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Living Environment - New York Regents August 2008 Exam


Directions (1-30): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

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: Multiple choice

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1.

Scientists studying ocean organisms are discovering new and unusual species. Which observation could be used to determine that an ocean organism carries out autotrophic nutrition?
(1) Chloroplasts are visible inside the cells.
(2) Digestive organs are visible upon dissection.
(3) The organism lives close to the surface.
(4) The organism synthesizes enzymes to digest food.

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2.

Abiotic factors that characterize a forest ecosystem include
(1) light and biodiversity
(2) temperature and amount of available water
(3) types of producers and decomposers
(4) pH and number of heterotrophs

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3.

One season, there was a shortage of producers in a food web. As a result, the number of deer and wolves decreased. The reason that both the deer and wolf populations declined is that
(1) producers are not as important as consumers in a food web
(2) more consumers than producers are needed to support the food web
(3) organisms in this food web are interdependent
(4) populations tend to stay constant in a food web

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4.

Which statement best describes a population of organisms if cloning is the only method used to reproduce this population?
(1) The population would be more likely to adapt to a changing environment.
(2) There would be little chance for variation within the population.
(3) The population would evolve rapidly.
(4) The mutation rate in the population would be rapid.

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5.

An organelle that releases energy for metabolic activity in a nerve cell is the
(1) chloroplast
(2) ribosome
(3) mitochondrion
(4) vacuole

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6.

A student notices that fruit flies with the curly wing trait develop straight wings if kept at a temperature of 16°C, but develop curly wings it kept at 25°C. The best explanation for this observation is that
(1) wing shape is controlled by behavior
(2) wing shape is influenced by light intensity
(3) gene expression can be modified by interactions with the environment
(4) gene mutations for wing shape can occur at high temperatures

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7.

In all organisms, the coded instructions for specifying the characteristics of the organism are directly determined by the arrangement of the
(1) twenty kinds of amino acids in each protein
(2) twenty-three pairs of genes on each chromosome
(3) strands of simple sugars in certain carbohydrate molecules
(4) four types of molecular bases in the genes

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8.

Which sequence shows a decreasing level of complexity?
(1) organs → organism → cells → tissues
(2) organism → cells → organs → tissues
(3) cells → tissues→ organs → organism
(4) organism → organs → tissues → cells

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9.

Which row in the chart below contains an event that is paired with an appropriate response in the human body?

(1) a virus enters the bloodstream increased production of antibodies
(2) fertilization of an egg increased levels of testosterone
(3) dehydration due to increased sweating increased urine output
(4) a drop in the rate of digestion increased respiration rate

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10.

The diagram below represents a genetic procedure.

Which statement best describes the outcome of this procedure?
(1) Bacterial cells will destroy defective human genetic material.
(2) Bacterial cells may form a multicellular embryo.
(3) The inserted human DNA will change harmful bacteria to harmless ones.
(4) The inserted human DNA may direct the synthesis of human proteins.

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11.

The diagram below represents the genetic contents of cells before and after a specific reproductive process.


This process is considered a mechanism of evolution because it
(1) decreases the chance for new combinations of inheritable traits in a species
(2) decreases the probability that genes can be passed on to other body cells
(3) increases the chance for variations in offspring
(4) increases the number of offspring an organism can produce

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12.

One disadvantage of a genetic mutation in a human skin cell is that it
(1) may result in the production of a defective protein
(2) may alter the sequence of simple sugars in insulin molecules
(3) can lead to a lower mutation rate in the offspring of the human
(4) can alter the rate of all the metabolic processes in the human

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13.

The DNA of a human cell can be cut and rearranged by using
(1) a scalpel
(2) electrophoresis

(3) hormones
(4) enzymes

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14.

Much of the carbon dioxide produced by green plants is not excreted as a metabolic waste because it
(1) can be used for photosynthesis
(2) is too large to pass through cell membranes
(3) is needed for cellular respiration
(4) can be used for the synthesis of proteins

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15.

In several species of birds, the males show off their bright colors and long feathers. The dull-colored females usually pick the brightest colored males for mates. Male offspring inherit their father’s bright colors and long feathers. Compared to earlier generations, future generations of these birds will be expected to have a greater proportion of
(1) bright-colored females
(2) dull-colored females
(3) dull-colored males
(4) bright-colored males

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16.

To determine evolutionary relationships between organisms, a comparison would most likely be made between all of the characteristics below except
(1) methods of reproduction
(2) number of their ATP molecules
(3) sequences in their DNA molecules
(4) structure of protein molecules present

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17.

The females of certain species of turtles will sneak into a nest of alligator eggs to lay their own eggs and then leave, never to return. When the baby turtles hatch, they automatically hide from the mother alligator guarding the nest and go to the nearest body of water when it is safe to do so. Which statement best explains the behavior of these baby turtles?
(1) More of the turtles’ ancestors who acted in this way survived to reproduce, passing this behavioral trait to their offspring.
(2) The baby turtles are genetically identical, so they behave the same way.
(3) Turtles are not capable of evolving, so they repeat the same behaviors generation after generation.
(4) The baby turtles’ ancestors who learned to behave this way taught the behaviors to their offspring

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18.

A pattern of reproduction and growth in a one- celled organism is shown below.

Which statement best describes this pattern of reproduction?
(1) All genetic material comes from one parent.
(2) Only some of the genetic material comes from one parent.
(3) The size of the parent determines the amount of genetic material.
(4) The size of the parent determines the source of the genetic material.

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19.

A technique used to reproduce plants is shown in the diagram below.

This technique is a form of
(1) sexual reproduction
(2) asexual reproduction

(3) gamete production
(4) gene manipulation

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20.

The diagram below represents a biochemical process.

Which molecule is represented by X?
(1) DNA
(2) starch
(3) protein
(4) ATP

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21.

The diagram below represents early stages of embryo development.

The greatest amount of differentiation for organ formation most likely occurs at arrow
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D

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22.

The diagram below shows a cell in the human body engulfing a bacterial cell.

The cell labeled X is most likely a
(1) red blood cell
(2) white blood cell
(3) liver cell
(4) nerve cell

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23.

The graph below shows the levels of glucose and insulin in the blood of a human over a period of time.

This graph represents
(1) an allergic reaction
(2) an antigen-antibody reaction
(3) maintenance of homeostasis
(4) autotrophic nutrition

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24.

Which concept is best represented in the diagram shown below?

(1) Human actions are a threat to equilibrium in ecosystems.
(2) Equilibrium in ecosystems requires that humans modify ecosystems.
(3) Equilibrium in ecosystems directly affects how humans modify ecosystems.
(4) Human population growth is the primary reason for equilibrium in ecosystems.

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25.

One possible reason for the rise in the average air temperature at Earth’s surface is that
(1) decomposers are being destroyed
(2) deforestation has increased the levels of oxygen in the atmosphere
(3) industrialization has increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the air
(4) growing crops is depleting the ozone shield

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26.

The size of a frog population in a pond remains fairly constant over a period of several years because of
(1) decreasing competition
(2) environmental carrying capacity
(3) excessive dissolved oxygen
(4) the depth of water

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27.

Plants such as the Venus flytrap produce chemical compounds that break down insects into substances that are usable by the plant. The chemical compounds that break down the insects are most likely
(1) fats
(2) minerals
(3) biological catalysts
(4) complex carbohydrates

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28.

In December 2004, a tsunami (giant wave) destroyed many of the marine organisms along the coast of the Indian Ocean. What can be expected to happen to the ecosystem that was most severely hit by the tsunami?
(1) The ecosystem will change until a new stable community is established.
(2) Succession will continue in the ecosystem until one species of marine organism is established.
(3) Ecological succession will no longer occur in this marine ecosystem.
(4) The organisms in the ecosystem will become extinct.

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29.

Many homeowners who used to collect, bag, and discard grass clippings are now using mulching lawnmowers, which cut up the clippings into very fine pieces and deposit them on the soil. The use of mulching lawnmowers contributes most directly to
(1) increasing the diversity of life
(2) recycling of nutrients
(3) the control of pathogens
(4) the production of new species

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30.

Deforestation of areas considered to be rich sources of genetic material could limit future agricultural and medical advances due to (1) the improved quality of the atmosphere
(2) the maintenance of dynamic equilibrium
(3) an increase in the rate of evolutionary change
(4) the loss of biodiversity

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