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Living Environment - New York Regents January 2004 Exam


Directions (1-35): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

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: Multiple choice

Your Performance  

1.

The analysis of data gathered during a particular experiment is necessary in order to
(1) formulate a hypothesis for that experiment
(2) develop a research plan for that experiment
(3) design a control for that experiment
(4) draw a valid conclusion for that experiment

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

2.

A student could best demonstrate knowledge of how energy flows throughout an ecosystem by
(1) drawing a food web using specific organisms living in a
(2) conducting an experiment that demonstrates the process of photosynthesis
(3) labeling a diagram that illustrates ecological succession
(4) making a chart to show the role of bacteria in the environment

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

3.

In most habitats, the removal of predators will have the most immediate impact on a population of
(1) producers
(2) decomposers
(3) herbivores
(4) microbes

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

4.

Hormones and secretions of the nervous system are chemical messengers that
(1) store genetic information
(2) carry out the circulation of materials
(3) extract energy from nutrients
(4) coordinate system interactions

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

5.

Which statement concerning simple sugars and amino acids is correct'?
(1) They are both wastes resulting from protein synthesis.
(2) They are both building blocks of starch.
(3) They are both needed for the synthesis of larger molecules.
(4) They are both stored as fat molecules in the liver.

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6.

The diagram below represents two single-celled organisms.

These organisms carry out the activities needed to maintain homeostasis by using specialized internal
(1) tissues
(2) organelles
(3) systems
(4) organs

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

7.

The sequence of subunits in a protein is most directly dependent on the
(1) region in the cell where enzymes are produced
(2) DNA in the chromosomes in a cell
(3) type of cell in which starch is found
(4) kinds of materials in the cell membrane

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

8.

Fruit flies with the curly-wing trait will develop straight wings if kept at a temperature of 16°C during development and curly wings if kept at 25°C. The best explanation for this change in the shape of wings is that the
(1) genes for curly wings and genes for straight wings are found on different chromosomes
(2) type of genes present in the fruit fly is dependent on environmental temperature
(3) environment affects the expression of the genes for this trait
(4) higher temperature produces a gene mutation

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

9.

The genetic code of a DNA molecule is determined by a specific sequence of
(1) ATP molecules
(2) sugar molecules
(3) chemical bonds
(4) molecular bases

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

10.

To produce large tomatoes that are resistant to cracking and splitting, some seed companies use the pollen from one variety of tomato plant to fertilize a different variety of tomato plant. This process is an example of
(1) selective breeding
(2) DNA sequencing
(3) direct harvesting
(4) cloning

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

11.

The cells that make up the skin of an individual have some functions different from the cells that make up the liver because
(1) all cells have a common ancestor
(2) different cells have different genetic material
(3) environment and past history have no influence on cell function
(4) different parts of genetic instructions are used in different types of cells

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

12.

The production of certain human hormones by genetically engineered bacteria results from
(1) inserting a specific group of amino acids into the bacteria
(2) combining a portion of human DNA with bacterial DNA and inserting this into bacteria
(3) crossing two different species of bacteria
(4) deleting a specific amino acid from human DNA and inserting it into bacterial DNA

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

13.

Which statement best describes a current understanding of natural selection?
(1) Natural selection influences the frequency of an adaptation in a population.
(2) Natural selection has been discarded as an important concept in evolution.
(3) Changes in gene frequencies due to natural selection have little effect on the evolution of species.
(4) New mutations of genetic material are due to natural selection.

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14.

The bones in the forelimbs of three mammals are shown below.

For these mammals, the number, position, and shape of the bones most likely indicates that they may have
(1) developed in a common environment
(2) developed from the same earlier species
(3) identical genetic makeup
(4) identical methods of obtaining food

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

15.

Base your answers to questions 15 and 16 on the diagram be1ow, which represents the human female reproductive system.


New inherited characteristics may appear in offspring as a result of new combinations of existing genes or may result from mutations in genes contained in cells produced by structure
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

16.

Base your answers to questions 15 and 16 on the diagram be1ow, which represents the human female reproductive system.


In which part of this system does a fetus usually develop?
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

17.

Which phrase best describes a process represented in the diagram below?

(1) a zygote dividing by mitosis
(2) a zygote dividing by meiosis
(3) a gamete dividing by mitosis
(4) a gamete dividing by meiosis

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18.

Which species is most likely to survive changing environmental conditions?
(1) a species that has few variations
(2) a species that reproduces sexually
(3) a species that competes with similar species
(4) a species that has a limited life span

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

19.

Organisms that have the ability to use an atmospheric gas to produce an organic nutrient are known as
(1) herbivores
(2) decomposers
(3) carnivores
(4) autotrophs

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

20.

Which phrase does not describe cells cloned from a carrot?
(1) they are genetically identical
(2) they are produced sexually
(3) they have the same DNA codes
(4) they have identical chromosomes

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

21.

Human egg cells are most similar to human sperm cells in their
(1) degree of motility
(2) amount of stored food
(3) chromosome number
(4) shape and size

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

22.

One arctic food chain consists of polar bears, fish, seaweed, and seals. Which sequence demonstrates the correct flow of energy between these organisms?
(1) seals → seaweed → fish → polar bears
(2) fish → seaweed → polar bears → seals
(3) seaweed → fish → seals → polar bears
(4) polar bears → fish → seals → seaweed

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

23.

The diagram below represents the reproductive system of a mammal.

The hormone produced in structure A most directly brings about a change in
(1) blood sugar concentration
(2) physical characteristics
(3) the rate of digestion
(4) the ability to carry out respiration

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

24.

Leaves of green plants contain openings known as stomates, which are opened and closed by specialized cells allowing for gas exchange between the leaf and the outside environment. Which phrase best represents the net flow of gases involved in photosynthesis into and out of the leaf through these openings on a sunny day?
(1) carbon dioxide moves in; oxygen moves out
(2) carbon dioxide and oxygen move in; ozone moves out
(3) oxygen moves in; nitrogen moves out
(4) water and ozone move in; carbon dioxide moves out

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

25.

A food web is represented in the diagram below.

Which organisms are correctly paired with their roles in this food web?
(1) mountain lions, bark beetles — producers hawks, mice — heterotrophs
(2) snakes, grasshoppers — consumers mushrooms, rabbits — autotrophs
(3) all birds, deer — consumers grasses, trees — producers
(4) seeds, bacteria — decomposers mice, grasses — heterotrophs

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

26.

What substance could be represented by the letter X in the diagram below?


(1) carbohydrates
(2) ozone
(3) carbon dioxide
(4) water

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27.

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28.

A part of the Hepatitis B virus is synthesized in the laboratory. This viral particle can be identified by the immune system as a foreign material but the viral particle is not capable of causing disease. Immediately after this viral particle is injected into a human it
(1) stimulates the production of enzymes that are able to digest the Hepatitis B virus
(2) triggers the formation of antibodies that protect against the Hepatitis B virus
(3) synthesizes specific hormones that provide immunity against the Hepatitis B virus
(4) breaks down key receptor molecules so that the Hepatitis B virus can enter body cells

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

29.

Which phrase would be appropriate for area A in the chart below?

(1) produces radioactive waste
(2) results in greater biodiversity
(3) provides light from radioactive substances
(4) reduces dependence on fossil fuels

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

30.

Which situation is not an example of the maintenance of a dynamic equilibrium in an organism?
(1) Guard cells contribute to the regulation of water content in a geranium plant.
(2) Water passes into an animal cell causing it to swell.
(3) The release of insulin lowers the blood sugar level in a human after eating a big meal.
(4) A runner perspires while running a race on a hot summer day.

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

31.

Which statement best describes what happens to energy and molecules in a stable ecosystem?
(1) Both energy and molecules are recycled in an ecosystem.
(2) Neither energy nor molecules are recycled in an ecosystem.
(3) Energy is recycled and molecules are continuously added to the ecosystem.
(4) Energy is continuously added to the ecosystem and molecules are recycled.

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

32.

Methods used to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions from smokestacks are an attempt by humans to
(1) lessen the amount of insecticides in the environment
(2) eliminate diversity in wildlife
(3) lessen the environmental impact of acid rain
(4) use nonchemical controls on pest species

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

33.

Deforestation will most directly result in an immediate increase in
(1) atmospheric carbon dioxide
(2) atmospheric ozone
(3) wildlife populations
(4) renewable resources

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

34.

Which statement concerning ecosystems is correct?
(1) Stable ecosystems that are changed by natural disaster will slowly recover and may again become stable if left alone for a long period of time.
(2) Competition does not influence the number of organisms that live in ecosystems.
(3) Climatic change is the principal cause of habitat destruction in ecosystems in the last fifty years.
(4) Stable ecosystems, once changed by natural disaster, will never recover and become stable again, even if left alone for a long period of time.

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

35.

Which human activity would he least likely to disrupt the stability of an ecosystem?
(1) disposing of wastes in the ocean
(2) using fossil fuels
(3) increasing the human population
(4) recycling bottles and cans

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  Half-n-half Clue
 
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