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Living Environment - New York Regents August 2005 Exam


Directions (1-30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

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: Multiple choice

Your Performance  

1.

Which substances are found on cell surfaces and respond to nerve and hormone signals?
(1) starches and simple sugars
(2) subunits of DNA
(3) vitamins and minerals
(4) receptor molecules

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2.

Which sequence illustrates the increasing complexity of levels of organization in multicellular organisms?
(1) organelle → cell tissue → organ → organ system → organism
(2) cell → organelle → tissue → organ → organ system → organism
(3) organelle → tissue → cell → organ → organ system → organism
(4) cell → organism → organ system → organ → tissue → organelle

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3.

Which statement best describes a scientific theory?
(1) It is a collection of data designed to provide support for a prediction.
(2) It is an educated guess that can be tested by experimentation.
(3) It is a scientific fact that no longer requires any evidence to support it.
(4) It is a general statement that is supported by many scientific observations.

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4.

In one variety of corn, the kernels turn red when exposed to sunlight. In the absence of sunlight, the kernels remain yellow. Based on this information, it can be concluded that the color of these corn kernels is due to the
(1) process of selective breeding
(2) rate of photosynthesis
(3) effect of environment on gene expression
(4) composition of the soil

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5.

Which row in the chart below best describes asexual reproduction?

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6.

The diagram below represents a portion of an organic molecule.

This molecule controls cellular activity by directing the synthesis of
(1) carbohydrates
(2) minerals
(3) fats
(4) proteins

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7.

In the body of a human, the types of chemical activities occurring within cells are most dependent on the
(1) biological catalysts present
(2) size of the cell
(3) number of chromosomes in the cell
(4) kind of sugar found on each chromosome

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8.

The enzyme pepsin is produced in the cells of the stomach but not in the cells of the small intestine. The small intestine produces a different enzyme, trypsin. The reason that the stomach and small intestine produce different enzymes is that the gene that codes for pepsin is
(1) in the cells of the stomach, but not in the cells of the small intestine
(2) expressed in the stomach but not expressed in the small intestine
(3) mutated in the small intestine
(4) digested by the trypsin in the small intestine

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9.

The presence of some similar structures in all vertebrates suggests that these vertebrates
(1) all develop at the same rate
(2) evolved from different animals that appeared on Earth at the same time
(3) all develop internally and rely on nutrients supplied by the mother
(4) may have an evolutionary relationship

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10.

A mutation occurs in the liver cells of a certain field mouse. Which statement concerning the spread of this mutation through the mouse population is correct?
(1) It will spread because it is beneficial.
(2) It will spread because it is a dominant gene.
(3) It will not spread because it is not in a gamete.
(4) It will not spread because it is a recessive gene.

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11.

Which cell process occurs only in organisms that reproduce sexually?
(1) mutation
(2) replication
(3) meiosis
(4) mitosis

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12.

Which factor is least likely to contribute to an increase in the rate of evolution?
(1) presence of genetic variations in a population
(2) environmental selection of organisms best adapted to survive
(3) chromosomal recombinations
(4) a long period of environmental stability

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13.

Researchers Cohn and Boyer transferred a gene from an African clawed frog into a bacterium. To accomplish this, these scientists had to use
(1) enzymes to cut out and insert the gene
(2) hereditary information located in amino acids
(3) radiation to increase the gene mutation rate of the bacterial cells
(4) cancer cells to promote rapid cell division

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14.

The evolutionary pathways of seven living species are shown in the diagram below.


Which two species are likely to have the most similar DNA base sequences?
(1) B and G
(2) E and G
(3) B and C
(4) C and D

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15.

The human brain, kidney, and liver all develop from the same zygote. This fact indicates that cells formed by divisions of the zygote are able to
(1) differentiate
(2) mutate
(3) undergo cloning
(4) be fertilized

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16.

The reproductive cycle of a human is usually regulated by
(1) gametes
(2) hormones
(3) natural selection
(4) immune responses

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17.

Which reproductive structure is correctly paired with its function'?
(1) uterus—usual site of fertilization
(2) testis—usual location for egg development
(3) ovary—delivers nutrients to the embryo
(4) sperm—transports genetic material

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18.

Toxins can harm a developing fetus. They usually enter the fetus by the process of
(1) blood flow from the mother to the fetus
(2) active transport from the ovary
(3) diffusion across placental membranes
(4) recombination of genes from the fetus and mother

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19.

Which statement best describes cellular respiration?
(1) It occurs in animal cells but not in plant cells.
(2) It converts energy in food into a more usable form.
(3) It uses carbon dioxide and produces oxygen.
(4) It stores energy in food molecules.

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20.

Antibody molecules and receptor molecules are similar in that they both
(1) control transport through the cell membrane
(2) have a specific shape related to their specific function
(3) remove wastes from the body
(4) speed up chemical reactions in cells

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21.

The diagram below illustrates the movement of materials involved in a process that is vital for the energy needs of organisms.

The process illustrated occurs within
(1) chloroplasts
(2) mitochondria
(3) ribosomes
(4) vacuoles

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22.

Feedback interactions in the human body are important because they
(1) determine the diversity necessary for evolution to occur
(2) direct the synthesis of altered genes that are passed on to every cell in the body
(3) regulate the shape of molecules involved in cellular communication
(4) keep the internal body environment within its normal range

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23.

The diagram below represents an energy pyramid.

At each successive level from A to D, the amount of available energy
(1) increases, only
(2) decreases, only
(3) increases, then decreases
(4) remains the same

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24.

The purpose of introducing weakened microbes into the body of an organism is to stimulate the
(1) production of living microbes that will protect the organism from future attacks
(2) production of antigens that will prevent infections from occurring
(3) immune system to react and prepare the organism to fight future invasions by these microbes
(4) replication of genes that direct the synthesis of hormones that regulate the number of microbes

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25.



The feeding niches of three bird species are shown in the diagram below.
What is the advantage of these different feeding niches for the birds?
(1) less competition for food
(2) fewer abiotic resources for each bird species
(3) fewer biotic resources for each bird species
(4) less energy available as the birds feed higher in the tree

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26.

Cutting down a rain forest and planting agricultural crops, such as coffee plants, would most likely result in
(1) a decrease in biodiversity
(2) an increase in the amount of energy recycled
(3) a decrease in erosion
(4) an increase in the amount of photosynthesis

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27.

Which long-term change could directly cause the other three?
(1) pollution of air and water
(2) increasing human population
(3) scarcity of suitable animal habitats
(4) depletion of resources

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28.

Which statement describes all stable ecosystems?
(1) Herbivores provide energy for the autotrophs.
(2) The populations of predators are dependent on the populations of their prey.
(3) The number of autotrophs equals the number of heterotrophs.
(4) Consumers synthesize ATP from light energy

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29.

The graph below shows the number of birds in a population.


Which statement best explains section X of the graph?
(1) Interbreeding between members of this population increased the mutation rate.
(2) An increase in the bird population caused an increase in the producer population.
(3) The population reached a state of dynamic equilibrium due to limiting factors.
(4) Another species came to the area and provided food for the birds.

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30.

Humans have altered ecosystems in many ways. The most positive impact on an ecosystem would result from
(1) planting a single economically valuable crop in a 25-acre area
(2) seeding an area with valuable plants that are from another ecosystem
(3) planting many different plants that are native to the area in a vacant lot
(4) filling in a swamp and planting grass and trees for a community park

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