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Living Environment - New York Regents June 2001 Exam


Directions (1-35): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

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: Multiple choice

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1.

Diagrams, tables, and graphs are used by scientists mainly to
(1) design a research plan for an experiment
(2) test a hypothesis
(3) organize data
(4) predict the independent variable

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2.

A scientist tested a hypothesis that white-tailed deer would prefer apples over corn as a primary food source. The findings of the test, in which the scientist claimed that the deer preferred apples, were published. Which research technique, if used by the scientist, might result in this claim being questioned?
(1) The scientist observed four deer in different locations at various times of the day.
(2) The scientist observed a total of 500 deer in 20 different locations at various times of the day.
(3) The scientist observed 200 deer in various natural settings, but none in captivity.
(4) The scientist observed 300 deer in various locations in captivity, but none in natural settings.

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3.

What happens to certain nutrient molecules after they pass into muscle cells?
(1) They are replicated in the nucleus.
(2) They are acted on by enzymes and release the energy they contain.
(3) They are changed into tissues and organs in the cytoplasm.
(4) They enter chloroplasts, where they can absorb light energy.

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4.

A medical test indicates that a patient has a defective protein. This condition is most likely due to a change in the directions coded in the
(1) number of hydrogen atoms in starch molecules
(2) sequence of inorganic molecules
(3) number of carbon atoms in sugar molecules
(4) sequence of subunits in DNA

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5.

lf a human system fails to function properly, what is the most likely result?
(1) a stable rate of metabolism
(2) a disturbance in homeostasis
(3) a change in the method of cellular respiration
(4) a change in the function of DNA

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6.

Which statement regarding the functioning of the cell membrane of all organisms is not correct?
(1) The cell membrane forms a boundary that separates the cellular contents from the outside environment.
(2) The cell membrane is capable of receiving and recognizing chemical signals.
(3) The cell membrane forms a barrier that keeps all substances that might harm the cell from entering the cell.
(4) The cell membrane controls the movement of molecules into and out of the cell.

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7.

In multicellular organisms, cells must be able to communicate with each other. Structures that enable most cells to communicate with each other are known as
(1) pathogenic agents
(2) chloroplasts
(3) antibiotics
(4) receptor molecules

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8.

Every single-celled organism is able to survive because it carries out
(1) metabolic activities
(2) autotrophic nutrition
(3) heterotrophic nutrition
(4) sexual reproduction

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9.

The shape of a protein molecule is influenced by
(1) whether it is organic or inorganic
(2) the sequence of amino acids in it
(3) the number of genes found in the nucleus
(4) the number of chromosomes in the cell

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10.

The data table below summarizes the results of an investigation in which seeds from the same plant were grown under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity.
Which conclusion can be drawn from the information in the data table?
(1) Color in this species is determined by genes, only.
(2) Many characteristics are not inherited.
(3) Mutations occur only when plants are grown at low temperatures.
(4) There is an interaction between environment and heredity.

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11.

The diagram below represents a change that occurred in a pair of chromosomes during the formation of an egg cell. The letters represent genes on the pair of chromosomes.

The alteration that occurred will most likely
(1) be passed on to every cell that develops from the egg cell
(2) change the chromosome number of the body cells that develop from the egg cell
(3) convert sex cells into body cells
(4) trigger the production of pathogens

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12.

A small amount of DNA was taken from a fossil of a mammoth found frozen in glacial ice. Genetic technology can be used to produce a large quantity of identical DNA from this mammoth’s DNA. ln this technology, the original DNA sample is used to
(1) stimulate differentiation in other mammoth cells
(2) provide fragments to replace certain human body chemicals
(3) act as a template for repeated replication
(4) trigger mitosis to obtain new base sequences

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13.

Many diabetics are now using insulin that was made by certain bacteria. The ability of these bacteria to produce insulin was most likely the result of
(1) deleting many DNA segments from bacterial DNA
(2) genetic mapping of bacterial DNA to activate the gene for insulin production
(3) inserting a portion of human DNA into the ring-shaped DNA of bacteria
(4) using radiation to trigger mutations

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14.

Which situation would most directly affect future generations naturally produced by a maple tree?
(1) Ultraviolet radiation changes the DNA sequence within some leaves of the tree.
(2) Ultraviolet radiation changes the DNA sequence within the gametes of some flowers of the tree.
(3) An increase in temperature reduces the number of cell divisions in the roots.
(4) Rapidly growing cells just under the bark are exposed to radiation, causing changes in genetic material.

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15.

Which statement is best supported by fossil records?
(1) Many organisms that lived in the past are now extinct.
(2) Species occupying the same habitat have identical environmental needs.
(3) The struggle for existence between organisms results in changes in populations.
(4) Structures such as leg bones and wing bones can originate from the same type of tissue found in embryos.

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16.

The first life-forms to appear on Earth were most likely
(1) complex single-celled organisms
(2) complex multicellular organisms
(3) simple single-celled organisms
(4) simple multicellular organisms

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17.

One explanation for the variety of organisms present on Earth today is that over time
(1) new species have adapted to fill available niches in the environment
(2) evolution has caused the appearance of organisms that are similar to each other
(3) each niche has changed to support a certain variety of organism
(4) the environment has remained unchanged, causing rapid evolution

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18.

Within which structure in the human body does specialization of parts of the developing baby take place?
(1) ovary
(2) uterus
(3) testis
(4) pancreas

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19.

Which statement best explains the significance of meiosis in the process of evolution within a species?
(1) The gametes produced by meiosis ensure the continuation of any particular species by asexual reproduction.
(2) Equal numbers of eggs and sperm are produced by meiosis.
(3) Meiosis produces eggs and sperm that are alike.
(4) Meiosis provides for variation in the gametes produced by an organism.

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20.

The diagram below represents chromosomes in a zygote.

Which diagrams best illustrate the daughter cells that result from normal mitotic cell division of this zygote?

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21.

During the last months of pregnancy, the brain of a human embryo undergoes an essential “growth spurt." Which action by the mother would most likely pose the greatest threat to the normal development of the nervous system of the embryo at this time?
(1) spraying pesticides in the garden
(2) taking prescribed vitamins on a daily basis
(3) maintaining a diet high in fiber and low in fat
(4) not exercising

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22.

The diagram below illustrates a biochemical process that occurs in organisms.
The substance labeled “catalyst" is also known as
(1) a hormone
(2) an enzyme
(3) an antibody
(4) an inorganic compound

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23.

Which phrase best describes cellular respiration, a process that occurs continuously in the cells of organisms?
(1) removal of oxygen from the cells of an organism
(2) conversion of light energy into the chemical bond energy of organic molecules
(3) transport of materials within cells and throughout the bodies of multicellular organisms
(4) changing of stored chemical energy in food molecules to a form usable by organisms

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24.

A food pyramid representing relationships in a pond community is shown below.

The energy of the Sun is made available to the pond community through the activities of the organisms at level
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D

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25.

Eating a sweet potato provides energy for human metabolic processes. The original source of this energy is the energy
(1) in protein molecules stored within the potato
(2) from starch molecules absorbed by the potato plant
(3) made available by photosynthesis
(4) in vitamins and minerals found in the soil

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26.

Which statement does not identify a characteristic of antibodies?
(1) They are produced by the body in response to the presence of foreign substances.
(2) They may be produced in response to an antigen.
(3) They are nonspecific, acting against any foreign substance in the body.
(4) They may be produced by white blood cells.

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27.

The blood of newborn babies is tested to determine whether a certain substance is present. This substance indicates the presence of the disorder known as PKU, which may result in mental retardation. Babies with this disorder are put on a special diet to prevent mental retardation. ln this situation, which action is usually taken first?
(1) treating the expression of the disorder
(2) preventing the expression of the disorder
(3) controlling the disorder
(4) diagnosing the disorder

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28.

The graph below provides information about the population of deer in a given area between 1900 and 1945.

Which statement identities the most likely reason that the carrying capacity of the area to support deer decreased between 1925 and 1930?
(1) The deer population decreased in 1926.
(2) The number of predators increased between 1915 and 1925.
(3) The deer population became too large.
(4) An unusually cold winter occurred in 1918.

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29.

An increase in the level of insulin in the blood would most directly result in
(1) a decrease in the amount of glucose in the blood
(2) a decrease in the amount of protein in the blood
(3) an increase in the amount of fat in cells
(4) an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in cells

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30.

Compared to a natural forest, the wheat field of a farmer lacks
(1) heterotrophs
(2) significant biodiversity
(3) autotrophs
(4) stored energy

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31.

Human impact on the environment is often more dramatic than the impact of most other living things because humans have a greater
(1) need for water
(2) need for food
(3) ability to adapt to change
(4) ability to alter the environment

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32.

Which factor is not considered by ecologists when they evaluate the impact of human activities on an ecosystem?
(1) amount of energy released from the Sun
(2) quality of the atmosphere
(3) degree of biodiversity
(4) location of power plants

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33.

What will most likely result after a fire or other natural disaster damages an ecosystem in a certain area?
(1) The area will remain uninhabited for an indefinite number of centuries.
(2) A stable ecosystem will be reestablished after one year.
(3) An ecosystem similar to the original one will eventually be reestablished if the climate is stable.
(4) The stable ecosystem that becomes reestablished in the area will be different from the original.

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34.

The chart below shows the environmental functions that some organisms perform in a stable ecosystem.

How would a decrease in the number of organisms that perform these functions most likely affect the ecosystem?
(1) The interactions between other organisms would stop immediately.
(2) The functions carried out by these organisms would no longer be necessary.
(3) The ecosystem would remain stable.
(4) The ecosystem would become less stable.

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35.

A new type of fuel gives off excessive amounts of smoke. Before this type of fuel is widely used, an ecologist would most likely want to know
(1) what effect the smoke will have on the environment
(2) how much it will cost to produce the fuel
(3) how long it will take to produce the fuel
(4) if the fuel will be widely accepted by consumers

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