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Living Environment - New York Regents January 2008 Exam


Directions (1-30): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

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: Multiple choice

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1.

The transfer of genes from parents to their offspring is known as
(1) differentiation
(2) heredity
(3) immunity
(4) evolution

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2.

Damage to which structure will most directly disrupt water balance within a single-celled organism?
(1) ribosome
(2) cell membrane
(3) nucleus
(4) chloroplast

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3.

Two primary agents of cellular communication are
(1) chemicals made by blood cells and simple sugars
(2) hormones and carbohydrates
(3) enzymes and starches
(4) hormones and chemicals made by nerve cells

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4.

The function of most proteins depends primarily on the
(1) type and order of amino acids
(2) environment of the organism
(3) availability of starch molecules
(4) nutritional habits of the organism

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5.

Which procedure would most likely provide valid results in a test to determine if drug A would be effective in treating cancer in white mice?
(1) injecting 1 mL of drug A into 100 white mice with cancer
(2) injecting 1 mL of drug A into 100 white mice with cancer and 0.5 mL of drug X into 100 white mice without cancer
(3) injecting 1 mL of drug A into 100 white mice with cancer and 0.5 mL of drug X into another group of 100 white mice with cancer
(4) injecting 1 mL of drug A into 100 white mice with cancer and 1 mL of distilled water into another group of 100 white mice with cancer

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6.

The table below provides some information concerning organelles and organs.

Based on this information, which statement accurately compares organelles to organs?
(1) Functions are carried out more efficiently by organs than by organelles.
(2) Organs maintain homeostasis while organelles do not.
(3) Organelles carry out functions similar to those of organs.
(4) Organelles function in multicellular organisms while organs function in single-celled organisms.

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7.

In order to produce the first white marigold flower, growers began with the lightest yellow-flowered marigold plants. After crossing them, these plants produced seeds, which were planted, and only the offspring with very light-yellow flowers were used to produce the next generation. Repeating this process over many years, growers finally produced a marigold flower that is considered the first white variety of its species. This procedure is known as
(1) differentiation
(2) cloning
(3) gene insertion
(4) selective breeding

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8.

Chromosomes can be described as
(1) large molecules that have only one function
(2) folded chains of bonded glucose molecules
(3) reproductive cells composed of molecular bases
(4) coiled strands of genetic material

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9.

Some interactions in a desert community are shown in the diagram below.
Which statement is a valid inference based on the diagram?
(1) Certain organisms may compete for vital resources.
(2) All these organisms rely on energy from decomposers.
(3) Organisms synthesize energy.
(4) All organisms occupy the same niche.

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10.

Which concept is best illustrated in the flowchart below?


(1) natural selection
(2) genetic manipulation
(3) dynamic equilibrium
(4) material cycles

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11.

The headline “Improved Soybeans Produce Healthier Vegetable Oils” accompanies an article describing how a biotechnology company controls the types of lipids (fats) present in soybeans. The improved soybeans are most likely being developed by the process of
(1) natural selection
(2) asexual reproduction
(3) genetic engineering
(4) habitat modification

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12.

Which statement indicates one difference between the gene that codes for insulin and the gene that codes for testosterone in humans?
(1) The gene for insulin is replicated in vacuoles, while the gene for testosterone is replicated in mitochondria.
(2) The gene for insulin has a different sequence of molecular bases than the gene for testosterone.
(3) The gene for insulin is turned on in liver cells, but the gene for testosterone is not.
(4) The gene for insulin is a sequence of five different molecular bases while the gene for testosterone is a sequence of only four different molecular bases.

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13.

Cells that develop from a single zygote all contain identical DNA molecules. However, some of these cells will develop differently because
(1) different groups of cells containing the DNA may be exposed to different environmental conditions
(2) only the DNA in certain cells will replicate
(3) some of the DNA in some of the cells will be removed by chemical reactions
(4) DNA is functional in only 10% of the cells of the body

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14.

Which sequence represents the correct order of processes that result in the formation and development of an embryo?
(1) meiosis → fertilization → mitosis
(2) mitosis → fertilization → meiosis
(3) fertilization → meiosis → mitosis
(4) fertilization → mitosis → meiosis

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15.

The graph below shows the percent of variation for a given trait in four different populations of the same species. The populations inhabit similar environments.

In which population will the greatest number of individuals most likely survive if a significant environmental change related to this trait occurs?
(1) 1
(2) 2
(3) 3
(4) 4

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16.

The sequence of events occurring in the life cycle of a bacterium is listed below.
(A) The bacterium copies its single chromosome.
(B) The copies of the chromosome attach to the cell membrane of the bacterium.
(C) As the cell grows, the two copies of the chromosome separate.
(D) The cell is separated by a wall into equal halves.
(E) Each new cell has one copy of the chromosome.
This sequence most closely resembles the process of
(1) recombination
(2) zygote formation
(3) mitotic cell division
(4) meiotic cell division

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17.

The diagram below illustrates possible evolutionary pathways of some species.


Which statement is a valid inference based on the information in the diagram?
(1) Species A is the common ancestor of all life on Earth.
(2) Species D is more closely related to species E than to species F .
(3) Species B is the ancestor of species F.
(4) Species C is the ancestor of species that exist at the present time.

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18.

The diagram below represents stages in the processes of reproduction and development in an animal.

Cells containing only half of the genetic information characteristic of this species are found at
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D

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19.

Which hormones most directly influence the uterus during pregnancy?
(1) testosterone and insulin
(2) progesterone and testosterone
(3) estrogen and insulin
(4) progesterone and estrogen

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20.

The diagram below represents the human female reproductive system.


Exposure to radiation or certain chemicals could alter the genetic information in the gametes that form in structure
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D

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21.

All life depends on the availability of usable energy. This energy is released when
(1) organisms convert solar energy into the chemical energy found in food molecules
(2) respiration occurs in the cells of producers and high-energy molecules enter the atmosphere
(3) cells carry out the process of respiration
(4) animal cells synthesize starch and carbon dioxide

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22.

The sweet taste of freshly picked corn is due to the high sugar content in the kernels. Enzyme action converts about 50% of the sugar to starch within one day after picking. To preserve its sweetness, the freshly picked corn is immersed in boiling water for a few minutes, and then cooled. Which statement most likely explains why the boiled corn kernels remain sweet?
(1) Boiling destroys sugar molecules so they cannot be converted to starch.
(2) Boiling kills a fungus on the corn that is needed to convert sugar to starch.
(3) Boiling activates the enzyme that converts amino acids to sugar.
(4) Boiling deactivates the enzyme responsible for converting sugar to starch.

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23.

One biotic factor that affects consumers in an ocean ecosystem is
(1) number of autotrophs
(2) temperature variation
(3) salt content
(4) pH of water

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24.

Which component of a stable ecosystem can not be recycled?
(1) oxygen
(2) water
(3) energy
(4) nitrogen

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25.

A food web is represented in the diagram below.


Which population in this food web would most likely be negatively affected by an increase in the mouse population?
(1) snake
(2) rabbit
(3) wolf
(4) hawk

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26.

Years after the lava from an erupting volcano destroyed an area, grasses started to grow in that area. The grasses were gradually replaced by shrubs, evergreen trees, and finally, by a forest that remained for several hundred years. This entire process is an example of
(1) feedback
(2) ecological succession
(3) plant preservation
(4) deforestation

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27.

Increased industrialization will most likely
(1) decrease available habitats
(2) increase environmental carrying capacity for native species
(3) increase the stability of ecosystems
(4) decrease global warming

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28.

A five-year study was carried out on a population of algae in a lake. The study found that the algae population was steadily decreasing in size. Over the five-year period this decrease most likely led to
(1) a decrease in the amount of nitrogen released into the atmosphere
(2) an increase in the amount of oxygen present in the lake
(3) an increase in the amount of water vapor present in the atmosphere
(4) a decrease in the amount of oxygen released into the lake

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29.

Which result of technological advancement has a positive effect on the environment?
(1) development of new models of computers each year, with disposal of the old computers in landfills
(2) development of new models of cars that travel fewer miles per gallon of gasoline
(3) development of equipment that uses solar energy to charge batteries
(4) development of equipment to speed up the process of cutting down trees

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30.

The diagram below represents a biological process.

Which set of molecules is best represented by letters A and B?
(1) A: oxygen and water
B: glucose
(2) A: glucose
B: carbon dioxide and water
(3) A: carbon dioxide and water
B: glucose
(4) A: glucose
B: oxygen and water

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