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Living Environment - New York Regents January 2011 Exam

   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

Formats View Examination Paper with Answers Solve Examination Paper Questions Review
: Multiple choice

Your Performance  

1.

1 The greatest number of relationships between
  the organisms in an ecosystem is best shown in
  (1) a food chain
  (2) an energy pyramid
  (3) a food web
  (4) an ecological succession diagram

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2.

2 The diagram below shows stages of human
  reproduction.

The direct result of fertilization is represented at
(1) A                        (3) C
(2) B                        (4) D

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3.

3 Certain organisms are able to store energy from
  the Sun in energy-rich compounds. Which event
  best illustrates this activity?
  (1) A fox captures and eats a young rabbit.
  (2) A caterpillar is eaten by a blackbird.
  (3) Lettuce produces organic substances.
  (4) Bacteria change organic material into simple
      nutrients.

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4.

4 The diagram below shows how a chemical
  message produced by one cell is received by
  other cells.

If these chemical messages are destroyed, the
target cells will
(1) produce their own chemical messages
(2) not respond with appropriate actions
(3) develop different receptors
(4) no longer be produced in the organism

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5.

5 Coded instructions that are passed from one
  generation to the next can be most directly
  changed by the processes of
  (1) passive transport, natural selection, and
      synthesis
  (2) selective breeding, replication, and absorption
  (3) recombination, mutation, and genetic
      engineering
  (4) evolution, reproduction, and digestion

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6.

6 The diagram below represents a cross section of
  a leaf of a green plant, showing an opening
  (stomate) in the lower surface.

A stomate in the lower surface of the leaf has a
function most similar to the function of which
cell structure?
(1) cell membrane        (3) ribosome
(2) vacuole              (4) nucleus

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7.

7 When S. marcescens, a bacterium, is grown in a
  refrigerator, it produces red-colored colonies.
  However, if the bacterium is grown at room
  temperature, the colonies are white. The best
  explanation for this situation is that
  (1) refrigeration changes the structure of genes
  (2) room temperature stimulates the synthesis
      of a red pigment
  (3) temperature has an effect on the expression
      of genes
  (4) only temperature is responsible for the
      expression of a trait

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8.

8 In sexually reproducing organisms, mutations can
  be inherited if they occur in
  (1) the egg, only
  (2) the sperm, only
  (3) any body cell of either the mother or the
      father
  (4) either the egg or the sperm

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9.

9 The diagram below represents a structure found
  in most cells.

The section labeled A in the diagram is most
likely a
(1) protein composed of folded chains of base
    subunits
(2) biological catalyst
(3) part of a gene for a particular trait
(4) chromosome undergoing a mutation

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10.

10 Researchers have reported that the number of
   different species of fish found in certain areas of
   the ocean has been greatly reduced over the past
   50 years. This situation is an example of
   (1) a loss of biodiversity
   (2) an increase in ecological succession
   (3) a lack of differentiation
   (4) an increased carrying capacity

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11.

11 Large rebates and low-cost loans have been
   made available to homeowners to install solar
   panels to heat their homes. The use of these
   incentives benefits ecosystems because it
   (1) encourages conservation of resources
   (2) reduces the need for recycling
   (3) promotes the use of nonrenewable resources
   (4) discourages the use of alternative energy

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12.

12 Which sequence represents the correct order of events for the production of necessary complex molecules
   after food is taken in by a multicellular animal?
   (1) diffusion → synthesis → absorption → digestion → circulation
   (2) circulation → diffusion → synthesis → absorption → digestion
   (3) digestion → absorption → circulation → diffusion → synthesis
   (4) synthesis → digestion → absorption → diffusion → circulation

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13.

13 The number in each circle below represents the chromosome number of the cell. Which diagram
   represents the production of offspring by an asexually reproducing organism?

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14.

14 The arrows in the diagram below indicate the development of four different varieties of vegetable plants
   from wild mustard.

Each of these varieties was most likely produced as a result of
(1) asexual reproduction in the wild for many years        (3) competition between plants
(2) changes in light availability                          (4) selective breeding over many generations

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15.

15 The sorting and recombination of genes during
   reproduction is important to evolution because
   these processes
   (1) decrease variation and help maintain a stable
       population
   (2) increase variation that enables species to
       adapt to change
   (3) decrease the chances of producing offspring
       that are adapted to the environment
   (4) increase the ability of all the offspring to
       adapt to the environment

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