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Earth Science - New York Regents January 2016 Exam

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1.
                                                   Part A
                                    Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–35): For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best
completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.
1 The Foucault pendulum and the Coriolis effect
  both provide evidence of Earth’s
  (1) revolution           (3) tilted axis
  (2) rotation             (4) elliptical orbit
Answer: 2

2.
2 When it is solar noon at a location at 75° W
  longitude, what is the solar time at a location at
  120° W longitude?
  (1) 9 a.m.                (3) 3 p.m.
  (2) 12 noon               (4) 12 midnight
Answer: 1

3.
3 The diagram below represents an observer
  measuring the altitude of Polaris.
At which latitude is this observer located?
(1) 16° N                  (3) 53° N
(2) 37° N                  (4) 90° N
Answer: 3


4.
4 Which characteristic of the planets in our solar
  system increases as the distance from the Sun
  increases?
  (1) equatorial diameter
  (2) eccentricity of orbit
  (3) period of rotation
  (4) period of revolution
Answer: 4

5.
5 New York State’s highest peak, Mt. Marcy, is
  located at approximately
  (1) 44°10' N 74°05' W
  (2) 44°05' N 73°55' W
  (3) 73°55' N 44°10' W
  (4) 74°05' N 44°05' W
Answer: 2

6.
6 The diagram below represents the orbital
  position of Earth on October 21.
Which Northern Hemisphere season is occurring
when Earth reaches position X?
(1) winter              (3) summer
(2) spring              (4) fall
Answer: 2

7.
7 The diagram below represents eight positions of
  the Moon in its orbit.
Why are high tides on Earth greatest when the
Moon is in position A and in position E?
(1) The Moon is closer to the Sun.
(2) The Moon is closer to Earth.
(3) The Moon, the Sun, and Earth are aligned.
(4) The Moon is in the same phase at both
    locations.
Answer: 3

8.
8 The model below represents the apparent path
  of the Sun across the sky on March 21 as seen by
  an observer on Earth.
At which latitude is the observer located?
(1) 90° N                 (3) 23.5° N
(2) 42° N                 (4) 0°
Answer: 4

9.
9 According to astronomers, the age of the universe
  is estimated to be
  (1) 1.3 billion years    (3) 7.9 billion years
  (2) 4.6 billion years    (4) 13.8 billion years
Answer: 4

10.
10 Light from distant galaxies most likely shows a
   (1) red shift, indicating that the universe is
       expanding
   (2) red shift, indicating that the universe is
       contracting
   (3) blue shift, indicating that the universe is
       expanding
   (4) blue shift, indicating that the universe is
       contracting
Answer: 1

11.
11 Which gas is inferred to have been absent from
   Earth’s atmosphere during the Early Archean Era?
   (1) carbon dioxide        (3) oxygen
   (2) nitrogen              (4) water vapor
Answer: 3

12.
12 How old is a bone that has 12.5% of the original
   amount of radioactive carbon-14 remaining?
   (1) 5,700 years          (3) 17,100 years
   (2) 11,400 years         (4) 22,800 years
Answer: 3

13.
13 Which weather instrument is most useful in
   measuring relative humidity?
   (1) barometer           (3) psychrometer
   (2) anemometer          (4) wind vane
Answer: 3

14.
14 If the air temperature is 20°C and the relative
   humidity is 58%, what is the dewpoint?
   (1) 5°C                   (3) 15°C
   (2) 12°C                  (4) 38°C
Answer: 2

15.
15 Equal areas of which type of Earth surface will
   absorb more insolation and radiate more energy
   back toward space in the same amount of time?
   (1) light colored and rough
   (2) dark colored and rough
   (3) light colored and smooth
   (4) dark colored and smooth
Answer: 2


16.
16 The map below shows the location of India and
   the Indian Ocean.
Which statement best describes the monsoon
winds during the rainy season in India?
(1) Warm, moist air flows from India to the
    Indian Ocean.
(2) Warm, moist air flows from the Indian Ocean
    to India.
(3) Cold, dry air flows from India to the Indian
    Ocean.
(4) Cold, dry air flows from the Indian Ocean to
    India.
Answer: 2

17.
17 Which ocean current directly warms Western
   Europe?
   (1) North Atlantic Current
   (2) South Equatorial Current
   (3) Canary Current
   (4) Labrador Current
Answer: 1

18.
18 Which group of organisms survived mass
   extinctions that marked the ends of both the
   Paleozoic Era and the Mesozoic Era?
   (1) ammonoids           (3) eurypterids
   (2) graptolites         (4) gastropods
Answer: 4

19.
19 In which region of the electromagnetic spectrum
   is most of Earth’s outgoing terrestrial radiation?
   (1) infrared              (3) ultraviolet
   (2) visible               (4) x rays
Answer: 1

20.
20 Most scientists infer that increasing levels of
   carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere are
   contributing to
   (1) decreased thickness of the troposphere
   (2) depletion of ozone
   (3) increased absorption of ultraviolet radiation
   (4) increased global temperatures
Answer: 4

21.
21 The bedrock cross section below contains rock
   formations A, B, C, and D. The rock formations
   have not been overturned.
Which sequence represents the relative ages of
these rock formations, from oldest to youngest?
(1) B → A → C → D
(2) B → D → C → A
(3) D → C → A → B
(4) D → B → A → C
Answer: 3

22.
22 A volcanic ash layer between sedimentary rock
   layers is used by geologists to
   (1) determine Earth’s absolute age
   (2) predict global warming
   (3) locate an earthquake epicenter
   (4) correlate widely separated rock formations
Answer: 4

23.
23 The satellite photograph below shows the Mississippi River entering into the Gulf of Mexico. Arrows show
   the direction of river flow.
This depositional feature in the Gulf of Mexico is best identified as
(1) a delta                                         (3) a barrier island
(2) a sandbar                                       (4) an outwash plain
Answer: 1

24.
24 Examination of the fossil record shows a general
   tendency of organisms to become increasingly
   more complex through geologic time. This finding
   supports the theory that living things have
   undergone
   (1) metamorphism          (3) radioactive decay
   (2) evolution             (4) mass extinctions
Answer: 2

25.
25 Crustal formation, which may cause the widening
   of an ocean, is most likely occurring at the
   boundary between the
   (1) African Plate and the Eurasian Plate
   (2) Pacific Plate and the Philippine Plate
   (3) Indian-Australian Plate and the Antarctic
       Plate
   (4) South American Plate and the North
       American Plate
Answer: 3

26.
26 How long after receiving the first P-wave from
   an earthquake centered 4000 kilometers away
   does a seismic station receive its first S-wave
   from the same earthquake?
   (1) 1 minute
   (2) 5 minutes 35 seconds
   (3) 7 minutes
   (4) 12 minutes 40 seconds
Answer: 2

27.
27 Which evidence recorded at seismic stations
   following an earthquake supports the inference
   that Earth’s interior changes from solid rock to
   molten iron and nickel at the mantle-core
   boundary?
   (1) P-waves arrive earlier than S-waves.
   (2) P-waves and S-waves are both recorded at all
       stations.
   (3) Only S-waves are recorded at all stations.
   (4) Only P-waves are recorded on the opposite
       side of Earth.
Answer: 4

28.
28 Which graph best indicates the densities of the planets in our solar system?

Answer: 2

29.
29 The diagram below represents cross sections of equal-size beakers A, B, and C filled with beads.
Which statement best compares the porosity in the three beakers?
(1) Beaker A and beaker B have the same porosity, and beaker C has the least porosity.
(2) Beaker A and beaker B have the same porosity, and beaker C has the greatest porosity.
(3) Beaker B has the greatest porosity, beaker A has less porosity, and beaker C has the least porosity.
(4) Beaker C has the greatest porosity, beaker B has less porosity, and beaker A has the least porosity.
Answer: 1

30.
30 On the map of the United States shown below, four lines have been drawn and labeled A, B, C, and D.
The length of which line best represents the distance from Earth’s surface to the top of the mesosphere?
(1) A                                              (3) C
(2) B                                              (4) D
Answer: 1

31.
31 Four rock outcrops, labeled 1, 2, 3, and 4, found within the same plateau, are represented below. Index
   fossils found in some of the rock layers are shown. The rock layers have not been overturned.
Which rock layer is the youngest?
(1) sandstone in outcrop 1          (3) conglomerate in outcrop 3
(2) breccia in outcrop 2            (4) sandstone in outcrop 4
Answer: 3

32.
32 The map below shows a position of the polar jet stream over North America in January.
Which map best shows the air-mass movements associated with this jet stream position?

Answer: 1

33.
33 The topographic map below shows a depression contour line (           ) on Earth’s surface. Points A, B, C,
   and D represent surface locations. Contour line elevations are in feet.
Which profile best shows the topography along line AD?

Answer: 1

34.
34 The map below shows part of a stream drainage pattern.
Which topographic map best shows the contour lines for this stream drainage pattern?

Answer: 1

35.
35 The map below shows a portion of the western United States and Canada. Two cities in Canada, Vancouver
   and Winnipeg, are labeled on the map.
Which graph best represents the average monthly air temperatures for Vancouver and Winnipeg?

Answer: 4


36.
                                                  Part B–1
                                     Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (36–50): For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best
completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.
    Base your answers to questions 36 through 40 on the weather maps below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The weather maps show the eastern United States on two consecutive days. Some isobars are labeled
in millibars (mb). Letter X represents a location on Earth’s surface on December 8, 2009.
36 What was the barometric pressure for location X on December 8?
   (1) 1016 mb                                      (3) 1008 mb
   (2) 1012 mb                                      (4) 1004 mb
Answer: 2

37.
37 Which map best shows the general surface wind pattern around the high-pressure system on December 8?

Answer: 4

38.
38 In which direction did the high-pressure center move from December 8, 2009, to December 9, 2009?
   (1) southwest                                     (3) northwest
   (2) southeast                                     (4) northeast
Answer: 4

39.
39 Which type of front was located just south of New York City on December 9?
   (1) cold                                          (3) stationary
   (2) warm                                          (4) occluded
Answer: 2

40.
40 Which information shown on the weather maps best indicates that wind speeds in New York State were
   greater on December 9 than on December 8?
   (1) The isobars were closer together on December 9.
   (2) The fronts were closer together on December 9.
   (3) The air pressure over New York State was lower on December 9.
   (4) The air pressure over New York State was higher on December 9.
Answer: 1

41.
    Base your answers to questions 41 through 43 on the cross-sectional model below and the table on the
following page, and on your knowledge of Earth science. The model shows a reddish-orange supergiant star.
The layers in the model indicate where new chemical elements are forming from existing elements as
temperature and pressure conditions increase with depth within the star. In each layer, atomic nuclei of the
existing chemical element combine to form the new elements shown to the right of the arrow. The table shows
the chemical symbols and names of selected elements in the star.
41 Which process represented in the model is occurring in each layer of this star to produce the new
   chemical elements?
   (1) contact metamorphism                     (3) nuclear fusion
   (2) internal crystallization                 (4) radioactive decay
Answer: 3

42.
42 What is the approximate surface temperature of this star during this stage of development?
   (1) 3,200 K                                      (3) 10,500 K
   (2) 6,000 K                                      (4) 18,000 K
Answer: 1

43.
43 The luminosity of this star can best be described as
   (1) less than the luminosity of the Sun
   (2) greater than the luminosity of most stars in the main sequence
   (3) approximately the same luminosity as a white dwarf
   (4) approximately the same luminosity as Aldebaran
Answer: 2

44.
    Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the reading passage below and on your knowledge of Earth
science.
                                                Roche Moutonée
                   A roche moutonée is a glacial landscape feature produced as an advancing glacier
              slides over a hill of surface bedrock. As the glacier advances up the side of the hill, the
              surface bedrock is abraded and smoothed by rock fragments carried within the base of
              the glacial ice, creating a more gentle hillslope. As the glacier advances down the oppo-
              site side of the hill, chunks of bedrock are broken off and removed by the ice, a process
              called glacial quarrying (plucking), making this side of the hill steeper. The resulting
              hill resembles a drumlin, except it is often smaller and is composed of solid bedrock.
 44 The formation of a roche moutonée by glaciers is best described as an example of
    (1) chemical weathering                           (3) sediment deposition
    (2) physical weathering                           (4) mass movement
Answer: 2

45.
45 Which side-view model best shows the direction of ice movement and the locations of glacial abrasion and
   glacial quarrying that form a roche moutonée?

Answer: 1

46.
46 A drumlin differs from a roche moutonée because a drumlin is
   (1) formed by glaciers                          (3) deposited by glacial meltwater
   (2) dome shaped                                 (4) composed of loose sediments
Answer: 4

47.
47 The chunks of bedrock removed by glacial quarrying and transported by the glaciers most likely produce
   (1) terminal outwash plains                     (3) V-shaped valleys
   (2) kettle lake depressions                     (4) parallel scratches in surface bedrock
Answer: 4

48.
   Base your answers to questions 48 through 50 on the passage and map below and on your knowledge of
Earth science. The map shows the location of the Marcellus shale formation in New York State.
                                            The Marcellus Shale
                 The Marcellus shale is a black shale formation that was formed during the Middle
             Devonian Period. The shale extends from New York State as far south as Alabama.
             The Marcellus shale is exposed at the surface in the northern Finger Lakes region, and
             is buried 2.1 kilometers below the surface along the New York-Pennsylvania border.
                 Geologists estimate that the Marcellus shale contains hundreds of trillions of cubic
             feet of natural gas. Most of the Marcellus shale does not allow fluids (gases and liquids)
             to flow through the rock. In order to obtain the natural gas trapped in the rock,
             the shale is fractured. This hydraulic fracturing consists of drilling a well, then pumping
             in large amounts of water containing chemicals and sand under high pressure to
             create cracks in the gas-bearing rock. Although this process can allow the trapped gas
             to be removed from the shale, opponents of hydraulic fracturing argue that the
             chemicals used in the process may lead to groundwater contamination.
48 In New York State, the Marcellus shale is generally found in which type of landscape region?
   (1) plain                                          (3) mountains
   (2) plateau                                        (4) lowlands
Answer: 2

49.
49 The reading passage states, “Most of the Marcellus shale does not allow fluids (gases and liquids) to flow
   through the rock.” This statement suggests that the Marcellus shale is
   (1) clastic                                        (3) porous
   (2) coarse grained                                 (4) impermeable
Answer: 4

50.
50 Why might people living near Elmira, New York, be opposed to energy companies using the hydraulic
   fracturing process?
   (1) It could lower their energy costs.
   (2) The injected water could cause flooding in the area.
   (3) There is the potential for the pollution of groundwater.
   (4) There is an increased risk of volcanic activity.
Answer: 3


51.
                                                Part B–2
                                   Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (51–65): Record your answers in the spaces provided in your answer booklet. Some questions
may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science.
    Base your answers to questions 51 and 52 on the cross section below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The unconformity is located at the boundary between Middle Proterozoic rock and Late Cambrian and
Early Ordovician rock.
51 Identify one geologic process that occurred in this region that produced the unconformity in this
   outcrop. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — uplift/emergence
   — erosion
   — submergence/subsidence
   — weathering
   — deposition
   — burial


52.
52 Identify by name the oldest New York State index fossil that could be found in the Early Ordovician
   bedrock. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for Tetragraptus.


53.
   Base your answers to questions 53 through 56 on the passage and the map below and on your knowledge of
Earth science. The map indicates the epicenter ( ) of a major earthquake that occurred at 38° N 142° E. This
                                                *
map also shows some smaller plates believed to be part of the major tectonic plates shown in the Earth Science
Reference Tables. Letter A represents a location on a plate boundary.
                                          Devastating Tsunami
                  On March 11, 2011, one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded (magnitude 9.0)
              produced a 7-meter-high tsunami that devastated Japan’s eastern coast. Thousands
              of people died and billions of dollars in damage occurred. Several hours after the
              earthquake, the tsunami reached the Hawaiian Islands and parts of North America’s
              west coast.
53 Identify by name the two tectonic plates labeled on the map above that are located directly on each side of
   the earthquake epicenter. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for Pacific Plate and Okhotsk Plate.


54.
54 On the cross section of the tectonic plate boundary in your answer booklet, draw one arrow in each circle
   to indicate the general direction of plate motion near the earthquake epicenter. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for two correctly drawn arrows, one in each circle, that indicate a converging plate
boundary. Student-drawn arrows must be oriented within a range of plus or minus 45° (the region
between the dotted lines) of the two arrows as shown below.
Note: Allow credit even if arrows are not inside the circles.
Example of a 1-credit response:


55.
55 Describe one immediate action that was most likely taken in the Hawaiian Islands to prevent the loss of life
   as the tsunami approached. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Sound alarm for residents.
   — Move to higher ground.
   — Evacuate coastal areas.
   — Broadcast radio/TV bulletins.
   — Move ships away from the coast.
   — Follow evacuation routes.


56.
56 Identify one geologic feature that was most likely produced by plate interaction at point A. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — volcano/volcanic mountain
   — trench/Aleutian trench
   — island arc
   — mountains
   — fault


57.
    Base your answers to questions 57 through 61 on the data table below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The table shows the distances from Earth to the Moon for certain days during December 2010.
The percent of the Moon illuminated by the Sun as seen from Earth is also given.
57 On the grid in your answer booklet, the Earth–Moon distance data from December 2 to December 12 have
   already been plotted. Complete the line graph by plotting the Earth–Moon distances from December 14
   to December 30. Continue the line from December 12 through all nine of your plotted points. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit if the centers of all nine of the student’s plots are within or touch the circles shown
and all 15 plots are correctly connected with a line that passes within or touches each circle.
Note: Allow credit if the line misses a plot but is still within or touches the circle.
       It is recommended that an overlay of the same scale as the student answer booklet be used
       to ensure reliability in rating.


58.
58 Explain how the Earth–Moon distance data support the inference that the Moon’s orbit is an ellipse. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The Earth-Moon distance varies in a regular pattern.
   — The Earth-Moon distance is not constant.
   — A circular orbit would have the same distance throughout the month.
   — The Earth-Moon graph increases, then decreases.


59.
59 On which date shown in the data table was the gravitational attraction between the Moon and Earth the
   greatest? [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for December 24, 2010.


60.
60 Identify one date during December 2010 when the Moon was at its mean distance from Earth as indicated
   on the Earth Science Reference Tables. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for December 18, 2010, or December 6, 2010, or December 7, 2010.


61.
61 A lunar eclipse occurred during December 2010. On which date did this eclipse most likely occur? [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for December 20, 2010 or December 21, 2010.


62.
    Base your answers to questions 62 and 63 on the geologic cross section shown below and on your knowledge
of Earth science.
62 State the name of the metamorphic rock at location A. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for marble or hornfels.


63.
63 Identify one characteristic that could be used to determine if the intrusive igneous rock has a mafic
   composition or a felsic composition. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — color/light color/dark color
   — density/low density/high density
   — mineral composition
   — rich in Al, Si, or rich in Fe, Mg
   — presence/absence of quartz/potassium feldspar/pyroxene/olivine
Note: Do not allow credit for “composition” alone because it is stated in the question.


64.
    Base your answers to questions 64 and 65 on the diagram in your answer booklet and on your knowledge of
Earth science. The diagram represents a beaker of water being heated. The curved lines around letters A and
B represent convection cells that have developed in the water.
 64 On the diagram in your answer booklet, draw six arrowheads, one on each of the curved lines of the
    convection cells, to indicate the direction of water movement around letters A and B. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit if all six arrowheads are drawn anywhere on each line to indicate the correct
direction of water movement around letters A and B.
Note: Allow credit if the student does not use the lines given in the diagram, but draws arrows
      around A and B to accurately show convection within the beaker.
      If more than six arrowheads are drawn, all must be correct to receive credit.
Example of a 1-credit response:


65.
65 State the amount of heat energy gained by each gram of water that evaporates from the surface of the
   boiling water in the beaker. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for 2260 J/g.



66.
                                                  Part C
                                    Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (66–85): Record your answers in the spaces provided in your answer booklet. Some questions
may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science.
    Base your answers to questions 66 through 68 on the data table below, which shows the length of a shadow,
in centimeters, made by an object at different times during the day in New York State.
66 Predict the length of the object’s shadow at 2:30 p.m. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for any value from 130 cm to 160 cm.


67.
67 Explain what causes the length of the shadow to change during the day. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The altitude of the Sun in the sky changes.
   — Earth rotates.
   — the Sun’s position in the sky
   — the apparent motion of the Sun


68.
68 Toward which compass direction from the object does the shadow point at solar noon? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for north or N.


69.
     Base your answers to questions 69 through 71 on the snowfall map of the Tug Hill Plateau region of
New York State in your answer booklet and on your knowledge of Earth science. A lake-effect snowstorm
occurred on November 16–19, 2008. Snow depths are indicated in inches at several points and by two labeled
isolines. Dashed line AB is a reference line on the map between two recorded snow depths.
 69 On the map in your answer booklet, draw the 9-inch and 12-inch snow depth isolines. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for correctly drawn 9-inch and 12-inch snow depth isolines. If additional isolines
have been drawn, all isolines must be correct to receive credit.
Example of a 1-credit response:


70.
70 Calculate the snow depth gradient between point A and point B, in inches per mile. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for any response from 0.75 in/mi to 0.85 in/mi.


71.
71 This storm occurred while Lake Ontario was not frozen. Explain why snowfall amounts would have been
   less if the lake had had significant ice cover. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Not as much moisture would have evaporated from Lake Ontario, so the snowfall depths
     would not have been as great.
   — Less water vapor would have been picked up from the lake surface.
   — An unfrozen lake surface allows for more evaporation.


72.
    Base your answers to questions 72 through 74 on the generalized climatic moisture map of North America
below and on your knowledge of Earth science. Areas are classified as generally dry or generally wet, and then
ranked by relative moisture conditions. Glacial and mountain climate areas are also shown on the map. Points
A, B, C, D, and E indicate locations on Earth’s surface.
72 Explain why the climate at location A is more moist than the climate at location B. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Location A is on the windward side of mountains.
   — Location A receives prevailing winds off the ocean.
   — Location A is closer to the ocean.
   — Location B is on the leeward side of a mountain range.
   — Adiabatic warming occurs in descending air at location B after losing most of its moisture
     on the windward side of a mountain/orographic effect.
   — The prevailing southwest winds bring moist air to location A.


73.
73 State the climate factor that causes a cold climate at location C. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — elevation
   — high altitude
   — mountains


74.
74 Explain why location D has a cooler climate than location E. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — higher latitude
   — farther north of the equator
   — lower angle of insolation
   — Location E is closer to the equator.
Note: Do not allow credit for “latitude” alone because it is not specific enough.


75.
    Base your answers to questions 75 through 79 on the map and table below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The map shows the area where the Battenkill River flows into the Hudson River north of Albany,
New York. Point A indicates a location within the Battenkill River. The table shows the densities of four
common minerals found in Hudson River sediments.
75 Identify the diameter of the largest particle that would be carried at point A when the velocity of
   the Battenkill River is 50 cm/s. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for any value from 0.8 cm to 1.1 cm.


76.
76 Describe the most likely changes in the size and shape of individual particles of sediment as they are
   transported downstream by the Battenkill and Hudson Rivers. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit if both responses are acceptable. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited
to:
Changes in size:
   — smaller
   — decreases
Changes in shape:
   — They become more rounded.
   — rounder
   — less angular
Note: Do not allow credit for “smoother” alone because this denotes a texture, not a shape.


77.
77 Describe the arrangement of the sediments being deposited by these rivers. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Sediments deposited by a river are arranged in layers/stratified layers.
   — River deposits are sorted.
   — sorted by size, shape, and density


78.
78 Some of the sediments transported by the Hudson River came from metamorphic rock. Identify one
   foliated metamorphic rock that contains all four minerals listed in the mineral density table. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — gneiss
   — schist
   — phyllite


79.
79 Samples of minerals listed in the mineral density table with the same shape and size were removed from
   the Hudson River and placed in a jar of water. After the jar was shaken, the sediments were allowed to
   settle. In your answer booklet, write the mineral name from the table next to the layer in the diagram where
   each mineral is most likely found. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for the minerals listed in the order shown below.
   A: feldspar
   B: quartz
   C: amphibole
   D: garnet


80.
    Base your answers to questions 80 through 82 on the generalized cross section of the Grand Canyon
represented below and on your knowledge of Earth science. Some rock layers have been labeled. The rock lay-
ers have not been overturned.
80 The Vishnu group is composed mostly of schist. Explain how this rock formed. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Heat and pressure metamorphosed early rocks.
   — Regional metamorphism distorted these rocks.
   — heat and pressure
   — metamorphism
Note: Do not allow credit for “contact metamorphism” because schist forms from regional
      metamorphism.


81.
81 State the approximate age of the Redwall limestone, in million years. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for any value from 318 my to 359 my.


82.
82 Describe how the calcite that composes the Redwall limestone can be distinguished from the quartz that
   composes the Tapeats sandstone. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Calcite bubbles with acid.
   — Calcite shows cleavage.
   — Quartz is harder than calcite.
   — Calcite is composed of calcium (Ca), oxygen (O), and carbon (C), and quartz is composed
     of silicon (Si) and oxygen (O).


83.
   Base your answers to questions 83 through 85 on the table below and on your knowledge of Earth science.
The table shows the elements and their percent compositions by mass in the five minerals present in a rock
sample.
83 Identify one use for the mineral garnet. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — jewelry
   — abrasives
   — gemstone


84.
84 Identify one mineral in this rock sample that can scratch the mineral olivine. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for garnet or quartz.


85.
85 All five of the minerals listed in the table are silicate minerals because they contain the elements silicon and
   oxygen. State the name of one other mineral found on the “Properties of Common Minerals” chart that is
   a silicate mineral. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for one mineral listed below.
   — talc
   — biotite mica/biotite
   — pyroxene
   — potassium feldspar/orthoclase
   — olivine



  Try the Quiz :     Earth Science - New York Regents January 2016 Exam


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