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Earth Science - New York Regents August 2015 Exam

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1.
                                                   Part A
                                    Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–35): For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best
completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.
1 Which characteristics best describe the star
  Betelgeuse?
  (1) reddish orange with low luminosity and high
      surface temperature
  (2) reddish orange with high luminosity and low
      surface temperature
  (3) blue white with low luminosity and low surface
      temperature
  (4) blue white with high luminosity and high
      surface temperature
Answer: 2

2.
2 Which motion occurs at a rate of approximately
  one degree per day?
  (1) the Moon revolving around Earth
  (2) the Moon rotating on its axis
  (3) Earth revolving around the Sun
  (4) Earth rotating on its axis
Answer: 3

3.
3 If the tilt of Earth’s axis were increased from
  23.5° to 30°, summers in New York State would
  become
  (1) cooler, and winters would become cooler
  (2) cooler, and winters would become warmer
  (3) warmer, and winters would become cooler
  (4) warmer, and winters would become warmer
Answer: 3


4.
4 Which object in space emits light because it
  releases energy produced by nuclear fusion?
  (1) Earth’s Moon        (3) Venus
  (2) Halley’s comet      (4) Polaris
Answer: 4

5.
5 Since Denver’s longitude is 105° W and Utica’s
  longitude is 75° W, sunrise in Denver occurs
  (1) 2 hours earlier       (3) 3 hours earlier
  (2) 2 hours later         (4) 3 hours later
Answer: 2

6.
6 A major piece of evidence supporting the Big Bang
  theory is the observation that wavelengths of
  light from stars in distant galaxies show a
  (1) redshift, appearing to be shorter
  (2) redshift, appearing to be longer
  (3) blueshift, appearing to be shorter
  (4) blueshift, appearing to be longer
Answer: 2

7.
7 During the month of January, at which location
  in New York State is the Sun lowest in the sky at
  solar noon?
  (1) Massena               (3) Utica
  (2) Niagara Falls         (4) New York City
Answer: 1

8.
8 Which process releases 2260 joules of heat
  energy per gram of water into the environment?
  (1) melting              (3) condensation
  (2) freezing             (4) evaporation
Answer: 3

9.
9 When snow cover on the land melts, the water
  will most likely become surface runoff if the
  land surface is
  (1) frozen
  (2) porous
  (3) grass covered
  (4) unconsolidated gravel
Answer: 1

10.
10 Which area is the most common source region
   for cold, dry air masses that move over New York
   State?
   (1) North Atlantic Ocean
   (2) Gulf of Mexico
   (3) central Canada
   (4) central Mexico
Answer: 3

11.
11 The map below shows a portion of the Hudson
   River and three tributaries: Catskill Creek,
   Fishkill Creek, and Wallkill River.
The greatest discharge of the Hudson River is
generally observed near
(1) Albany              (3) Poughkeepsie
(2) Kingston            (4) Ossining
Answer: 4

12.
12 Which station model represents a location that
   has the greatest chance of precipitation?

Answer: 2

13.
13 The Adirondacks are classified as mountains
   because of the high elevation and bedrock that
   consists mainly of
   (1) deformed and intensely metamorphosed
       rocks
   (2) glacial deposits of unconsolidated gravels,
       sands, and clays
   (3) Cambrian and Ordovician quartzites and
       marbles
   (4) horizontal sedimentary rocks of marine origin
Answer: 1

14.
14 In which landscape region are New York State’s
   Finger Lakes primarily located?
   (1) Adirondack Mountains
   (2) Allegheny Plateau
   (3) Atlantic Coastal Plain
   (4) Erie-Ontario Lowlands
Answer: 2

15.
15 What is the range of pressure in Earth’s interior
   where rock with a density range of 9.9 to
   12.2 g/cm3 is found?
   (1) 0.2 to 1.4 million atmospheres
   (2) 0.8 to 2.3 million atmospheres
   (3) 1.4 to 3.1 million atmospheres
   (4) 2.3 to 3.5 million atmospheres
Answer: 3


16.
16 Earth’s magnetic field has reversed itself several
   times during the past. This pattern of magnetic
   reversal is best preserved in
   (1) metamorphic bedrock in mountain ranges
   (2) bedrock with fossils containing radioactive
       carbon-14
   (3) layers of sedimentary bedrock of the Grand
       Canyon
   (4) igneous bedrock of the oceanic crust
Answer: 4

17.
17 Which two features are commonly found at
   divergent plate boundaries?
   (1) mid-ocean ridges and rift valleys
   (2) wide valleys and deltas
   (3) ocean trenches and subduction zones
   (4) hot spots and island arcs
Answer: 1

18.
18 New York State bedrock of which age contains
   salt, gypsum, and hematite?
   (1) Cambrian             (3) Mississippian
   (2) Devonian             (4) Silurian
Answer: 4

19.
19 Scientists infer that oxygen in Earth’s atmos-
   phere did not exist in large quantities until after
   (1) the first multicellular, soft-bodied marine
       organisms appeared on Earth
   (2) the initial opening of the Atlantic Ocean
   (3) the first sexually reproducing organisms
       appeared on Earth
   (4) photosynthetic cyanobacteria evolved in
       Earth’s oceans
Answer: 4

20.
20 Which organisms were alive when New York
   State was last covered by a continental ice sheet?
   (1) Eurypterus and Cooksonia
   (2) Aneurophyton and Naples Tree
   (3) mastodont and Beluga whale
   (4) Coelophysis and Elliptocephala
Answer: 3

21.
21 One difference between a breccia rock and a
   conglomerate rock is that the particles in a breccia
   rock are
   (1) more aligned           (3) harder
   (2) more angular           (4) land derived
Answer: 2

22.
22 The photograph below shows rock layers
   separated by unconformity XY.
Which sequence of events most likely produced
this unconformity?
(1) uplift and erosion of bedrock, followed by
    subsidence and more deposition
(2) intrusion of magma into preexisting rock,
    causing contact metamorphism
(3) eruption of a volcano, spreading lava over
    horizontal sedimentary rock layers
(4) separation of one rock layer, by movement
    along a plate boundary
Answer: 1

23.
23 The igneous rock gabbro most likely formed
   from molten material that cooled
   (1) rapidly at Earth’s surface
   (2) slowly at Earth’s surface
   (3) rapidly, deep underground
   (4) slowly, deep underground
Answer: 4

24.
24 Which statement best supports the inference
   that most of Earth’s present-day land surfaces
   have, at one time, been covered by water?
   (1) Volcanic eruptions contain large amounts of
       water vapor.
   (2) Coral reefs formed, in the past, along the
       edges of many continents.
   (3) Seafloor spreading has pulled landmasses
       apart and pushed them together.
   (4) Sedimentary bedrock of marine origin covers
       large areas of Earth’s continents.
Answer: 4

25.
25 Which diagram best represents the correct orientation of the North Pole [NP] as Earth revolves around the
   Sun? [Diagrams are not drawn to scale.]

Answer: 2

26.
26 Which diagram best represents how greenhouse gases in our atmosphere trap heat energy?

Answer: 1

27.
27 The symbols below represent two planets.
Which combination of planet masses and distances produces the greatest gravitational force between the
planets?

Answer: 3

28.
28 The diagram below represents the circulation of air above Earth’s surface at a coastal location during the
   day and at night.
This local air movement is best described as an example of
(1) conduction between Earth’s surface and the atmosphere above it
(2) condensation of water vapor during the day, and evaporation of water during the night
(3) convection resulting from temperature and pressure differences above land and water
(4) greater radiation from the warmer ocean during the day and from the warmer land at night
Answer: 3

29.
29 A change in the type and location of large high-pressure systems (H) and large low-pressure systems (L)
   over Asia creates shifts in prevailing winds that cause a rainy summer season and a dry winter season in
   southern Asia. Which set of maps below best represents the type and location of pressure systems and the
   wind pattern around these pressure systems that cause these seasonal changes?

Answer: 4

30.
30 The photograph below shows both erosional and depositional features formed by an agent of erosion.
Which agent of erosion produced the features shown in the photograph?
(1) running water                               (3) ocean waves
(2) glacial ice                                 (4) prevailing wind
Answer: 2

31.
31 Which cross section best represents the pattern of sediments deposited on the bottom of a lake as the
   velocity of the stream entering the lake steadily decreased?

Answer: 1

32.
32 Which graph best shows the relationship between the compositions of different igneous rocks and their
   densities?

Answer: 2

33.
33 The geologic cross section below shows rock layers that have not been overturned.
The fault is older than the
(1) slate                     (3) unconformity
(2) marble                    (4) shale
Answer: 4

34.
34 The pie graph below represents the composition, in percent by mass, of the chemical elements found in an
   Earth layer.
The composition of which Earth layer is represented by the pie graph?
(1) crust                                        (3) troposphere
(2) outer core                                   (4) hydrosphere
Answer: 1

35.
35 The diagram below indicates physical changes that accompany the conversion of shale to gneiss.
Which geologic process is occurring to cause this conversion?
(1) sedimentary layering                           (3) metamorphism
(2) intrusion of magma                             (4) weathering
Answer: 3


36.
                                                  Part B–1
                                     Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (36–50): For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best
completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.
   Base your answers to questions 36 and 37 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth science.
The diagram represents four tubes, labeled A, B, C, and D, each containing 150 mL of sediments. Tubes A, B,
and C contain well-sorted, closely packed sediments of uniform shape and size. Tube D contains uniformly
shaped, closely packed sediments of mixed sizes. The particle size of the sediment in each tube is labeled.
36 Water was added to each tube to just cover the sediments and the volumes of water added were recorded.
   These data can best be used to determine the
   (1) particle size of the sediments                (3) water retention of the sediments
   (2) particle shape of the sediments               (4) porosity of the sediments
Answer: 4

37.
37 If tubes A, B, and C were set up to test for capillarity, the data would show that capillarity is
   (1) greatest in tube A                               (3) greatest in tube C
   (2) greatest in tube B                               (4) the same for tubes A, B, and C
Answer: 1

38.
    Base your answers to questions 38 through 40 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The diagram represents a cut-away view of Earth’s interior and the paths of some of the seismic waves
produced by an earthquake that originated below Earth’s surface. Points A, B, and C represent seismic stations
on Earth’s surface. Point D represents a location at the boundary between the core and the mantle.
38 Seismic station A is 5000 kilometers from the epicenter. What is the difference between the arrival time of
   the first P-wave and the arrival time of the first S-wave recorded at this station?
   (1) 2 minutes 20 seconds                              (3) 8 minutes 20 seconds
   (2) 6 minutes 40 seconds                              (4) 15 minutes 00 second
Answer: 2

39.
39 Which process prevented P-waves from arriving at seismic station B?
   (1) refraction                                   (3) convection
   (2) reflection                                   (4) conduction
Answer: 1

40.
40 Only P-waves were recorded at seismic station C because P-waves travel
   (1) only through Earth’s interior, and S-waves travel only on Earth’s surface
   (2) fast enough to penetrate the core, and S-waves travel too slowly
   (3) through iron and nickel, while S-waves cannot
   (4) through liquids, while S-waves cannot
Answer: 4

41.
    Base your answers to questions 41 through 43 on the diagrams below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The diagrams, labeled A, B, and C, represent equal-sized portions of the Sun’s rays striking Earth’s
surface at 23.5° N latitude at noon at three different times of the year. The angle at which the Sun’s rays hit
Earth’s surface and the relative areas of Earth’s surface receiving the rays at the three different angles of
insolation are shown.
41 As viewed in sequence from A to B to C, these diagrams represent which months and which change in the
   intensity of insolation?
   (1) December → March → June; and decreasing intensity
   (2) December → March → June; and increasing intensity
   (3) June → September → December; and decreasing intensity
   (4) June → September → December; and increasing intensity
Answer: 3

42.
42 As the angle of the Sun’s rays striking Earth’s surface at noon changes from 90° to 43°, the length of a
   shadow cast by an object will
   (1) decrease                                       (3) decrease, then increase
   (2) increase                                       (4) increase, then decrease
Answer: 2

43.
43 Which graph best shows the duration of insolation at this location as the angle of insolation changes?

Answer: 1

44.
    Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The diagram represents the Moon at four positions, labeled A, B, C, and D, in its orbit around Earth.
The position of the full-Moon phase is labeled.
44 Approximately how many days (d) does it take for the Moon to move from the phase shown at position A
   to the full-Moon phase?
   (1) 7.4 d                                        (3) 27.3 d
   (2) 14.7 d                                       (4) 29.5 d
Answer: 1

45.
45 Which phase of the Moon could be observed from New York State when the Moon is at position C?

Answer: 4

46.
46 The same side of the Moon always faces Earth because the Moon’s period of revolution
   (1) is longer than the Moon’s period of rotation
   (2) equals the Moon’s period of rotation
   (3) is longer than Earth’s period of rotation
   (4) equals Earth’s period of rotation
Answer: 2

47.
47 Solar and lunar eclipses rarely happen during a cycle of phases because the
   (1) Moon’s orbit is circular and Earth’s orbit is elliptical
   (2) Moon’s orbit is elliptical and Earth’s orbit is elliptical
   (3) plane of the Moon’s orbit is different from the plane of Earth’s orbit
   (4) plane of the Moon’s orbit is the same as the plane of Earth’s orbit
Answer: 3

48.
    Base your answers to questions 48 through 50 on the maps and data table below and on your knowledge of
Earth science. Map I shows the Outer Banks and part of North Carolina along the southeastern coast of the
United States. Maps II and III show enlargements of the Avon-Buxton section of the Outer Banks indicated by
box X on map I. Map II shows the land and shoreline in 1852. Map III shows the land and shoreline in 1998.
The dotted line on map III shows the location of the 1852 shoreline. The data table shows the average width,
in meters, at various years, of the Avon-Buxton section.
48 The Outer Banks were formed primarily from sediments eroded and deposited by ocean waves. Which type
   of landform are the Outer Banks?
   (1) outwash plains                              (3) river deltas
   (2) moraine deposits                            (4) barrier islands
Answer: 4

49.
49 Which bar graph best shows the average width of the Avon-Buxton section of the Outer Banks from 1852
   to 1998?

Answer: 3

50.
50 Which ocean current has the greatest warming influence on the climate of the Outer Banks of North
   Carolina?
   (1) Gulf Stream Current                       (3) Labrador Current
   (2) North Atlantic Current                    (4) Canary Current
Answer: 1


51.
                                               Part B–2
                                   Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (51–65): Record your answers in the spaces provided in your answer booklet. Some questions
may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science.
    Base your answers to questions 51 through 54 on the passage and the graph below and on your knowledge
of Earth science.
                                               Great Lake Effects
                   The Great Lakes influence the weather and climate of nearby land regions at all
               times of the year. Much of this lake effect is determined by the relative temperatures
               of surface lake water compared to the surface air temperatures over those land areas.
               The graph below shows the average monthly temperature of the surface water of
               Lake Erie and the surface air temperature at Buffalo, New York.
                   In an average year, four lake-effect seasons are experienced. When surface lake
               temperatures are colder than surface air temperatures, a stable season occurs.
               The cooler lake waters suppress cloud development and reduce the strength of
               rainstorms. As a result, late spring and early summer in the Buffalo region tends to be
               very sunny.
                   A season of lake-effect rains follows. August is usually a time of heavy nighttime
               rains, and much of the rainy season is marked by heavy, localized rainstorms downwind
               from the lake. Gradually, during late October, lake-effect rains are replaced by snows.
               Generally, the longer the time the wind travels over the lake, the heavier the lake effect
               becomes in Buffalo.
                   Finally, conditions stabilize again, as the relatively shallow Lake Erie freezes over,
               usually near the end of January. Very few lake-effect storms occur during this time
               period.
51 The passage states, “The cooler lake waters suppress cloud development…” because the water cools the
   air above its surface. Explain why this cool air above the lake surface reduces the amount of cloud
   development. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Cooler air near the lake remains close to the surface because it is more dense than the sur-
     rounding air.
   — Cold air over the lake is more dense.
   — Cooler air over Lake Erie is less likely to rise.
   — Convection is reduced.
   — Less evaporation occurs when the air is colder.
   — lack of moisture
   — Warm air rises to form clouds.


52.
52 Identify one weather variable that determines whether Buffalo receives rain or snow from a lake-effect
   storm in October. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — temperature/air temperature
   — The average temperature of the air is colder when Buffalo receives snow.


53.
53 On the map in your answer booklet, draw one straight arrow in Lake Erie to show the winter wind
   direction most likely to bring the heaviest lake-effect snows to Buffalo. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for any arrow drawn from a southwest to northeast orientation on Lake Erie pointing
toward Buffalo.
Note: Allow credit even if the arrow extends before Lake Erie or beyond Buffalo. If additional
      arrows are drawn, they need not be over Lake Erie, but must have a general SW to NE
      direction.
Example of a 1-credit response:


54.
54 Explain why the Buffalo surface air temperatures increase faster and earlier in the year than do the surface
   water temperatures of Lake Erie. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The specific heat of water is greater than the specific heat of land or dry land, so the air
     over the land heats up faster than the air over the lake.
   — More energy is required to heat up the same amount of water than to heat the same amount
     of land.
   — Air has a lower specific heat than water.
   — A lot of energy is used to melt the ice on Lake Erie.
   — Lake Erie is still covered by ice.
   — The darker land surface absorbs greater insolation.
   — Land heats up faster than water.


55.
   Base your answers to questions 55 through 58 on the graph in your answer booklet and on your knowledge
of Earth science. The graph shows planet equatorial diameters and planet mean distances from the Sun.
Neptune is not shown.
 55 In your answer booklet, place an X on the graph to indicate where Neptune would be plotted, based on its
    mean distance from the Sun and its equatorial diameter. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit if the center of the X for Neptune is plotted within or touches the grid square that
is circled as shown below.
Note: Allow credit if a symbol other than an X is used. Neptune need not be labeled.


56.
56 The diagram in your answer booklet represents Earth drawn to a scale of 1 cm = 2000 km. Centimeter
   markings along the equatorial diameter of Earth are also shown on the diagram. On the diagram in your
   answer booklet, shade in the space between the centimeter markings to represent the equatorial diameter
   of Earth’s Moon at this same scale. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for indicating a diameter of any value from 1.6 cm to 1.9 cm.
Note: Allow credit for a shading anywhere along or on the centimeter scale as long as it is 1.6 cm
      to 1.9 cm long.


57.
57 Compared to the periods of revolution and periods of rotation of the terrestrial planets, how are the
   periods of revolution and periods of rotation for the Jovian planets different? [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit if both responses are correct. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   Jovian periods of revolution: — longer
                                 — greater
                                 — more time
   Jovian periods of rotation:    — shorter
                                  — less time
Note: Allow credit if the student answers “slower” for periods of revolution and “faster” for
      periods of rotation, even though these refer to rate, not to periods of time.


58.
58 The center of the asteroid belt is approximately 404 million kilometers from the Sun. State the name of the
   planet that is closest to the center of the asteroid belt. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for Mars.


59.
    Base your answers to questions 59 through 61 on the map of Haiti’s location and portion of the Modified
Mercalli Intensity Scale below, on the Haiti Earthquake Intensity Map in your answer booklet, and on your
knowledge of Earth science. The map shows the location of Haiti in the Atlantic Ocean. The Modified Mercalli
Intensity Scale describes the amount and type of damage caused by an earthquake on a scale from I to XII.
A portion of this scale is shown below. Modified Mercalli intensity values for the January 12, 2010, earthquake
in Haiti are represented on the Haiti Earthquake Intensity Map in your answer booklet.
59 On the earthquake intensity map in your answer booklet, boundary lines have been drawn between the
   Modified Mercalli intensity values of IV and V. On the map in your answer booklet, draw boundary lines
   between the Modified Mercalli intensity values of V and VI. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit if boundary lines between V and VI are correctly drawn.
Note: Allow a credit even if a student-drawn line extends into the water.
      Do not allow credit if the student-drawn line touches or passes through any Mercalli value.
      If extra Mercalli lines are drawn, all must be correct to receive credit.
Example of a 1-credit response:


60.
60 State the latitude and longitude of Savane Baptiste. Include the units and compass directions in your
   answer. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit if both responses are correct.
   Latitude: 19° N
   Longitude: 72° W


61.
61 Haiti is located at a transform boundary between which two tectonic plates? [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for North American Plate and Caribbean Plate.


62.
    Base your answers to questions 62 through 65 on the passage below and on your knowledge of Earth
science.
                                             Dinosaur Fossils
                  Bones of juvenile long-necked sauropod dinosaurs, Abydosaurus mcintoshi,
              have recently been found in 105-million-year-old sandstone at the Dinosaur National
              Monument in Utah. The remains of four individual dinosaurs were found, including
              two intact skulls. This find is unusual because the softer tissue holding the thin
              sauropod dinosaur skull bones together usually disintegrates, allowing the skull bones
              to separate. Only 8 of 120 types of sauropods discovered have complete skull
              specimens. These dinosaurs were herbivores, with large numbers of sharp teeth that
              were probably replaced five to six times each year. These teeth allowed only for the
              harvesting of plant material, but not for chewing it afterward. The plant-harvesting
              teeth and long neck identify Abydosaurus mcintoshi as a descendant of the
              brachiosaurs.
 62 On the timeline in your answer booklet, place an X on line AB to indicate the time when Abydosaurus
    mcintoshi lived. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for the center of an X within or touching the box shown below.
Note: Allow credit if a symbol other than an X is used.
      It is recommended that an overlay of the same scale as the student answer booklet be used
      to ensure reliability in rating.


63.
63 Indicate the range of grain sizes in the type of bedrock in which Abydosaurus mcintoshi bones were found. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — 0.006 cm to 0.2 cm
   — 0.2 cm to 0.006 cm


64.
64 Identify one group of organisms that was a likely food source for Abydosaurus mcintoshi. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — vascular plants
   — flowering plants
   — trees
   — ferns
   — plants
   — plant materials
Note: Do not accept grasses because the earliest grasses appeared in the Oligocene.
      Do not accept the name of any index fossil found in the Earth Science Reference Tables
      because they did not live during the time that Abydosaurus mcintoshi lived.


65.
65 State a natural event that is inferred by most scientists to be the cause of extinction of the last of the
   dinosaurs. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — an asteroid impact
   — an impact event
   — a meteorite/meteor/meteoroid collision with Earth
   — climate change
   — a disruption of food chains/food webs
   — comet impact
Note: Do not allow credit for “meteorite,” “meteor,” “meteoroid,” or “comet” alone because they
      do not describe a natural event.
      Do not allow credit for volcanic eruption because this is not the most widely inferred cause
      of dinosaur extinction.



66.
                                                  Part C
                                    Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (66–85): Record your answers in the spaces provided in your answer booklet. Some questions
may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science.
    Base your answers to questions 66 through 69 on the block diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The diagram represents an igneous intrusion that solidified between some layers of sedimentary rock.
Letter X represents an index fossil in a sedimentary rock layer. The rock layers have not been overturned.
66 Describe the evidence represented in the diagram that indicates that the shale layer and the limestone layer
   are older than the igneous intrusion. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Both layers have contact metamorphism.
   — The layers were changed by the igneous intrusion.
   — The intrusion could only metamorphose layers that are already existing.
   — contact metamorphism
Note: Do not allow credit for “igneous intrusions are younger than the rock they cut across”
      because the intrusion does not cut across the shale layer.


67.
67 The limestone layer is composed mostly of what mineral? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for calcite.


68.
68 Describe one characteristic of fossil X that makes it a good index fossil. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — widespread distribution
   — lived for a short time
   — easily identified


69.
69 The igneous intrusion contains the radioactive isotope potassium-40, which is used in radioactive dating to
   determine the age of rocks. State one property of potassium-40 that allows it to be useful in the radioactive
   dating of rocks. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Potassium-40 decays at a specific rate.
   — K-40 has a known half-life.
   — K-40 has a constant rate of decay.
   — K-40 decays at a rate independent of external factors.
   — Potassium-40 has a long half-life.
   — The half-life of K-40 is 1.3 × 109 years.


70.
    Base your answers to questions 70 through 73 on the data table below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The data show the rate of change in the apparent direction of the swing of a Foucault pendulum at
various latitudes on Earth, in degrees per hour.
70 On the grid in your answer booklet, plot the hourly change in a Foucault pendulum’s apparent direction of
   swing at the latitudes shown on the data table. Connect the plots with a line. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
] Allow 1 credit if the centers of all ten plots are within or touch the circles shown below and are
  correctly connected with a line passing within or touching the circles.
  Note: Allow credit if a line misses a plot, but is still within or touches the circle.
        It is recommended that an overlay of the same scale as the student answer booklet be used
        to ensure reliability in rating.


71.
71 Calculate how many hours are needed for a Foucault pendulum located at the North Pole to complete
   a 360° change in its apparent direction of swing. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for 24 h.


72.
72 If a Foucault pendulum were set up on Mars, it would most likely show similar changes in the pendulum’s
   apparent direction of swing. Identify the motion of the planet Mars that would cause this change. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — rotation
   — spin
   — turning on its axis
Note: Do not allow credit for “faster rotation” or “shorter rotation” because these are scientifically
      incorrect with respect to the rotation of Mars compared to the rotation of Earth.


73.
73 The Coriolis force results from the same motion that causes the Foucault pendulum to change its apparent
   direction of swing. The diagram below represents the relative strength of the Coriolis force acting on air
   moving over Earth’s surface.
Describe how the strength of the Coriolis force changes with latitude. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — As latitude increases, the Coriolis force increases.
   — the closer to the equator, the weaker the Coriolis force
   — The Coriolis force is strongest by the poles.
   — direct relationship


74.
    Base your answers to questions 74 through 76 on the block diagram below, which represents a landscape
drained by a stream system, and on your knowledge of Earth science. The actual sizes and shapes of three rock
samples, labeled A, B, and C, and the locations where they were found in the stream are indicated in the
diagram. A New York State index fossil is shown in rock sample A.
74 Explain how the appearance of rock sample A indicates that the sample has spent very little time being
   transported by the stream. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The sample is angular in appearance.
   — It is not rounded.
   — The edges are not worn off.
Note: Do not accept “not very weathered” or “no abrasion” because this does not describe an
      appearance or observable characteristic of the rock sample.


75.
75 Rock sample C has a diameter of 2 centimeters. Determine the minimum stream velocity needed to
   transport rock sample C to its present location. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for any value from 70 cm/s to 110 cm/s.


76.
76 The stream profile below shows the locations of rock samples A, B, and C in the streambed.
Calculate the stream gradient between the locations of rock sample A and rock sample C. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for any value from 48 m/km to 52 m/km.


77.
    Base your answers to questions 77 through 80 on the map in your answer booklet and on your knowledge of
Earth science. The map shows the path of a tornado that moved through a portion of Nebraska on May 22, 2004
between 7:30 p.m. and 9:10 p.m. The path of the tornado along the ground is indicated by the shaded region.
The width of the shading indicates the width of destruction on the ground. Numbers on the tornado’s path
indicate the Fujita intensity at those locations. The Fujita Intensity Scale (F-Scale), in the left corner of the map,
provides information about wind speed and damage at various F-Scale intensities.
 77 On the map in your answer booklet, place an X at a location where the tornado damage was greatest. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit if the center of the X is within or touches any of the clear areas along the path of
the tornado shown below.
Note: It is recommended that an overlay of the same scale as the student answer booklet be used
      to ensure reliability in rating.


78.
78 State a possible wind speed of the tornado, in kilometers per hour (km/h), when it was moving through the
   town of Bennet. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for any value from 254 km/h to 332 km/h.


79.
79 Identify the weather instrument usually used to measure wind speed. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for anemometer or wind speed meter.


80.
80 Describe one safety precaution that should be taken if a tornado has been sighted approaching your home. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — go into a basement or underground storm shelter
   — go to an interior room
   — stay away from windows
   — get under something sturdy
Note: Do not allow credit for a response that indicates a safety precaution to prepare for a future
      tornado.


81.
   Base your answers to questions 81 through 85 on the reading passage and map below and on your
knowledge of Earth science. The passage provides information regarding the eruption of a volcano in Iceland.
The map shows the thickness of ash deposits, in centimeters (cm), during the first three days of the eruption.
Point A, representing the volcano’s location, and point B, representing a location on Earth’s surface, are
connected with a reference line.
                       Iceland Volcano Eruption Spreads Ash Cloud over Europe
                  On April 14, 2010, Eyjafjallajökull volcano, located in southern Iceland, explosively
              erupted, sending large volumes of volcanic ash high into the atmosphere. Much of the
              ash fell quickly to Earth, as seen in the map, but large quantities remained airborne
              and spread over Europe. Most of the ash was transported within the atmosphere below
              10 kilometers. Air traffic across the Atlantic and throughout Europe was severely
              disrupted, as airlines were forced to keep jet aircraft on the ground.
81 On the grid in your answer booklet, construct a profile of the thickness of the volcanic ash deposits by
   plotting the ash fall along line AB. Plot each point where an isoline showing thickness is crossed by line AB.
   Ash thickness at location A has been plotted. Complete the profile by connecting all seven plots with a line. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit if the centers of all six student plots are within or touch the rectangles shown below
and all seven plots are correctly connected with a line that passes within or touches the rectangles
from point A to point B.
Note: Allow credit if the line misses a plot but is still within or touches the rectangle.
      It is recommended that an overlay of the same scale as the student answer booklet be used
      to ensure reliability in rating.


82.
82 Identify the atmospheric layer within which most of the volcanic ash was transported. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for troposphere.


83.
83 Describe one way the volcanic ash cloud may have contributed to cooler weather conditions in Europe. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The ash most likely reflected/scattered the incoming solar radiation.
   — Less sunlight was received at Earth’s surface.
   — The ash most likely blocked some of the sunlight.
   — Atmospheric transparency was reduced.
   — The cloud blocked the Sun.


84.
84 The graphs below indicate the percent by mass of different diameters of ash particles deposited at
   2 kilometers and 60 kilometers from the volcanic eruption.
Describe how the size of the deposited ash particles changed with increased distance from the volcano. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — A greater percentage by mass of smaller ash particles was carried farther.
   — The larger particles were carried shorter distances.
   — They tend to be a smaller size.


85.
85 Explain why the lithosphere in the vicinity of Eyjafjallajökull is more volcanically active than most other
   regions of Earth’s surface. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Iceland is located above a mantle hotspot.
   — A tectonic plate boundary passes through Iceland.
   — Iceland is on a divergent plate boundary.
   — Iceland is located on a mid-ocean ridge.



  Try the Quiz :     Earth Science - New York Regents August 2015 Exam


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