seeds would not sprout (germinate) unless they were exposed to darkness. The student planted 10 lettuce seeds under a layer of soil and scattered 10 lettuce seeds on top of the soil. The data collected are shown in the table below.

One way to improve the validity of these results would be to
(1) conclude that darkness is necessary for lettuce seed germination
(2) conclude that light is necessary for lettuce seed germination
(3) revise the hypothesis
(4) repeat the experiment

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5.

The graph below represents data obtained from an experiment on starch digestion.

Which statement best describes point A and point B on the graph?
(1) The concentration of sugars is greater at point A than it is at point B.
(2) The concentration of sugars is greater at point B than it is at point A.
(3) The starch concentration is the same at point A as it is at point B.
(4) The starch concentration is greater at point B than it is at point A.

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6.

The diagram below provides some information concerning proteins.

Which phrase is represented by A?
(1) sequence of amino acids
(2) sequence of simple sugars
(3) sequence of starch molecules
(4) sequence of ATP molecules

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7.

In a certain ecosystem, rattlesnakes are predators of prairie dogs. If the prairie dog population started to increase, how would the ecosystem most likely regain stability?
(1) The rattlesnake population would start to decrease.
(2) The rattlesnake population would start to increase.
(3) The prairie dog population would increase rapidly.
(4) The prairie dog population would begin to prey on the rattlesnakes.

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8.

In a particular variety of corn, the kernels turn red when exposed to sunlight. In the absence of sunlight, the kernels remain yellow. Based on this information, it can be concluded that the color of these corn kernels is due to
(1) a different type of DNA that is produced when sunlight is present
(2) a different species of corn that is produced in sunlight
(3) the effect of sunlight on the number of chromosomes inherited
(4) the effect of environment on gene expression

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9.

What determines the kind of genes an organism possesses?
(1) type of amino acids in the cells of the organism
(2) sequence of the subunits A, T, C, and G in the DNA of the organism
(3) size of simple sugar molecules in the organs of the organism
(4) shape of the protein molecules in the organelles of the organism

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10.

If a set of instructions that determines all of the characteristics of an organism is compared to a book, and a chromosome is compared to a chapter in the book, then what might be compared to a paragraph in the book?
(1) a starch molecule
(2) an egg
(3) an amino acid
(4) a DNA molecule

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11.

Research applications of the basic principles of genetics have contributed greatly to the rapid production of new varieties of plants and animals. Which activity is an example of such an application?
(1) testing new fertilizers on food crops
(2) selective breeding of plants and animals that exhibit high resistance to disease
(3) developing new irrigation methods to conserve water
(4) using natural predators to control insect pests

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12.

People with cystic fibrosis inherit defective genetic information and cannot produce normal CFTR proteins. Scientists have used gene therapy to insert normal DNA segments that code for the missing CFTR protein into the lung cells of people with cystic fibrosis. Which statement does not describe a result of this therapy?
(1) Altered lung cells can produce the normal CFTR protein.
(2) Altered lung cells can divide to produce other lung cells with the normal CFTR gene.
(3) The normal CFTR gene may be expressed in altered lung cells.
(4) Offspring of someone with altered lung cells will inherit the normal CFTR gene.

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13.



Which statement concerning organism A and organism B is correct?
(1) Organism A contains tissues while organism B lacks tissues.
(2) Organism A and organism B have the same organs.
(3) Organism A and organism B have structures that allow them to maintain homeostasis.
(4) Organism A lacks structures that maintain a dynamic equilibrium, while organism B has these structures.

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14.

A portion of a molecule is shown in the diagram below.

Which statement best describes the main function of this type of molecule?
(1) It is a structural part of the cell wall.
(2) It stores energy for metabolic processes.
(3) It determines what traits may be inherited.
(4) It transports materials across the cell membrane.

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15.

The structure that makes nutrients most directly available to a human embryo is the
(1) gamete
(2) ovary
(3) stomach
(4) placenta

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16.

Which process is correctly matched with its explanation?

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17.

The great variety of possible gene combinations in a sexually reproducing species is due in part to the
(1) sorting of genes as a result of gene replication
(2) pairing of genes as a result of mitosis
(3) pairing of genes as a result of differentiation
(4) sorting of genes as a result of meiosis

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18.

The information below was printed on a calendar of important events in the field of biology.

1859

Darwin Publishes

On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection


This information is most closely associated with
(1) an explanation for the change in types of minerals in an area through ecological succession
(2) the reasons for the loss of biodiversity in all habitats on Earth
(3) an attempt to explain the structural similarities observed among diverse living organisms
(4) the effect of carrying capacity on the size of populations

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19.

The Florida panther, a member of the cat family, has a population of fewer than 100 individuals and has limited genetic variation. Which inference based on this information is valid?
(1) These animals will begin to evolve rapidly.
(2) Over time, these animals will become less likely to survive in a changing environment.
(3) These animals are easily able to adapt to the environment.
(4) Over time, these animals will become more likely to be resistant to disease.

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20.

Areas with many different niches will most likely have
(1) large numbers of organisms that will become extinct
(2) no organisms that will become extinct
(3) little diversity among the organisms
(4) great diversity among the organisms

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21.

From a single monkey, an animal breeder claims that he has successfully cloned two monkeys. He displays the two monkeys, a male and a female, to the public. The claim of the breeder should be rejected because the monkeys
(1) are twins
(2) have the same parents
(3) are of two different sexes
(4) developed from more than one sperm cell

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22.

Compared to human cells resulting from mitotic cell division, human cells resulting from meiotic cell division would have
(1) twice as many chromosomes
(2) the same number of chromosomes
(3) one-half the number of chromosomes
(4) one-quarter as many chromosomes

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23.

The diagrams below represent cells that transport chromosomes.

These cells are specialized for
(1) oxygen transport
(2) transmitting chemical signals over long distances
(3) sexual reproduction
(4) injecting antibodies into harmful bacteria

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24.

Living organisms must be able to obtain materials, change the materials into new forms, remove poisons, and move needed material from one place to another. Many of these activities directly require
(1) energy released from ATP
(2) carbohydrates formed from receptor molecules
(3) the synthesis of DNA
(4) the breakdown of energy-rich inorganic molecules

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25.

A colony of bacteria growing on a culture medium is successfully synthesizing an organic compound. Which procedure would be least likely to have an effect on this synthesis?
(1) adding more subunits of the organic compound to the medium
(2) lowering the PH of the medium
(3) raising the temperature of the colony from 20°C to 30°C
(4) increasing the number of hormone molecules in the colony

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26.

Which process is directly used by autotrophs to store energy in glucose?
(1) diffusion
(2) photosynthesis
(3) respiration
(4) active transport

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27.

The ozone layer of Earth’s atmosphere helps to filter ultraviolet radiation. As the ozone layer is depleted, more ultraviolet radiation reaches Earth’s surface. This increase in ultraviolet radiation may be harmful because it can directly cause
(1) photosynthesis to stop in all marine organisms
(2) abnormal migration patterns in waterfowl
(3) mutations in the DNA of organisms
(4) sterility in most species of mammals and birds

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28.

In an ecosystem, nutrients would be recycled if they were transferred directly from herbivores to carnivores to
(1) hosts
(2) prey
(3) decomposers
(4) autotrophs

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29.

The diagram below represents one possible immune response that can occur in the human body.
The structures that are part of the immune system are represented by
(1) A, only
(2) A and C, only
(3) B and C, only
(4) A, B, and C

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30.

Which statement concerning the producers in the ocean ecosystem shown below is correct?

(1) An increase in the types of producers will most likely decrease the available energy for the squid.
(2) A producer in this ecosystem is the zoo-plankton.
(3) If all the producers in this ecosystem are destroyed, the number of heterotrophs will increase, but the ecosystem will reach a new equilibrium.
(4) Since there is only one group of producers, their numbers must be large enough to supply the energy for the rest of the food web.

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31.

Which factor has the greatest influence on the variety of species that survive in different regions of a marine habitat?
(1) depth of light penetration
(2) daily fluctuations in temperature
(3) size of predators
(4) average annual rainfall

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32.

Which group contains terms that are all directly associated with one of the organisms shown in the diagram below?

(1) herbivore, prey, autotroph, host
(2) predator, scavenger, deccmposer, consumer
(3) carnivore, predator, heterotroph, multicellular
(4) producer, parasite, fungus, fish

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33.

Which set of statements best illustrates a material cycle in a self-sustaining ecosystem?
(1) In summer, growing plants remove magnesium ions from the soil to make chlorophyll. In autumn, these plants release magnesium when they die and decompose. In spring, new plants will grow in this same area.
(2) Trees do not live in a desert ecosystem where there is not enough water present in the sandy soil to support their growth. Trees can live in a desert oasis.
(3) DDT is sprayed on a forest ecosystem to control the mosquito population. After a year, the level of DDT is found to be much higher in the tissues taken from a hawk than in the tissues taken from a mouse in this ecosystem.
(4) Plants trap the Sun’s energy in the chemical bonds of organic molecules. This energy is then used for plant metabolic activities.

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34.

Imported animal species often disrupt an ecosystem because in their new environment, they will most likely
(1) eliminate the genetic variation of the autotrophs
(2) increase the number of mutations in the herbivores
(3) have no natural enemies
(4) be unable to produce offspring

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35.

A major reason that humans have negatively affected the environment in the past is that humans have
(1) frequently lacked an understanding of how their activities affect the environment
(2) passed laws to protect certain wetlands
(3) attempted to control their population growth
(4) discontinued the use of certain chemicals used to control insects

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