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Living Environment - New York Regents January 2009 Exam

   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

Formats View Examination Paper with Answers Solve Examination Paper Questions Review
: Multiple choice

Your Performance  

1.

1 Scientists in the United States, Europe, and
  Africa have now suggested that the hippopotamus
  is a relative of the whale. Earlier studies placed
  the hippo as a close relative of wild pigs, but
  recent studies have discovered stronger evidence
  for the connection to whales. This information
  suggests that
  (1) genetic engineering was involved in the
       earlier theories
  (2) structural evidence is the best evolutionary
       factor to consider
  (3) natural selection does not occur in hippopotamuses
  (4) scientific explanations are tentative and subject
       to change

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2.

2 A stable ecosystem would not contain
  (1) materials being cycled
  (2) consumers without producers
  (3) decomposers
  (4) a constant source of energy

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3.

3 A human liver cell and a human skin cell in the
  same person have the same genetic sequences.
  However, these cells are different because the
  liver cell
  (1) has more dominant traits than the skin cell
  (2) can reproduce but the skin cell cannot
  (3) carries out respiration but the skin cell does not
  (4) uses different genes than the skin cell

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4.

4 Abiotic factors that could affect the stability of
  an ecosystem could include
  (1) hurricanes, packs of wolves, and temperature
  (2) blizzards, heat waves, and swarms of
      grasshoppers
  (3) droughts, floods, and heat waves
  (4) species of fish, number of decomposers, and
      supply of algae

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5.

5 Many viruses infect only a certain type of cell
  because they bind to certain
  (1) other viruses on the surface of the cell
  (2) mitochondria in the cell
  (3) hormones in the cell
  (4) receptor sites on the surface of the cell

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6.

6 The respiratory system includes a layer of cells in
  the air passages that clean the air before it gets
  to the lungs. This layer of cells is best classified as
  (1) a tissue                (3) an organelle
  (2) an organ                (4) an organ system

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7.

7 The diagram below represents a typical energy
  pyramid.

Which level in the pyramid includes autotrophs?
(1) A                    (3) C
(2) B                    (4) D

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8.

8 Mustard gas removes guanine (G) from DNA.
  For developing embryos, exposure to mustard
  gas can cause serious deformities because
  guanine
  (1) stores the building blocks of proteins
  (2) supports the structure of ribosomes
  (3) produces energy for genetic transfer
  (4) is part of the genetic code

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9.

9 The diagram below represents a food web.

Which organisms are correctly paired with their nutritional roles?
(1) hawk—decomposer; insect-eating bird—parasite
(2) mouse—autotroph; flower seed—heterotroph
(3) mountain lion—predator; bark beetle—herbivore
(4) grasshopper—carnivore; grass—autotroph

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10.

10 Which process usually results in offspring that exhibit new genetic variations?

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11.

11 Which observation could best be used to indicate
   an evolutionary relationship between two
   species?
   (1) They have similar base sequences.
   (2) They have similar fur color.
   (3) They inhabit the same geographic regions.
   (4) They occupy the same niche.

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12.

12 A species in a changing environment would have
   the best chance of survival as a result of a mutation that has a
   (1) high adaptive value and occurs in its skin
       cells
   (2) low adaptive value and occurs in its skin cells
   (3) high adaptive value and occurs in its gametes
   (4) low adaptive value and occurs in its gametes

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13.

13 In an area of Indonesia where the ocean floor is
   littered with empty coconut shells, a species of
   octopus has been filmed “walking” on two of its
   eight tentacles. The remaining six tentacles are
   wrapped around its body. Scientists suspect that,
   with its tentacles arranged this way, the octopus
   resembles a rolling coconut. Local predators,
   including sharks, seem not to notice the octopus
   as often when it behaves in this manner. This
   unique method of locomotion has lasted over
   many generations due to
   (1) competition between octopuses and their
        predators
   (2) ecological succession in marine habitats
   (3) the process of natural selection
   (4) selective breeding of this octopus species

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14.

14 Which statement concerning production of
   offspring is correct?
   (1) Production of offspring is necessary for a
       species to survive, but it is not necessary for
       an individual to survive.
   (2) An organism can reproduce without
       performing any of the other life processes.
   (3) Production of offspring is necessary for an
       individual organism to survive, while the
       other life processes are important for a
       species to survive.
   (4) Reproduction is a process that requires
       gametes in all species.

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15.

15 Limited resources contribute to evolutionary
   change in animals by increasing
   (1) genetic variation within the population
   (2) competition between members of the
       species
   (3) the carrying capacity for the species
   (4) the rate of photosynthesis in the population

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