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Living Environment - New York Regents June 2000 Exam


Directions (1-35): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

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: Multiple choice

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1.

An experiment was performed to determine the effect of different mineral salts on plant growth. Forty pots containing genetically identical plants were divided into four equal groups and placed in a well-lighted greenhouse. Each pot contained an equal amount of nonmineral potting soil and one plant. Minerals were then added in equal amounts to each experimental group of pots as shown below.

For the experiment to be valid, what should be added to the control group of pots?
(1) water
(2) nitrogen salts
(3) potassium salt
(4) potassium and phosphorus salts

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2.

A biologist observed a plant cell in a drop of water as shown in diagram A.The biologist added a 10% salt solution to the slide and observed tlie cell as shown in diagram B.


The change in appearance of the cell resulted from
(1) more salt moving out of the cell than into the cell
(2) more salt moving into the cell than out of the cell
(3) more water moving into the cell than out of the cell
(4) more water moving out of the cell than into the cell

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3.

Which statement describing the cells in a body system is correct?
(1) Each cell in the system is identical to the other cells in the system, and each cell works independently of the other cells.
(2) Some cells in the system may be different from the other cells in the system, but all cells are coordinated and work together.
(3) Each cell in the system is different from the other cells in the system, and each cell works independently of the other cells.
(4) All cells in the system are identical to each other and work together.

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4.

The process of active transport requires the most direct use of
(1) carbon dioxide
(2) amino acids
(3) AT
(4) glucose

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5.

Which substances may form in the human body due to invaders entering the blood?
(1) nutrients
(2) vaccines
(3) antibodies
(4) red blood cells

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6.

To communicate between cells, many multi- cellular animals use
(1) nerve signals and respiratory gases
(2) respiratory gases and hormones
(3) bones and muscles
(4) nerve signals and hormones

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7.

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8.

The function of the coded instructions contained in the body cells of an organism is to
(1) form a variety of gametes that will pass on hereditary information
(2) direct the synthesis of proteins necessary for proper cell function
(3) synthesize different kinds of amino acids in a specific sequence
(4) produce the inorganic molecules needed for normal cell growth

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9.

Which characteristic allows enzymes to function in a specific way?
(1) Enzymes are complex compounds composed of starch.
(2) Each enzyme has a characteristic shape.
(3) Enzymes are long, complex fats.
(4) Each enzyme is made up of four subunits.

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10.

Flower color in primrose plants is controlled by an individual gene. The sudden appearance of one white flowering primrose in a plant breeder’s field of red primrose plants is most likely due to
(1) a change in the amount of glucose produced during photosynthesis
(2) the use of a new natural fertilizer on the field
(3) rapid mitotic divisions within the developing seeds
(4) a random change in the structure of DNA during meiosis

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11.

White short-horned cattle and Black Angus cattle have been crossed to produce offspring with superior beef and rapid growth qualities. This process of choosing organisms with the most desirable traits for mating is known as
(1) cloning
(2) biodiversit
(3) selective breeding
(4) genetic engineering

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12.

When the antibiotic penicillin was first introduced, it was immediately effective in combating staphylococcus bacterial infections. After a number of years, there were outbreaks of staphylococcal infections that did not respond to treatment with penicillin. The best explanation for this situation is that
(1) members of the original population of bacteria that were penicillin resistant survived and reproduced, creating a more resistant population
(2) the bacteria that survived exposure to penicillin learned to avoid it
(3) the bacteria that caused the new outbreaks were from populations that had never been exposed to penicillin
(4) during each generation, the bacteria modified their own DNA to increase their ability to resist penicillin and passed this ability on to their descendants

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13.

The diagram below illustrates some key steps of a procedure in one area of biotechnology.


The diagram below illustrates some key steps of a procedure in one area of biotechnology.
(1) bacterial cells that are unable to synthesize insulin
(2) human cells that are able to synthesize antibodies
(3) bacterial cells that are able to synthesize insulin
(4) human cells that are unable to resist antibiotics

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14.

Which statement about the rates of evolution for different species is in agreement with the theory of evolution?
(1) They are identical, since the species live on the same planet.
(2) They are identical, since each species is at risk of becoming extinct.
(3) They are different, since each species has different adaptations that function within a changing environment.
(4) They are different, since each species has access to unlimited resources within its environment.

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15.

Which concept is not a part of the theory of evolution?
(1) Present-day species developed from earlier species.
(2) Some species die out when environmental changes occur.
(3) Complex organisms develop from simple organisms over time.
(4) Change occurs according to the needs of an individual organism to survive.

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16.

Warts result when certain viruses cause skin cells to reproduce at a high rate. This rapid reproduction of skin cells is due to the viruses stimulating
(1) cellular digestion
(2) mitotic cell division
(3) synthesis processes
(4) meiotic cell division

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17.

Even though the environment changes, a population that occupies a given geographic area will most likely continue to be found in this area if the
(1) variations in the population decrease over time
(2) members of the population decrease in number
(3) members of the population exceed the carrying capacity
(4) population passes on those genes that result in favorable adaptations

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18.

The diagram below represents a reproductive process that takes place in humans.

Which statement does not correctly describe this process?
(1) The normal species chromosome number is restored.
(2) Males and females each contribute DNA to the offspring.
(3) The zygote will develop to become identical to the dominant parent.
(4) The sex of the zygote is determined by DNA in the gametes.

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19.

The diagrams below represent some events in a cell undergoing normal meiotic cell division.

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20.

When a pregnant woman ingests toxins such as alcohol and nicotine, the embryo is put at risk because these toxins can
(1) diffuse from the mother’s blood into the embryo’s blood within the placenta
(2) enter the embryo when it eats
(3) transfer to the embryo since the mother’s blood normally mixes with the embryo’s blood in the placenta
(4) enter the uterus through the mother’s navel

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21.

The energy found in ATP molecules synthesized in animal cells comes directly from
(1) sunlight
(2) organic molecules
(3) minerals
(4) inorganic molecules

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22.

Which substances are necessary for the synthesis of most materials in an organism?
(1) hormones
(2) carbohydrates
(3) antibodies
(4) enzymes

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23.

A certain mutant bacterial cell cannot produce substance X. The mutation was most likely the result of a change in the
(1) structure of the cell membrane
(2) ability of the DNA to replicate
(3) amino acid sequence of DNA
(4) gene that codes for a specific protein

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24.

Which statement best describes an immune response?
(1) It always produces antibiotics.
(2) It usually involves the recognition and destruction of pathogens.
(3) It stimulates asexual reproduction and resistance in pathogens.
(4) It releases red blood cells that destroy parasites.

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25.

Which statement describes a feedback mechanism involving the human pancreas?
(1) The production of estrogen stimulates the formation of gametes for sexual reproduction.
(2) The level of oxygen in the blood is related to heart rate.
(3) The level of sugar in the blood is affected by the amount of insulin in the blood.
(4) The production of urine allows for excretion of cell waste.

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26.

A green plant is kept in a brightly lighted area for 48 hours. What will most likely occur it the light intensity is reduced slightly during the next 48 hours?
(1) Photosynthesis will stop completely.
(2) The rate at which nitrogen is used by the plant will increase.
(3) The rate at which oxygen is released from the plant will decrease.
(4) Glucose production inside each plant cell will increase.

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27.

Which sequence shows a correct pathway for the flow of energy in a food chain?
(1) bacteria grass fox owl
(2) grass grasshopper frog snake
(3) fungi beetle algae mouse
(4) algae snake duck deer

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28.

Before it was banned, the insecticide DDT was used to combat an organism called the red mite. An unexpected result of the use of DDT was that the population of the red mite increased rather than decreased, while the population of insect predators of the red mite decreased. What can be inferred from this situation?
(1) Environmental changes that affect one population can affect other populations.
(2) The red mite and its insect predators were all competing for the same resources.
(3) The red mites were immune to the effects of insecticides.
(4) Using insecticides is a reliable way to eliminate all insect predators.

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29.

Chittenango Falls State Park in central New York State is the only known habitat for an endangered species of aquatic snail. Contamination of its water supply and reduction of its habitat have threatened the future of this snail. Which step could be taken to protect this species of snail?
(1) banning human activities that damaged the habitat
(2) introducing a new snail predator into the habitat
(3) transferring the snail to a terrestrial environment
(4) crossbreeding the snail with another species

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30.

When humans use more ground water for industry than is being replaced, the soil above the ground water may collapse and disrupt natural habitats. This human activity is an example of
(1) species exploitation
(2) renewal of natural resources
(3) a disposal problem
(4) poor use of finite resources

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31.

Decomposition and decay of organic matter are accomplished by the action of
(1) green plants
(2) bacteria and fungi
(3) viruses and algae
(4) scavengers

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32.

For many decades, certain areas of New York State have remained as hardwood forests containing predominantly oak and hickory trees. These forested areas will most likely
(1) remain indefinitely and not be affected by environmental influences
(2) reach maturity and change in the near future
(3) be destroyed by environmental changes and never return to their present forms
(4) continue in their present forms unless affected by environmental factors

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33.

What is a characteristic of a stable environment?
(1) It usually contains only one type of producer.
(2) It usually contains a great diversity of species.
(3) It contains simple food chains that have more consumers than producers.
(4) It contains complex food webs that have more heterotrophs than autotrophs.

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34.

Which human activity has probably contributed most to the acidification of lakes in the Adirondack region?
(1) passing environmental protection laws
(2) establishing reforestation projects in lumbered areas
(3) burning fossil fuels that produce air pollutants containing sulfur and nitrogen
(4) using pesticides for the control of insects that feed on trees

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35.

To ensure environmental quality for the future, each individual should
(1) acquire and apply knowledge of ecological principles
(2) continue to take part in deforestation
(3) use Earth’s finite resources
(4) add and take away organisms from ecosystems

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