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Living Environment - New York Regents June 2007 Exam


Directions (1-30): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

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: Multiple choice

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1.

Which statement describes a role of fungi in an ecosystem?
(1) They transfer energy to decaying matter.
(2) They release oxygen into the ecosystem.
(3) They recycle chemicals from dead organisms.
(4) They synthesize organic nutrients from inorganic substances.

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2.

Which diagram best represents the levels of organization in the human body?

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3.

Which situation indicates that a disruption of homeostasis has taken place?
(1) the presence of hormones that keep the blood sugar level steady
(2) the maintenance of a constant body temperature
(3) cell division that is involved in normal growth
(4) a rapid rise in the number of red blood cells

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4.

A protein on the surface of HIV can attach to proteins on the surface of healthy human cells. These attachment sites on the surface of the cells are known as
(1) receptor molecules
(3) molecular bases
(2) genetic codes
(4) inorganic catalysts

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5.

Contractile vacuoles maintain water balance by pumping excess water out of some single-celled pond organisms. In humans, the kidney is chiefly involved in maintaining water balance. These facts best illustrate that
(1) tissues, organs, and organ systems work together to maintain homeostasis in all living things
(2) interference with nerve signals disrupts cellular communication and homeostasis within organisms
(3) a disruption in a body system may disrupt the homeostasis of a single-celled organism
(4) structures found in single-celled organisms can act in a manner similar to tissues and organs in multicellular organisms

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6.

Which statement best explains the observation that clones produced from the same organism may not be identical?
(1) Events in meiosis result in variation.
(2) Gene expression can be influenced by the environment.
(3) Differentiated cells have different genes.
(4) Half the genetic information in offspring comes from each parent.

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7.

A change in the base subunit sequence during DNA replication can result in
(1) variation within an organism
(2) rapid evolution of an organism
(3) synthesis of antigens to protect the cell
(4) recombination of genes within the cell

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8.

The diagram below represents a yeast cell that is in the process of budding, a form of asexual reproduction.
Which statement describes the outcome of this process?
(1) The bud will develop into a zygote.
(2) The two cells that result will each contain half the species number of chromosomes.
(3) The two cells that result will have identical DNA.
(4) The bud will start to divide by the process of meiotic cell division.

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9.

Two proteins in the same cell perform different functions. This is because the two proteins are composed of
(1) chains folded the same way and the same sequence of simple sugars
(2) chains folded the same way and the same sequence of amino acids
(3) chains folded differently and a different sequence of simple sugars
(4) chains folded differently and a different sequence of amino acids

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10.

Even though each body cell in an individual contains the same DNA, the functions of muscle cells and liver cells are not the same because
(1) imitations usually occur in genes when muscle cells divide
(2) liver tissue develops before muscle tissue
(3) liver cells produce more oxygen than muscle cells
(4) liver cells use different genes than muscle cells

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11.

The flounder is a species of fish that can live in very cold water. The fish produces an “antifreeze” protein that prevents ice crystals from forming in its blood. The DNA for this protein has been identified. An enzyme is used to cut and remove this section of flounder DNA that is then spliced into the DNA of a strawberry plant. As a result, the plant can now produce a protein that makes it more resistant to the damaging effects of frost. This process is known as
(1) sorting of genes
(2) genetic engineering
(3) recombination of chromosomes
(4) mutation by deletion of genetic material

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12.

Some human body structures are represented in the diagram below.

In which structures would the occurrence of mutations have the greatest effect on human evolution?
(1) 1 and 3
(2) 2 and 5
(3) 3 and 6
(4) 4 and 6

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13.

A single pair of goldfish in an aquarium produced a large number of offspring. These offspring showed variations in body shape and coloration. The most likely explanation for these variations is that the
(1) offspring were adapting to different environments
(2) offspring were produced from different combinations of genes
(3) parent fish had not been exposed to mutagenic agents
(4) parent fish had not reproduced sexually

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14.

A certain species has little genetic variation. The rapid extinction of this species would most likely result from the effect of
(1) successful cloning
(2) gene manipulation
(3) environmental change
(4) genetic recombination

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15.

Which two structures of a frog would most likely have the same chromosome number?
(1) skin cell and fertilized egg cell
(2) zygote and sperm cell
(3) kidney cell and egg cell
(4) liver cell and sperm cell

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16.

Tissues develop from a zygote as a direct result of the processes of
(1) fertilization and meiosis
(2) fertilization and differentiation
(3) mitosis and meiosis
(4) mitosis and differentiation

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17.

The human female reproductive system is adapted for
(1) production of zygotes in ovaries
(2) external fertilization of gametes
(3) production of milk for a developing embryo
(4) transport of oxygen through a placenta to a fetus

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18.

The letters in the diagram below represent structures in a human female.

Estrogen and progesterone increase the chance for successful fetal development by regulating activities within structure
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D

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19.

Which part of a molecule provides energy for life processes?
(1) carbon atoms
(2) oxygen atoms
(3) chemical bonds
(4) inorganic nitrogen

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20.

Energy from organic molecules can be stored in ATP molecules as a direct result of the process of
(1) cellular respiration
(2) cellular reproduction
(3) diffusion
(4) digestion

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21.

Which statement best describes how a vaccination can help protect the body against disease?
(1) Vaccines directly kill the pathogen that causes the disease.
(2) Vaccines act as a medicine that cures the disease.
(3) Vaccines cause the production of specific molecules that will react with and destroy certain microbes.
(4) Vaccines contain white blood cells that engulf harmful germs and prevent them from spreading throughout the body.

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22.

The diagram below represents four different species of wild birds. Each species has feet with different structural adaptations.

The diagram below represents four different species of wild birds. Each species has feet with different structural adaptations. The development of these adaptations can best be explained by the concept of
(1) inheritance of resistance to diseases that affect all these species
(2) inheritance of characteristics acquired after the birds hatched from the egg
(3) natural selection
(4) selective breeding

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23.

The diagram below represents a nucleus containing the normal chromosome number for a species.

Which diagram bests illustrates the normal formation of a cell that contains all of the genetic information needed for growth, development, and future reproduction of this species?

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24.

The diagram below represents events associated with a biochemical process that occurs in some organisms.

Which statement concerning this process is correct?
(1) The process represented is respiration and the primary source of energy for the process is the Sun.
(2) The process represented is photosynthesis and the primary source of energy for the process is the Sun.
(3) This process converts energy in organic compounds into solar energy which is released into the atmosphere.
(4) This process uses solar energy to convert oxygen into carbon dioxide.

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25.

In the transfer of energy from the Sun to ecosystems, which molecule is one of the first to store this energy?
(1) protein
(2) fat
(3) DNA
(4) glucose

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26.

The diagram below represents two molecules that can interact with each other to cause a biochemical process to occur in a cell.

Molecules A and B most likely represent
(1) a protein and a chromosome
(2) a receptor and a hormone
(3) a carbohydrate and an amino acid
(4) an antibody and a hormone

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27.

The graph below represents the amount of available energy at successive nutrition levels in a particular food web.

The Xs in the diagram represent the amount of energy that was most likely
(1) changed into inorganic compounds
(2) retained indefinitely by the herbivores
(3) recycled back to the producers
(4) lost as heat to the environment

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28.

The diagram below represents an energy pyramid constructed from data collected from an aquatic ecosystem.

Which statement best describes this ecosystem?
(1) The ecosystem is most likely unstable.
(2) Long-term stability of this ecosystem will continue.
(3) The herbivore populations will continue to increase in size for many years.
(4) The producer organisms outnumber the consumer organisms.

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29.

In order to reduce consumption of nonrenewable resources, humans could
(1) burn coal to heat houses instead of using oil
(2) heat household water with solar radiation
(3) increase industrialization
(4) use a natural-gas grill to barbecue instead of using charcoal

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30.

In 1859, a small colony of 24 rabbits was brought to Australia. By 1928 it was estimated that there were 500 million rabbits in a 1-million square mile section of Australia. Which statement describes a condition that probably contributed to the increase in the rabbit population?
(1) The rabbits were affected by many limiting factors.
(2) The rabbits reproduced by asexual reproduction.
(3) The rabbits were unable to adapt to the environment.
(4) The rabbits had no natural predators in Australia.

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