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Living Environment - New York Regents August 2011 Exam

   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

Formats View Examination Paper with Answers Solve Examination Paper Questions Review
: Multiple choice

Your Performance  

1.

1 The ability to grow in size is a characteristic of
  living organisms. Although an icicle may grow in
  size over time, it is considered nonliving because
  there is
  (1) an increase in matter, but no increase in the
       number of icicles
  (2) an interaction between the icicle and the
       environment
  (3) no way for the icicle to move away from heat
  (4) no metabolic activity present

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2.

2 The diagram below represents a woodpecker
  finch.

This bird may best be described as
(1) a decomposer that most likely feeds on
    nectar (a sugary liquid) from flowers
(2) a heterotroph that may eat insects and is
    more closely related to a robin than to an
    earthworm
(3) a scavenger that feeds on animals and reproduces asexually
(4) an autotroph that probes tree bark for
    insects and is pathogenic

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3.

3 Which cell structure is correctly paired with its
  primary function?
  (1) ribosome–protein synthesis
  (2) mitochondrion–movement
  (3) vacuole–cell division
  (4) nucleus–storage of nutrients

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4.

4 The diagram below represents many species of
  plants and animals and their surroundings.

The diagram best represents
(1) a population        (3) an ecosystem
(2) a community         (4) the biosphere

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5.

5 The cytoplasm in a cell carries out a function
  similar to a function of which human system?
  (1) respiratory system    (3) circulatory system
  (2) reproductive system (4) nervous system

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6.

6 Which statement best describes a human
  chromosome?
  (1) It is made of amino acid subunits that form
      genes.
  (2) It contains genes that may code for the
      production of enzymes.
  (3) It is normally passed to the next generation
      through a placenta.
  (4) It varies in function from one generation to
      the next.

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7.

7 Four different segments of a DNA molecule are represented below.

There is an error in the DNA molecule in
(1) segment 1, only                        (3) segments 2 and 3
(2) segment 3, only                        (4) segments 2 and 4

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8.

8 Some human structures and their functions are listed below.

In a single-celled organism such as an ameba, all these functions can be performed by the
(1) nucleus                                                (3) mitochondria
(2) ribosomes                                              (4) cell membrane

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9.

9 The diagram below can be used to illustrate cellular changes.

Which row of terms in the chart below best completes the diagram?

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10.

10 A scientist wants to change the DNA of a
   sexually reproducing organism and have the new
   DNA present in every cell of the organism. In
   order to do this after fertilization, she would
   change the DNA in the
   (1) zygote
   (2) placenta
   (3) testes of the father
   (4) ovaries of the mother

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11.

11 If the same antibiotic is used too many times, it
   can become less effective against a certain type
   of bacteria. This observation is best explained by
   the
   (1) presence of pathogens in antibiotics
   (2) production of antibiotics by white blood cells
   (3) replication of viruses that attack bacteria
   (4) survival and reproduction of unaffected
       bacteria

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12.

12 Which group would most likely have the greatest
   survival success during a long period of environmental changes?
   (1) a small population of rabbits living in a field
       of grass
   (2) a large population of red ants living in a
       forest
   (3) an endangered population of polar bears
       living near an iceberg
   (4) one species of bird that nests only in sugar
       maple trees

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13.

13 When changes occur in the genes of sex cells,
   these changes
   (1) lead to mutations in the parent organism
   (2) are always harmful to the offspring
   (3) can be the basis for evolutionary change
   (4) only affect asexually reproducing organisms

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14.

14 Asexual reproduction produces offspring that
   each contain
   (1) genetic information from one parent
   (2) genetic information from two parents
   (3) less genetic information than either parent
   (4) a unique combination of genetic information

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15.

15 The diagram below represents part of a human
   reproductive system.

One of the functions of this part of the system is to
(1) supply essential nutrients to the offspring in
    the form of milk
(2) provide nutritional support for the embryo
(3) provide a structure that allows the mixing of
    maternal and fetal blood
(4) produce specialized proteins used in the
    production and release of sperm

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16.

16 Which row in the chart below indicates the
   correct process for each event indicated?

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17.

17 The drinking of alcoholic beverages by a pregnant
   woman is harmful to the development of her
   fetus. This is most damaging early in a pregnancy
   because during this time
   (1) the lungs of the fetus become functional
   (2) alcohol can easily enter the mouth of the fetus
   (3) many of the essential organs of the fetus are
       forming
   (4) the fetus cannot excrete wastes

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18.

18 Which substance is an inorganic molecule?
   (1) starch               (3) water
   (2) DNA                  (4) fat

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19.

19 The enzyme amylase will affect the breakdown
   of carbohydrates, but it will not affect the break-
   down of proteins. The ability of an enzyme
   molecule to interact with specific molecules is
   most directly determined by the
   (1) shapes of the molecules involved
   (2) number of molecules involved
   (3) sequence of bases present in ATP
   (4) amount of glucose present in the cell

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20.

20 The disease known as malaria may result in a
   fever, a decrease in red blood cells, and an
   enlarged liver and spleen. These symptoms are
   evidence of
   (1) a disruption of homeostasis
   (2) a decrease in allergic reactions
   (3) an increased number of cell organelles
   (4) hormone destruction

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21.

21 An activity that occurs in the human body is
   shown below.

This activity helps to
(1) provide protection against pathogens
(2) produce antibiotics to control disease
(3) eliminate harmful gene alterations
(4) regulate production of ATP by the cell

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22.

22 Sweating is a process that helps cool the body
   during strenuous exercise. This is an example of
   (1) recycling of gases
   (2) cellular respiration
   (3) gene malfunction
   (4) a feedback mechanism

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23.

23 A population of animals is permanently split by a
   natural barrier into two separate populations in
   different environments. What will likely result
   after a long period of time?
   (1) The evolution of the two populations will be
       identical.
   (2) The production of variations will stop in the
       two populations.
   (3) The two populations will evolve into separate
       species.
   (4) Autotrophic nutrition will replace heterotrophic 
       nutrition in the two populations.

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24.

24 Which consequence could most likely be associated 
   with a decrease in biodiversity in an area?
   (1) More species would be better able to survive
       a major environmental change.
   (2) The ecosystems in the area would become
       more stable.
   (3) The amount of genetic information in the
       species of the area would increase.
   (4) Some sources of future foods or medications
       would be lost.

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25.

25 The release of products of combustion into the
   air often causes the formation of ozone near the
   surface of Earth. This ground-level ozone
   damages plants and affects their ability to absorb
   carbon dioxide. The doubling of ground-level
   ozone since 1850 is most likely due to
   (1) the chemical composition of the upper
       atmosphere
   (2) emissions from vehicles and industrial
       processes
   (3) the extinction of certain animal species
   (4) a greater use of nuclear fuel

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26.

26 After a fire destroys a forest, the area will most
   likely
   (1) remain bare land indefinitely
   (2) develop into a desert area
   (3) develop into an entirely different type of
       forest after hundreds of years
   (4) recover through gradual changes back to a
       point of long-term stability

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27.

27 New fuels are being produced by converting corn
   and grasses into compounds containing alcohols
   that can be broken down for energy in various
   engines. The purpose of this research is to
   (1) reduce the use of finite resources
   (2) increase the rate of air pollution
   (3) reduce the rate of homeostasis in organisms
   (4) cause a loss of biodiversity in the rain forests

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28.

28 The presence of wastes, such as plastic bags and
   motor oil, in lakes and streams miles away from
   developed areas suggests that
   (1) ecosystems are interconnected and human
       action can alter ecosystem equilibrium
   (2) recycling programs have failed to conserve
       biotic resources
   (3) natural processes can alter ecosystem
       stability
   (4) direct harvesting practices have led to
       irreversible destruction of ecosystems

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29.

29 A new bird species is introduced to control an
   insect pest. A negative consequence of this
   action is that the new bird species may
   (1) limit the population of the pest insect
   (2) consume beneficial insects
   (3) disrupt mineral availability in the ecosystem
   (4) cause an increase of pesticide-resistant
       insects

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30.

30 Most scientists recommend reducing carbon
   dioxide emissions. Less carbon dioxide in the
   atmosphere would be expected to
   (1) reduce the rate of global warming
   (2) increase damage caused by acid rain
   (3) decrease the number of biotic factors in
       ecosystems
   (4) reduce destruction of the ozone layer

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