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Living Environment - New York Regents June 2008 Exam


Directions (1-30): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

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: Multiple choice

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1.

The chart below contains both autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms.

Organisms that carry out only heterotrophic nutrition are found in
(1) row A, only
(2) row B, only
(3) rows A and B
(4) rows A and C

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2.

A stable pond ecosystem would not contain
(1) materials being cycled
(2) oxygen
(3) decomposers
(4) more consumers than producers

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3.

Although all of the cells of a human develop from one fertilized egg, the human is born with many different types of cells. Which statement best explains this observation?
(1) Developing cells may express different parts of their identical genetic instructions.
(2) Mutations occur during development as a result of environmental conditions.
(3) All cells have different genetic material.
(4) Some cells develop before other cells.

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4.

Humans require organ systems to carry out life processes. Single-celled organisms do not have organ systems and yet they are able to carry out life processes. This is because
(1) human organ systems lack the organelles found in single-celled organisms
(2) a human cell is more efficient than the cell of a single-celled organism
(3) it is not necessary for single-celled organisms to maintain homeostasis
(4) organelles present in single-celled organisms act in a manner similar to organ systems

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5.

Certain poisons are toxic to organisms because they interfere with the function of enzymes in mitochondria. This results directly in the inability of the cell to
(1) store information
(2) build proteins
(3) release energy from nutrients
(4) dispose of metabolic wastes

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6.

At warm temperatures, a certain bread mold can often be seen growing on bread as a dark-colored mass. The same bread mold growing on bread in a cooler environment is red in color. Which statement most accurately describes why this change in the color of the bread mold occurs?
(1) Gene expression can be modified by interactions with the environment.
(2) Every organism has a different set of coded instructions.
(3) The DNA was altered in response to an environmental condition.
(4) There is no replication of genetic material in the cooler environment.

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7.

Asexually reproducing organisms pass on hereditary information as
(1) sequences of A, T, C, and G
(2) chains of complex amino acids
(3) folded protein molecules
(4) simple inorganic sugars

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8.

Species of bacteria can evolve more quickly than species of mammals because bacteria have
(1) less competition
(2) more chromosomes
(3) lower mutation rates
(4) higher rates of reproduction

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9.

The diagram below represents the synthesis of a portion of a complex molecule in an organism.

Which row in the chart could be used to identify the building blocks and product in the diagram?

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10.

Which diagram best represents the relative locations of the structures in the list below?
A-chromosome
B-nucleus
C-cell
D-gene

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11.

Which nuclear process is represented below?

(1) recombination
(2) fertilization
(3) replication
(4) mutation

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12.

For centuries, certain animals have been crossed to produce offspring that have desirable qualities. Dogs have been mated to produce Labradors, beagles, and poodles. All of these dogs look and behave very differently from one another. This technique of producing organisms with specific qualities is known as
(1) gene replication
(2) natural selection
(3) random mutation
(4) selective breeding

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13.

Certain insects resemble the bark of the trees on which they live. Which statement provides a possible biological explanation for this resemblance?
(1) The insects needed camouflage so they developed protective coloration.
(2) Natural selection played a role in the development of this protective coloration.
(3) The lack of mutations resulted in the protective coloration.
(4) The trees caused mutations in the insects that resulted in protective coloration.

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14.

When is extinction of a species most likely to occur?
(1) when environmental conditions remain the same and the proportion of individuals within the species that lack adaptive traits increases
(2) when environmental conditions remain the same and the proportion of individuals within the species that possess adaptive traits increases
(3) when environmental conditions change and the adaptive traits of the species favor the survival and reproduction of some of its members
(4) when environmental conditions change and the members of the species lack adaptive traits to survive and reproduce

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15.

In what way are photosynthesis and cellular respiration similar?
(1) They both occur in chloroplasts.
(2) They both require sunlight.
(3) They both involve organic and inorganic molecules.
(4) They both require oxygen and produce carbon dioxide.

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16.

Which process will increase variations that could be inherited?
(1) mitotic cell division
(2) active transport
(3) recombination of genes
(4) synthesis of proteins

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17.

Some cells involved in the process of reproduction are represented in the diagram below.
The process of meiosis formed
(1) cell 1, only
(2) cells 1 and 2
(3) cell 3, only
(4) cells 2 and 3

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18.

Kangaroos are mammals that lack a placenta. Therefore, they must have an alternate way of supplying the developing embryo with
(1) nutrients
(2) carbon dioxide
(3) enzymes
(4) genetic information

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19.

Which substance is the most direct source of the energy that an animal cell uses for the synthesis of materials?
(1) ATP
(2) glucose
(3) DNA
(4) starch

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20.

To increase chances for a successful organ transplant, the person receiving the organ should be given special medications. The purpose of these medications is to
(1) increase the immune response in the person receiving the transplant
(2) decrease the immune response in the person receiving the transplant
(3) decrease mutations in the person receiving the transplant
(4) increase mutations in the person receiving the transplant

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21.

The diagram below represents the cloning of a carrot plant.
Compared to each cell of the original carrot plant, each cell of the new plant will have
(1) the same number of chromosomes and the same types of genes
(2) the same number of chromosomes, but different types of genes
(3) half the number of chromosomes and the same types of genes
(4) half the number of chromosomes, but different types of genes

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22.

The development of an embryo is represented in the diagram below.


These changes in the form of the embryo are a direct result of
(1) uncontrolled cell division and mutations
(2) differentiation and growth
(3) antibodies and antigens inherited from the father
(4) meiosis and fertilization

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23.

The diagram below represents an event that occurs in the blood.


Which statement best describes this event?
(1) Cell A is a white blood cell releasing antigens to destroy bacteria.
(2) Cell A is a cancer cell produced by the immune system and it is helping to prevent disease.
(3) Cell A is a white blood cell engulfing disease-causing organisms.
(4) Cell A is protecting bacteria so they can reproduce without being destroyed by predators.

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24.

In an ecosystem, the growth and survival of organisms are dependent on the availability of the energy from the Sun. This energy is available to organisms in the ecosystem because
(1) producers have the ability to store energy from light in organic molecules
(2) consumers have the ability to transfer chemical energy stored in bonds to plants
(3) all organisms in a food web have the ability to use light energy
(4) all organisms in a food web feed on autotrophs

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25.

Which factor has the greatest influence on the type of ecosystem that will form in a particular geographic area?
(1) genetic variations in the animals
(2) climate conditions
(3) number of carnivores
(4) percentage of nitrogen gas in the atmosphere

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26.

Farming reduces the natural biodiversity of an area, yet farms are necessary to feed the worlds human population. This situation is an example of
(1) poor land use
(2) a trade-off
(3) conservation
(4) a technological fix

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27.

A food chain is represented below.
Grass →  Cricket → Frog → Owl
This food chain contains
(1) 4 consumers and no producers
(2) 1 predator, 1 parasite, and 2 producers
(3) 2 carnivores and 2 herbivores
(4) 2 predators, 1 herbivore, and 1 producer

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28.

A volcanic eruption destroyed a forest, covering the soil with volcanic ash. For many years, only small plants could grow. Slowly, soil formed in which shrubs and trees could grow. These changes are an example of
(1) manipulation of genes
(2) evolution of a species
(3) ecological succession
(4) equilibrium

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29.

A major reason that humans can have such a significant impact on an ecological community is that humans
(1) can modify their environment through technology
(2) reproduce faster than most other species
(3) are able to increase the amount of finite resources available
(4) remove large amounts of carbon dioxide from the air

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30.

Rabbits are herbivores that are not native to Australia. Their numbers have increased steadily since being introduced into Australia by European settlers. One likely reason the rabbit population was able to grow so large is that the rabbits
(1) were able to prey on native herbivores
(2) reproduced more slowly than the native animals
(3) successfully competed with native herbivores for food
(4) could interbreed with the native animals

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