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Living Environment - New York Regents January 2012 Exam


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: Multiple choice

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1.

1 Which statement describes an activity of a
  decomposer?
  (1) A mushroom digests and absorbs nutrients
      from organic matter.
  (2) A sunflower uses nutrients from the soil to
      make proteins.
  (3) A snail scrapes algae off rocks in an aquarium.
  (4) A hawk eats and digests a mouse.

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

2.

2 The calcium concentration in the root cells of
  certain plants is higher than in the surrounding
  soil. Calcium may continue to enter the root
  cells of the plant by the process of
  (1) diffusion              (3) active transport
  (2) respiration            (4) protein synthesis

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3.

3 Homeostasis is maintained in a single-celled
  organism by the interaction of
  (1) organs                (3) tissues
  (2) systems               (4) organelles

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4.

4 Within which structure of an animal cell does
  DNA replication take place?
  (1) vacuole             (3) nucleus
  (2) cell membrane       (4) ribosome

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5.

5 The shape of a protein is originally determined
  by the
  (1) size of the protein molecule
  (2) location of the protein within the cell
  (3) arrangement of amino acids in the protein
  (4) function the protein must carry out

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6.

6 Plant cells can synthesize energy-rich organic
  molecules, and later break them down to extract
  that energy for performing life processes. These
  activities require direct interaction between the
  (1) chloroplasts and vacuoles
  (2) cell walls and ribosomes
  (3) chloroplasts and mitochondria
  (4) ribosomes and mitochondria

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7.

7 Selective breeding has been used for thousands
  of years to
  (1) develop bacteria that produce human insulin
  (2) clone desirable plant varieties
  (3) develop viruses that protect against diseases
  (4) produce new varieties of domestic animals

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8.

8 A deletion of a DNA segment alters a gene in a
  single skin cell of an individual. Which statement
  best describes a result of this mutation?
  (1) Any cell produced from this skin cell will
      have the same mutation.
  (2) All offspring of the individual will have a skin
      cell mutation.
  (3) The mutation will spread into other types of
      cells.
  (4) The gametes of this individual will have the
      same mutation.

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9.

9 Some goats have been genetically modified with
  a human gene that codes for a blood anticlotting
  factor. The anticlotting factor can then be
  extracted from the goat milk and used during
  surgery. To produce these genetically modified
  goats, scientists most likely
  (1) injected the anticlotting factor into the milkproducing glands of the animals
  (2) added modified DNA into the milk of the
      animals
  (3) inserted the human gene into the egg cells of
      goats
  (4) altered the nutritional requirements of
      newborn goats

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10.

10 Which characteristic is necessary for natural
   selection to occur in a species?
   (1) stability
   (2) variation
   (3) complex cellular organization
   (4) a very low mutation rate

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11.

11 Researchers use a variety of techniques to learn
   more about the function of a specific gene in an
   organism. In one type of experiment, called a
   loss-of-function experiment, the gene being
   investigated is eliminated. In a gain-of-function
   experiment, extra copies of the gene being
   investigated are inserted. The cell process most
   directly affected in both experiments is
   (1) protein synthesis
   (2) waste disposal
   (3) transport of materials
   (4) breakdown of nutrients

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12.

12 Plants are green because they contain the
   protein chlorophyll. A bucket was left on the
   lawn for one week. When the bucket was
   removed, the grass under the bucket had turned
   from green to a yellowish white color. This
   change is due to the interaction between the
   grass and
   (1) decomposer organisms in the soil, an abiotic
       factor
   (2) the amount of sunlight, an abiotic factor
   (3) increased moisture under the bucket, a biotic
       factor
   (4) the metal composition of the bucket, a biotic
       factor

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13.

13 Which statement describes a function of the
   human male reproductive system?
   (1) It produces gametes in testes.
   (2) It supplies a fluid that protects the fetus.
   (3) It provides support for the development of
       the embryo.
   (4) It provides nutrient materials through a
       placenta.

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14.

14 Exposure to toxins during early stages of
   pregnancy is more likely to cause birth defects
   than exposure in late pregnancy because
   (1) essential organs form during early
       development
   (2) the uterus provides more protection in late
       pregnancy
   (3) the placenta forms during late pregnancy
   (4) meiosis occurs rapidly during early
       development

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15.

15 Although a liver cell and a muscle cell in a
   human developed from the same single cell,
   their appearance and functions are different.
   This is because the liver cell
   (1) contains different genes than the muscle cell
   (2) expresses different genes than the muscle
       cell
   (3) destroys the muscle cell genes it contains
   (4) lacks the genes found in muscle cells

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16.

16 Sexual reproduction in a species usually results in
   (1) an increase in the chromosome number in
       the offspring
   (2) offspring genetically identical to the parent
   (3) recombination of genes
   (4) a decrease in biodiversity

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17.

17 As water flows downhill, its energy can be used
   to generate electricity. Later, this water may
   evaporate, fall as rain, and be used again to
   generate electricity in the same way. This
   explains why electricity generated with water is
   considered
   (1) a source of water pollution
   (2) a renewable form of energy
   (3) more expensive than nuclear energy
   (4) responsible for global warming

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18.

18 Scientists have found that although plants
   require light to carry on photosynthesis, very
   high levels of sunlight can kill some plants. This
   illustrates that many biochemical processes may
   occur
   (1) more rapidly when temperatures are very
        high
   (2) within a specific range of conditions
   (3) best in the absence of abiotic factors
   (4) even if homeostasis is disrupted

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19.

19 A relationship between a consumer and producer
   is best illustrated by a
   (1) snake eating a bird
   (2) tree absorbing minerals
   (3) fungus breaking down wastes
   (4) deer eating grass

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20.

20 The evolutionary pathways of several species are represented in the diagram below.

Which species was best adapted for survival in changing environmental conditions?
(1) A                                                    (3) K
(2) E                                                    (4) L

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21.

21 The diagram below represents a microscopic view of blood.

Cell A protects the body by producing specific chemicals in response to pathogens. Cell A is
(1) a red blood cell                                      (3) an insulin-producing cell
(2) a bacteria cell                                       (4) a white blood cell

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22.

22 The diagram below represents a change in guard cells that open and close pores in a plant.

This change directly helps to
(1) increase heterotrophic nutrition   (3) regulate water loss
(2) absorb minerals                    (4) reduce seed production

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23.

23 Which statement represents a characteristic of
   an ecosystem that is not likely to sustain itself?
   (1) The Sun provides the needed energy.
   (2) Energy is transferred from plants to animals.
   (3) There are more consumers than producers.
   (4) There are interactions between biotic and
       abiotic factors.

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24.

24 Which statement best explains why different
   plant species are found at different water depths
   as represented in the diagram below?

(1) Energy flows through ecosystems in one
    direction, typically beginning with photosynthetic organisms.
(2) In any particular environment, the growth
    and survival of organisms is affected by
    physical conditions.
(3) Plants on land are higher up the food chain
    than plants under water.
(4) Plant cells and some one-celled organisms
    contain chloroplasts.

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25.

25 Some people see the benefit of wind energy as a
   clean alternative to fossil fuels for energy
   production. Others believe it is dangerous for
   migratory birds. These opinions best illustrate
   that decisions about alternate energy sources
   (1) will usually favor older methods of energy
       production over newer methods
   (2) must be made by weighing the risks and
       costs against the benefits
   (3) must be made by taking into account the
       present needs of the citizens without looking
       toward the future
   (4) should be the responsibility of each individual

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26.

26 One way humans can promote the survival of
   organisms in an ecosystem is to
   (1) decrease diversity in plant habitats
   (2) introduce new consumers to control autotrophs
   (3) release extra CO2 into the atmosphere to
       help autotrophs
   (4) learn about the interactions of populations

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27.

27 Environmentalists are hoping to protect
   endangered organisms by calling for a reduction
   in the use of pesticides, because loss of these
   organisms would
   (1) increase the mutation rate in plants
   (2) cause pesticides to become more toxic to
       insects
   (3) reduce biodiversity in various ecosystems
   (4) decrease the space and resources available to
       other organisms

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

28.

28 Which farming practice causes the least harm to
   the environment?
   (1) using natural predators to reduce insect
       numbers
   (2) adding chemical fertilizers to all the crops in
       the area
   (3) planting the same crop for 1 year on all the
       fields in the area
   (4) planting the same crop in the same field
       each year for 10 years

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29.

29 Some bacteria are unable to survive unless a
   certain nutrient is present in their food supply.
   After exposure to ultraviolet radiation, some of
   these bacteria are able to synthesize this nutrient.
   This change is most likely due to
   (1) increased respiration
   (2) exposure to an antigen
   (3) an alteration in a gene
   (4) gamete formation

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  Half-n-half Clue
 

30.

30 Which action by humans could improve the
   quality of the air?
   (1) building homes that use only oil furnaces for
       heat
   (2) buying cars that get more miles per gallon of
       gasoline
   (3) increasing the number of coal-burning
       power plants that generate electricity
   (4) cutting down forests to clear land for factories

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  Half-n-half Clue
 
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