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Living Environment - New York Regents January 2002 Exam


Directions (1-35): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

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: Multiple choice

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1.

Which statement accurately compares cells in the human circulatory system to cells in the human nervous system?
(1) Cells in the circulatory system carry out the same life function for the organism as cells in the nervous system.
(2) Cells in the circulatory system are identical in structure to cells in the nervous system.
(3) Cells in the nervous system are different in structure from cells in the circulatory system, and they carry out different specialized functions.
(4) Cells in the nervous system act independently, but cells in the circulatory system function together.

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2.

An iodine test of a tomato plant leaf revealed that starch was present at 5:00 p.m. on a sunny afternoon in July. When a similar leaf from the same tomato plant was tested with iodine at 6:00 a.m. the next morning, the test indicated that less starch was present. This reduction in starch content most likely occurred because starch was
(1) changed directly into proteins
(2) transported out of the leaves through the guard cells
(3) transported downward toward the roots through tubes
(4) changed into simple sugars

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3.

Luciferin is a molecule that, when broken down in fireflies, produces heat and light. The rate at which luciferin is broken down in cells is controlled by
(1) a carbohydrate
(2) a simple sugar
(3) an enzyme
(4) a complex fat

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4.

Communication between cells is affected if there is decreased ability to produce
(1) digestive enzymes and gametes
(2) antibodies and chloroplasts
(3) hormones and nerve impulses
(4) antibiotics and guard cells

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5.

Tomato plants in a garden are not growing well. The gardener hypothesizes that the soil is too acidic. To test this hypothesis accurately, the gardener could
(1) plant seeds of a different kind of plant
(2) move the tomato plants to an area with less sunlight
(3) change the pH of the soil
(4) reduce the amount of water available to the plant

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6.

A glucose-tolerance test was conducted to observe the effect of time on glucose concentration in the blood. An animal was fed 10 milliliters of glucose solution. At five different times after the ingestion of the solution, the blood glucose concentration was determined, and the results were recorded in the data table below.

The change in glucose concentration in the blood between 0 and 30 minutes was probably due to
(1) the liver releasing glucose into the small intestine
(2) glucose being absorbed from the digestive system
(3) the synthesis of glucose from starch
(4) glucose being used for cellular respiration

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7.

The diagram below represents movement of a large molecule across a membrane.

Which process is best represented in this diagram?
(1) active transport
(2) diffusion
(3) protein building
(4) gene manipulation

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8.

How does the type of reproduction shown in method A in the diagram below differ from the type of reproduction shown in method B?


(1) Method A illustrates sexual reproduction, and method B illustrates asexual reproduction.
(2) Offspring produced by method B will be genetically alike, but offspring produced by method A will be genetically different.
(3) The two cells shown in the last step of method A are genetically alike, but the two cells shown in the last step of method B are genetically different.
(4) Offspring produced by method A will be genetically like the parent, but offspring produced by method B will be genetically different from the parents.

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9.

When humans first domesticated dogs, there was relatively little diversity in the species. Today, there are many variations such as the German shepherd and the dalmation. This increase in diversity is most closely associated with
(1) cloning of selected body cells
(2) selective breeding
(3) mitotic cell division
(4) environmental influences on inherited traits

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10.

As a result of sexual reproduction, an organism can pass a gene mutation to its offspring if the mutation occurs in
(1) a body cell
(2) a gamete
(3) liver tissue
(4) white blood cells

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11.

The diversity within the wild bird species in the diagram below can best be explained by which process?

(1) natural selection
(2) asexual reproduction
(3) ecological succession
(4) mitotic cell division

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12.

What is the most probable reason for the increase in the percentage of variety A in the population of the species shown in the graph below?


(1) There is no chance for variety A to mate with variety B.
(2) There is no genetic difference between variety A and variety B.
(3) Variety A is less fit to survive than variety B is.
(4) Variety A has some adaptive advantage that variety B does not have.

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13.

The type of molecule represented below is found in organisms.


Which statement correctly describes the sequence of bases found in this type of molecule?
(1) It changes every time it replicates.
(2) It determines the characteristics that will be inherited.
(3) It is exactly the same in all organisms.
(4) It directly controls the synthesis of starch within a cell.

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14.

The diagram below illustrates a proposed evolutionary path of certain organisms, based on the theory of evolution.

Which statement could best be inferred from the information in this diagram?
(1) Evolution does not involve gradual change.
(2) Evolutionary changes can result in extinction.
(3) Evolution begins with plants.
(4) Evolution produces organisms that all fill the same niche.

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15.

Which statement best describes the result of some of the processes involved in genetic engineering?
(1) They alter the arrangement of hereditary material.
(2) They provide energy for mitosis and meiosis.
(3) They are necessary for normal gamete formation.
(4) They reduce variation in organisms that reproduce asexually.

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16.

A characteristic of mutations is that they usually
(1) are caused only by the events of mitosis
(2) do not occur at random
(3) result in different genetic sequences
(4) occur to meet the needs of a species

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17.

Regulation of sexual reproductive cycles of human males is related most directly to the presence of the hormone
(1) estrogen
(2) progesterone
(3) testosterone
(4) insulin

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18.

The nucleus is removed from a body cell of one organism and is placed in an egg cell that has had its nucleus removed. This process, which results in the production of organisms that are genetically alike, is known as
(1) cloning
(2) fertilization
(3) biological adaptation
(4) DNA production

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19.

Most cells in the body of a fruit fly contain eight chromosomes. In some cells, only four chromosomes are present, a condition which is a direct result of
(1) mitotic cell division
(2) meiotic cell division
(3) embryonic differentiation
(4) internal fertilization

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20.

People with AIDS are unable to fight multiple infections because the virus that causes AIDS
(1) weakens their immune systems
(2) produces antibodies in their blood
(3) attacks muscle tissue
(4) kills pathogens

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21.

Feedback mechanisms are best described as processes that help
(1) reduce hormone levels to below normal in the blood
(2) destroy hormones in the blood
(3) directly control muscle contraction in the leg
(4) keep body conditions near a normal, steady state

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22.

A pond ecosystem is represented in the diagram below.


Energy for this ecosystem originally comes from
(1) water
(2) consumers
(3) sunlight
(4) plants

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23.

Which type of model provides the most complete representation of the feeding relationships within a community?
(1) a material cycle
(2) a predator-prey association
(3) a food chain
(4) a food web

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24.

An ecosystem will most likely remain stable if
(1) it has more predators than prey
(2) it has a high level of biodiversity
(3) biotic factors decrease
(4) finite resources decrease

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25.

Heavy cigarette smoking and the use of alcohol throughout pregnancy usually increase the likelihood of
(1) the birth of twins
(2) the birth of a male baby
(3) a baby being born with a viral infection
(4) a baby being born with medical problems

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26.

The mass of some corn plants at the end of their growth period was 6 tons per acre. Most of this mass was produced from
(1) water and organic compounds absorbed from the soil
(2) minerals from the soil and oxygen from the air
(3) minerals and organic materials absorbed from the soil
(4) water from the soil and carbon dioxide from the air

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27.

The gene for the production of human insulin is inserted into certain bacterial cells. The offspring of these bacterial cells will most likely be able to
(1) destroy pathogens
(2) reproduce sexually
(3) synthesize this hormone
(4) form human tissue

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28.

A characteristic of hormones and enzymes that allows them to work effectively with other organic molecules is their
(1) specific shape
(2) small size
(3) concentration of carbon and hydrogen atoms
(4) high-energy bonds

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29.

Both a deer and a tree react to changes in their external surroundings, helping them to maintain a constant internal environment. This statement describes
(1) predation
(2) homeostasis
(3) antibiotic resistance
(4) autotrophic nutrition

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30.

Which sequence best represents the flow of energy in the cartoon below?


(1) prey → predator
(2) host → parasite
(3) producer → herbivore
(4) autotroph → carnivore

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31.

What would most likely occur after an ecosystem is disrupted by fire?
(1) The ecosystem would eventually return to its original state.
(2) The ecosystem would return to its previous state immediately.
(3) The ecosystem would evolve into a new ecosystem that is totally different from the original.
(4) The ecosystem would become an ever-changing environment with no stability.

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32.

Car exhaust has been blamed for increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the air. Some scientists believe this additional carbon dioxide in the air may cause
(1) global warming
(2) increased biodiversity
(3) habitat preservation
(4) ozone destruction

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33.

Which statement illustrates how human activities can most directly change the dynamic equilibrium of an ecosystem?
(1) A hurricane causes a stream to overflow its banks.
(2) Increased wind increases water evaporation from a plant.
(3) Water pollution causes a decrease in fish populations in a river.
(4) The ozone shield helps prevent harmful radiation from reaching the surface of Earth.

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34.

Some factories have a negative impact on Earth’s ecosystems because they
(1) have high energy demands that require the use of fossil fuels and nuclear fuels
(2) utilize agricultural technology that decreases soil erosion
(3) decrease the need for finite resources
(4) limit the amount of emissions produced each year

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35.

For a natural ecosystem to be self-sustaining, many essential chemical elements must be
(1) converted to energy
(2) changed into fossil fuels such as oil and coal
(3) permanently removed from the environment
(4) cycled between organisms and the environment

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