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Earth Science - New York Regents June 2015 Exam

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1.
                                                   Part A
                                    Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–35): For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best
completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.
1 Compared to the terrestrial planets, the Jovian
  planets are
  (1) larger and less dense
  (2) smaller and more dense
  (3) closer to the Sun and less rocky
  (4) farther from the Sun and more rocky
Answer: 1

2.
2 Earth, the Sun, and billions of stars are contained
  within
  (1) a single constellation
  (2) the Milky Way galaxy
  (3) the solar system
  (4) a giant cloud of gas
Answer: 2

3.
3 The diagram below represents a globe that is
  spinning to represent Earth rotating. The globe
  is spinning in the direction indicated by the
  arrow. Points A, B, C, D, X, and Y are locations
  on the globe.
A student attempted to draw a straight line from
point X to point Y on the spinning globe. Due to
the Coriolis effect, the student’s drawn line most
likely passed through point
(1) A                       (3) C
(2) B                       (4) D
Answer: 2


4.
4 Flash flooding is most likely to occur when heavy
  rain falls on
  (1) deforested landscapes with clay soils
  (2) deforested landscapes with sandy soils
  (3) forested landscapes with clay soils
  (4) forested landscapes with sandy soils
Answer: 1

5.
5 Radioactive decay of 40K atoms in an igneous
  rock has resulted in a ratio of 25 percent 40K
  atoms to 75 percent 40Ar and 40Ca atoms.
  How many years old is this rock?
  (1) 0.3 ϫ 109 y          (3) 2.6 ϫ 109 y
  (2) 1.3 ϫ 109 y          (4) 3.9 ϫ 109 y
Answer: 3

6.
6 A student using a sling psychrometer measured
  a wet-bulb temperature of 10°C and a dry-bulb
  temperature of 16°C. What was the dewpoint?
  (1) -10°C                (3) 6°C
  (2) 45°C                 (4) 4°C
Answer: 4

7.
7 Most of the hurricanes that affect the east coast
  of the United States originally form over the
  (1) warm waters of the Atlantic Ocean in
      summer
  (2) warm land of the southeastern United States
      in summer
  (3) cool waters of the Atlantic Ocean in spring
  (4) cool land of the southeastern United States
      in spring
Answer: 1

8.
8 The ozone layer protects life on Earth by
  absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation. The
  ozone layer is located between 17 kilometers and
  35 kilometers above Earth’s surface in which
  atmospheric temperature zone?
  (1) troposphere            (3) mesosphere
  (2) stratosphere           (4) thermosphere
Answer: 2

9.
9 Which weather map symbol is associated with
  extremely low air pressure?

Answer: 4

10.
10 Which two elements make up the greatest
   percentages by mass in Earth’s crust?
   (1) oxygen and potassium
   (2) oxygen and silicon
   (3) aluminum and potassium
   (4) aluminum and silicon
Answer: 2

11.
11 What is the approximate P-wave travel time
   from an earthquake if the P-wave arrives at the
   seismic station 8 minutes before the S-wave?
   (1) 4 minutes 20 seconds
   (2) 6 minutes 30 seconds
   (3) 10 minutes 0 seconds
   (4) 11 minutes 20 seconds
Answer: 3

12.
12 Which two factors have the most influence on
   the development of landscape features?
   (1) bedrock age and weathering rates
   (2) bedrock structure and climate variations
   (3) rate of deposition and thickness of the
       bedrock
   (4) rate of erosion and fossils in the bedrock
Answer: 2

13.
13 Which two New York State landscape regions
   have surface bedrock that formed about
   1000 million years ago?
   (1) Hudson Highlands and Adirondack
       Mountains
   (2) Erie-Ontario Lowlands and Atlantic Coastal
       Plain
   (3) Tug Hill Plateau and Allegheny Plateau
   (4) Newark Lowlands and Manhattan Prong
Answer: 1

14.
14 What is the minimum water velocity necessary to
   maintain movement of 0.1-centimeter-diameter
   particles in a stream?
   (1) 0.02 cm/s          (3) 5.0 cm/s
   (2) 0.5 cm/s           (4) 20.0 cm/s
Answer: 3

15.
15 Compared to a light-colored rock with a smooth
   surface, a dark-colored rock with a rough surface
   will
   (1) both absorb and reflect less insolation
   (2) both absorb and reflect more insolation
   (3) absorb less insolation and reflect more
        insolation
   (4) absorb more insolation and reflect less
        insolation
Answer: 4


16.
16 The diagram below indicates regions of daylight
   and darkness on Earth on the first day of
   summer in the Northern Hemisphere. Four
   latitudes are labeled A, B, C, and D.
At which latitude is the Sun above the horizon
for the least number of hours on the day shown?
(1) A                     (3) C
(2) B                     (4) D
Answer: 4

17.
17 Which process is responsible for the greatest loss
   of energy from Earth’s surface into space on a
   clear night?
   (1) condensation         (3) radiation
   (2) conduction           (4) convection
Answer: 3

18.
18 The timeline below represents time from the present to 20 billion years ago. Letters A, B, C, and D
   represent specific times.
Which letter on the timeline best represents the time when scientists estimate that the Big Bang occurred?
(1) A                                               (3) C
(2) B                                               (4) D
Answer: 4

19.
19 The diagram below represents a Foucault pendulum that is swinging back and forth.
Which diagram best represents the change in the motion of a Foucault pendulum that provides evidence
of Earth’s rotation?

Answer: 1

20.
20 The diagram below represents some constellations and one position of Earth in its orbit around the Sun.
   These constellations are visible to an observer on Earth at different times of the year.
When Earth is located in the orbital position shown, two constellations that are both visible to an observer
on Earth at midnight are
(1) Libra and Virgo                               (3) Aquarius and Capricorn
(2) Gemini and Taurus                             (4) Cancer and Sagittarius
Answer: 2

21.
21 The cross sections below represent three beakers that were used to test porosity. Beakers A, B, and C each
   contain a different size of bead. Each beaker holds an equal volume of beads. The amount of water
   needed to fill the total pore space between the beads in each beaker was measured.
Which statement best describes the porosity that was found for these three samples?
(1) A had a greater porosity than B and C.        (3) C had a greater porosity than A and B.
(2) B had a greater porosity than A and C.        (4) All three samples had the same porosity.
Answer: 4

22.
22 Which graph best indicates the general relationship between soil particle size and the amount of water
   retention by a permeable soil?

Answer: 4

23.
23 The cross section below represents surface bedrock where faulting has occurred along line AB.
When could this faulting have occurred?
(1) before the Ordovician rocks were deposited   (3) before the Cambrian rocks were deposited
(2) during the Ordovician period                 (4) during the Cambrian period
Answer: 2

24.
24 The two block diagrams below represent the formation of caves.
Which types of weathering and erosion are primarily responsible for the formation of caves?
(1) chemical weathering and groundwater flow     (3) physical weathering and groundwater flow
(2) chemical weathering and runoff               (4) physical weathering and runoff
Answer: 1

25.
25 The cross section below represents several rock units within Earth’s crust. Letter A represents Earth’s
   surface. Letters B, C, and D indicate boundaries between rock units. One of the unconformities is labeled.
Which lettered boundary is most likely another unconformity?
(1) A                                            (3) C
(2) B                                            (4) D
Answer: 3

26.
26 The map below shows the distribution of ash across the United States as a result of the May 18, 1980
   volcanic eruption of Mount St. Helens.
Volcanic ash deposits such as these are usually excellent geologic time markers because they
(1) occur at regular time intervals
(2) spread over a large area in a short amount of time
(3) represent a time gap in the rock record
(4) contain index fossils from different time periods
Answer: 2

27.
27 Which diagram represents a side view of a sand dune most commonly formed as a result of the prevailing
   wind direction shown?

Answer: 3

28.
28 The map below indicates an air-pressure field over North America. Isobar values are recorded in millibars.
At which city was the greatest wind speed occurring?
(1) Boise                                         (3) Kansas City
(2) Denver                                        (4) Austin
Answer: 2

29.
29 The striped areas on the map below show regions along the Great Lakes that often receive large amounts
   of snowfall due to lake-effect storms.
These storms generally develop when
(1) cold air moves to the east over warmer lake water
(2) cold air moves to the west over warmer land regions
(3) warm air moves to the east over colder lake water
(4) warm air moves to the west over colder land regions
Answer: 1

30.
30 The graph below shows the heating effect that different land uses have on surface air temperatures on a
   summer afternoon.
Which land use results in the least heating effect in urban areas?
(1) commercial                                       (3) residential
(2) downtown                                         (4) parks
Answer: 4

31.
    Base your answers to questions 31 and 32 on the flowchart below and on your knowledge of Earth science.
The boxes labeled A through G represent rocks and rock materials. Arrows represent the processes of the rock
cycle.
31 Which lettered box could represent the rock conglomerate?
   (1) E                                            (3) C
   (2) G                                            (4) D
Answer: 2

32.
32 The arrows in the block diagram below represent forces forming mountains in a region of Earth’s
   lithosphere.
Metamorphic rocks that formed from these forces are represented by which lettered box in the flowchart?
(1) A                                           (3) E
(2) B                                           (4) F
Answer: 1

33.
33 Which rock is composed of the mineral halite that formed when seawater evaporated?
   (1) limestone                                     (3) rock gypsum
   (2) dolostone                                     (4) rock salt
Answer: 4

34.
34 Which mineral is mined for its iron content?
   (1) hematite                                   (3) galena
   (2) fluorite                                   (4) talc
Answer: 1

35.
35 The data table below gives characteristics of the gemstone peridot.
Peridot is a form of the mineral
(1) pyrite                         (3) olivine
(2) pyroxene                       (4) garnet
Answer: 3


36.
                                                  Part B–1
                                     Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (36–50): For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best
completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.
    Base your answers to questions 36 through 38 on the diagrams below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The diagrams represent electromagnetic waves being transmitted (T) by a Doppler radar weather
instrument and waves being reflected (R) by rain showers. This instrument produces computer images that
show the movement of rainstorms.
36 The computer image below shows a rainstorm over Texas. Letters A and B represent locations on Earth’s
   surface.
If Doppler radar is used at locations A and B, as this rainstorm moves eastward, reflected wavelengths from
this storm will be
(1) shorter at both locations A and B                (3) shorter at location A and longer at location B
(2) longer at both locations A and B                 (4) longer at location A and shorter at location B
Answer: 4

37.
37 This Doppler radar instrument transmits electromagnetic energy in the form of microwaves. Some
   microwave wavelengths are between the wavelengths of
   (1) gamma rays and x rays                      (3) ultraviolet and infrared
   (2) infrared and radio waves                   (4) x rays and ultraviolet
Answer: 2

38.
38 Which weather instrument was used to measure the amount of rainfall from this storm?
   (1) barometer                                  (3) precipitation gauge
   (2) anemometer                                 (4) wind vane
Answer: 3

39.
    Base your answers to questions 39 through 42 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The diagram represents two possible sequences in the evolution of stars.
39 What causes clouds of dust and gas to form a protostar?
   (1) magnetism                                     (3) expansion of matter
   (2) gravitational attraction                      (4) cosmic background radiation
Answer: 2

40.
40 Which property primarily determines whether a giant star or a supergiant star will form?
   (1) mass                                        (3) shape
   (2) color                                       (4) composition
Answer: 1

41.
41 Which table includes data that are characteristic of the surface temperature and luminosity of some white
   dwarf stars?

Answer: 4

42.
42 Which process generates the energy that is released by stars?
   (1) nuclear fusion                                (3) convection currents
   (2) thermal conduction                            (4) radioactive decay
Answer: 1

43.
    Base your answers to questions 43 through 45 on the passage and cross section below and on your
knowledge of Earth science. The cross section represents one theory of the movement of rock materials in
Earth’s dynamic interior. Some mantle plumes that are slowly rising from the boundary between Earth’s outer
core and stiffer mantle are indicated.
                                      Hot Spots and Mantle Plumes
                   Research of mantle hot spots indicates that mantle plumes form in a variety of sizes
              and shapes. These mantle plumes range in diameter from several hundred kilometers
              to 1000 kilometers. Some plumes rise as blobs rather than in a continuous streak;
              however, most plumes are long, slender columns of hot rock slowly rising in Earth’s
              stiffer mantle. One theory is that most plumes form at the boundary between the outer
              core and the stiffer mantle. They may reach Earth’s surface in the center of plates or
              at plate boundaries, producing volcanoes or large domes.
43 Compared to the surrounding material, mantle plumes rise toward Earth’s surface from the core-mantle
   boundary because they are
   (1) cooler and less dense                      (3) hotter and less dense
   (2) cooler and more dense                      (4) hotter and more dense
Answer: 3

44.
44 At which depth below Earth’s surface is the boundary between Earth’s outer core and stiffer mantle
   located?
   (1) 700 km                                     (3) 2900 km
   (2) 2000 km                                    (4) 5100 km
Answer: 3

45.
45 The basaltic rock that forms volcanic mountains where mantle plumes reach Earth’s surface is usually
   composed of
   (1) fine-grained, dark-colored felsic minerals  (3) coarse-grained, light-colored felsic minerals
   (2) fine-grained, dark-colored mafic minerals   (4) coarse-grained, light-colored mafic minerals
Answer: 2

46.
    Base your answers to questions 46 through 50 on the geologic cross section and graph below, and on your
knowledge of Earth science. The cross section represents the intrusive igneous rock of the Palisades sill and
surrounding bedrock located on the west side of the Hudson River across from New York City. The graph
indicates changes in the percentages of the major minerals found in the sill.
46 The inclusions shown near the bottom of the Palisades sill are pieces of the Triassic sandstone that
   (1) formed from deposits of minerals within the sill
   (2) crystallized within the sill and were cemented together
   (3) were part of the olivine-rich layer that broke apart
   (4) broke off from the surrounding bedrock during the intrusion
Answer: 4

47.
47 Approximately how far above the bottom of the Palisades sill is the coarse diabase region found?
   (1) 50 ft                                       (3) 800 ft
   (2) 400 ft                                      (4) 950 ft
Answer: 3

48.
48 The graph shows that, within the olivine-rich diabase layer near the bottom of the sill, as the percentage of
   olivine increases, the
   (1) percentages of both plagioclase and pyroxene decrease
   (2) percentages of both plagioclase and pyroxene increase
   (3) percentage of plagioclase decreases and the percentage of pyroxene increases
   (4) percentage of plagioclase increases and the percentage of pyroxene decreases
Answer: 1

49.
49 The Palisades sill intruded as North America began the process of separating from Africa and Europe as
   Pangaea was breaking apart. Approximately when did these events occur?
   (1) 65 million years ago                         (3) 299 million years ago
   (2) 200 million years ago                        (4) 400 million years ago
Answer: 2

50.
50 Which two minerals, not shown on the Graph of Changes in Mineral Composition Within the Palisades Sill,
   are also likely to be found in some other samples of diabase?
   (1) amphibole and potassium feldspar               (3) quartz and biotite
   (2) potassium feldspar and quartz                  (4) biotite and amphibole
Answer: 4


51.
                                                   Part B–2
                                     Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (51–65): Record your answers in the spaces provided in your answer booklet. Some questions
may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science.
 51 Describe the effect that global warming most likely will have on both present-day glaciers and sea level. [1]
Glaciers:
Sea level:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit if both responses are correct. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
Glaciers:
    — will melt
    — will retreat
    — decrease in size
    — become smaller
    — shrink
    — The rate of melting will increase.
Sea level:
    — will rise
    — increase
    — higher
    — coastal flooding


52.
    Base your answers to questions 52 and 53 on the weather map below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The map indicates the location of a low-pressure system over New York State during late summer.
Isobar values are recorded in millibars. Shading indicates regions receiving precipitation. The air masses are
labeled mT and cP. The locations of some New York State cities are shown. Points A and B represent other
locations on Earth’s surface.
52 An air mass acquires the characteristics of the surface over which it forms. In your answer booklet, circle
   the type of Earth surface (land or ocean) and describe the relative temperature of the surface over which
   the mT air mass most likely formed. [1]
Circle one:    land       ocean
Relative temperature of Earth’s surface:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for circling ocean and correctly describing the relative temperature of Earth’s
surface. Acceptable descriptions include, but are not limited to:
   — warmer
   — hot
   — a tropical temperature
Note: Do not allow credit for a numerical answer because there are no temperatures indicated for
      comparison.


53.
53 The cross section in your answer booklet represents the atmosphere along the dashed line from A to B on
   the map. The warm frontal boundary is already shown on the cross section. Draw a curved line to
   represent the shape and location of the cold frontal boundary. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for a line that starts from line AB, passes between the cold and warm labels, and
curves up to the left.
Example of a 1-credit response:


54.
    Base your answers to questions 54 through 57 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The diagram represents a time-exposure photograph taken by aiming a camera at Polaris in the night
sky and leaving the shutter open for a period of time to record star trails. The angular arcs (star trails) show the
apparent motions of some stars.
54 Identify the motion of Earth that causes these stars to appear to move in a circular path. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — rotation
   — spinning/turning on its axis
Note: Do not allow credit for “Earth’s rotation around the Sun” because this confuses rotation
      with revolution.


55.
55 Determine the number of hours it took to record the star trails labeled on the diagram. [1]
h
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for a response that indicates 4 h.


56.
56 The diagram in your answer booklet represents Earth as viewed from space. The dashed line indicates
   Earth’s axis. Some latitudes are labeled. On the diagram in your answer booklet, draw an arrow that points
   from the North Pole toward Polaris. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for an arrow within or touching the zone shown that points away from the North Pole
and is generally aligned with Earth’s axis.
Note: Do not accept a line without an arrowhead because it does not show direction.
      It is recommended that an overlay of the same scale as the student answer booklet be used
      to ensure reliability in rating.


57.
57 Record, to the nearest whole degree, the altitude of Polaris when it is viewed from the top of New York
   State’s Mt. Marcy. [1]
°
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for 44°.
Note: Do not allow credit if a compass direction is given (e.g., 44 N or 44° N) because that
      denotes latitude, not altitude.


58.
    Base your answers to questions 58 through 61 on the block diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The diagram represents a meandering stream flowing into the ocean. Points A and B represent
locations along the streambanks. Letter C indicates a triangular-shaped depositional feature where the stream
enters the ocean.
58 The top of the box in your answer booklet represents the stream surface between points A and B. In the
   box, draw a line from point A to point B to represent a cross-sectional view of the shape of the bottom of
   the stream channel. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit if the student’s line is drawn from point A to point B and shows that the stream channel
is deeper near side A.
Example of a 1-credit response:


59.
59 Explain how sediments eroded by the water in this stream become smoother and rounder in shape. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The particles were weathered by abrading with other particles.
   — Rolling and bouncing along the streambed breaks off corners and polishes rocks.
   — The sediments scrape against the streambed.
   — They rub against one another.
   — abrasion
   — weathering due to collision of particles
Note: Do not allow credit for water or erosion, acting alone, to smooth rocks because this is
      restating the question, and water alone, without sediments, does not abrade rock.


60.
60 Identify the triangular-shaped depositional feature indicated by letter C. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for delta or any specific type of delta.


61.
61 Identify two factors that determine the rate of stream erosion. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for two correct responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — stream velocity/speed
   — gradient/slope of the stream
   — location within a meander/stream channel
   — volume/amount of stream discharge
   — shape of stream channel (straight vs. meandering)
   — water depth
   — material found in the stream or along the streambed (vegetation, trees, sediments)
   — type of bedrock
   — particle size/shape/density


62.
    Base your answers to questions 62 through 65 on the graph and map below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The average monthly temperatures for Eureka, California, and Omaha, Nebraska, are plotted on the
graph. The map indicates the locations of these two cities.
62 Calculate the rate of change in the average monthly temperature for Omaha during the two-month period
   between October and December, as shown on the graph. [1]
C°/month
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for 8C°/month or -8C°/mo.


63.
63 Explain why Omaha, which is farther inland, has a greater variation in temperatures throughout the year
   than Eureka, which is closer to the ocean. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Omaha is surrounded by land, which has a low specific heat.
   — The Pacific Ocean moderates the temperature/climate of Eureka.
   — Large bodies of water change temperature more slowly than land does.
   — Water has a higher specific heat than land.
   — The relatively drier air around Omaha has a lower specific heat than the moist air around
     Eureka.
Note: Do not allow credit for “Eureka is closer to water so temperatures remain constant”
      because this just restates the question without explaining the role that water plays in
      causing constant temperatures.


64.
64 Identify the month with the greatest difference in the average temperature between these two cities. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for January or Jan.


65.
65 Identify the surface ocean current that affects the climate of Eureka. [1]
Current
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for California Current.



66.
                                                 Part C
                                   Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (66–85): Record your answers in the spaces provided in your answer booklet. Some questions
may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science.
 66 The cross section below represents the windward and leeward sides of a mountain range. Arrows show the
    movement of air over a mountain. Points X and Y represent locations on Earth’s surface.
Describe how the air’s temperature and water vapor content at point X is different from the air’s temperature
and water vapor content at point Y. [1]
Air temperature at X:
Water vapor content at X:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit if both responses are correct. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
Air temperature at X:
   — cooler
   — lower/less
   — decreased
   — colder than Y
Water vapor content at X:
   — higher/more
   — 100% relative humidity
   — wetter
   — saturated
   — more humid than Y


67.
   Base your answers to questions 67 through 71 on the topographic map below and on your knowledge of
Earth science. Point A represents a location on Earth’s surface. Lines BC and XY are reference lines on the map.
Points D, E, F, and G represent locations along Coe Creek. Elevations are shown in feet.
67 What is the elevation of location A? [1]
ft
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for 300 ft.


68.
68 On the grid in your answer booklet, construct a topographic profile of the land surface along the line from
   point B to point C. Plot the elevation of each contour line that crosses line BC. Connect all nine plots with
   a line to complete the profile. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit if the centers of all nine plots are within or touch the rectangles shown and are
correctly connected with a line that passes within or touches the rectangles. The line must show a
hill higher than 340 feet but lower than 360 feet.
Note: It is recommended that an overlay of the same scale as the student answer booklet be used
      to ensure reliability in rating.


69.
69 Describe the evidence shown on the map that indicates Coe Creek flows toward the northeast. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Contour lines bend upstream when they cross Coe Creek.
   — Contour line elevations decrease toward the northeast along Coe Creek.
   — The V shapes of the contour lines point upstream toward higher elevations.
   — Lower elevations are toward the northeast.
   — Contour lines make V-shapes that point southwest.
   — The contour lines are bending in the opposite direction.
Note: Do not allow credit for “water flows downhill” because this does not indicate how contour
      lines show stream direction.


70.
70 Describe how the contour lines indicate that Coe Creek flows faster between locations D and E than
   between locations F and G. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Contour lines between D and E are closer together.
   — Contour lines between F and G are farther apart, indicating a slower stream velocity.
   — Contour lines that are closer together indicate a steeper slope/gradient.
   — There is a greater elevation change between D and E.
Note: Do not allow credit for “D and E are closer” because F and G are the same distance apart.
      Do not allow credit for “the slope or gradient is steeper” alone because this does not
      indicate how contour lines show a steeper slope.


71.
71 Calculate the gradient along line XY. Label your answer with the correct units. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for any value from 38 to 42 with acceptable units. Acceptable units include, but are
not limited to:
   — ft/mi
   — feet/mi
   — feet/mile


72.
    Base your answers to questions 72 through 76 on the modified Mercalli scale of earthquake intensity below,
on the map of Japan in your answer booklet, and on your knowledge of Earth science. The modified Mercalli
scale classifies earthquake intensity based on observations made during an earthquake. The map indicates the
modified Mercalli scale intensity values recorded at several locations in Japan during the March 11, 2011
earthquake, which triggered destructive tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean.
72 On the map in your answer booklet, a line has been drawn to separate regions with Mercalli values of V
   from regions with Mercalli values of VI. Draw another line to separate regions with Mercalli values of VI
   from regions with Mercalli values of VII. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for any acceptable line separating all values of VI from VII.
Note: Allow credit even if the line passes through water.
      Do not allow credit if the line touches or passes through any Mercalli value.
Examples of 1-credit responses:


73.
73 Your answer booklet lists some observations that might be made during an earthquake according to the
   modified Mercalli scale. In your answer booklet, place a check mark (√) in the box if that observation most
   likely was recorded at Yamagata during the March 11, 2011 earthquake. More than one box may be
   checked. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit if only the first four boxes are checked as shown below.
Note: Allow credit if a symbol other than a check mark is used.


74.
74 The epicenter of this earthquake was located at 38° N 142° E. Identify the type of tectonic plate boundary
   that is located nearest to the epicenter of this earthquake. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — convergent boundary
   — subduction zone


75.
75 Describe one way the P-waves and S-waves recorded on seismograms at Ishinomaki and Nagano were used
   to indicate that Ishinomaki was closer to the earthquake epicenter than was Nagano. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — P-waves arrived earlier at Ishinomaki than at Nagano.
   — The difference in arrival times was less at Ishinomaki.
   — The P-wave and S-wave arrival time interval was greater at Nagano.
   — The amplitude/magnitude of seismic waves was greater/bigger/stronger at Ishinomaki.
   — There is less time difference between the P- and S-waves at the closer location.
   — P- and S-waves were closer together.


76.
76 A 25-foot high tsunami hit the Japanese city of Ishinomaki. Describe a precaution the city could take now
   to protect citizens from tsunamis in future years. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — install a tsunami monitoring and warning system
   — build a seawall/barricade/barrier
   — build tall structures on stronger foundations
   — designate or plan evacuation routes
   — prepare emergency kits/supplies
   — relocate buildings to higher ground
Note: Do not allow credit for an action indicating an imminent tsunami (e.g., evacuate to higher
      ground).


77.
    Base your answers to questions 77 and 78 on the diagram below, which represents an exaggerated model of
the shape of Earth’s orbit, and on your knowledge of Earth science. The positions of Earth in its orbit on
December 21 and June 21 are indicated. The positions of perihelion (when Earth is closest to the Sun) and
aphelion (when Earth is farthest from the Sun) are also indicated. Both perihelion and aphelion occur
approximately two weeks after the dates shown.
77 How many months after Earth’s perihelion position does Earth’s aphelion position occur? [1]
months
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for 6 or six months.


78.
78 Explain why warm summer temperatures occur in New York State when Earth is at aphelion. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — New York State is receiving higher angles of insolation.
   — The Northern Hemisphere is experiencing a longer duration of insolation.
   — The North Pole axis or Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun.
   — The Sun appears higher in the sky.
Note: Do not allow credit for “Earth is tilted toward the Sun” because only the Northern
      Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun.
      Do not allow credit for “the Northern Hemisphere faces the Sun” because part of the
      Southern Hemisphere also faces the Sun during the daylight hours.


79.
   Base your answers to questions 79 through 82 on the passage and chart below, and on your knowledge of
Earth science. The chart identifies some human species and the times when they are believed to have existed.
                                               Human Species
                  Modern humans, Homo sapiens, appear to have evolved through several species of
              earlier members of the genus Homo. Each of these human species possessed specific
              features that made that species distinct. Many lived in (or at least have been discovered
              in) specific geographic areas, and existed for specific time ranges shown in the chart.
              In many cases, fossil remains are partial, often consisting of only teeth and skulls.
              Interpretation of human evolution continues to change with new discoveries.
79 Complete the graph in your answer booklet by drawing a bar to represent the time span that each human
   species existed. The bars for the first four species listed have already been drawn. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit if all four bars are drawn in the correct columns and the ends of the bars are
within or touch the rectangular areas shown at the end of each bar.
Note: It is recommended that an overlay of the same scale as the student answer booklet be used
      to ensure reliability in rating.


80.
80 Which human species shown in the chart was the first to exist? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for Homo habilis or habilis or H. habilis.


81.
81 One species of the genus Homo could have evolved directly from another species of the genus Homo only
   if the other species:
        • existed before the new species appeared
        • did not become extinct before the new species appeared
   Identify two species of the genus Homo from which Homo neanderthalensis may have directly evolved. [1]
Homo _______ and Homo _______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for two correct species from the list below.
   — Homo rhodesiensis
   — Homo heidelbergensis
   — Homo erectus


82.
82 During which geologic epoch did the Homo mauritanicus species exist? [1]
Epoch
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for Pleistocene Epoch.


83.
    Base your answers to questions 83 through 85 on the diagrams and tables below and on your knowledge of
Earth science. Each diagram represents the Moon’s orbital position and each table lists times of high and low
tides and tide heights, in meters, at New York City for the date shown.
83 Determine the length of time between the two high tides shown for May 13. [1]
_______ h _______ min
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for 12 h 33 min.


84.
84 On the diagram in your answer booklet, shade the portion of the Moon that is in darkness to observers in
   New York City on May 13. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit if the student shades the right half of the Moon to show a last-quarter-Moon phase
as shown below.
Examples of 1-credit responses:


85.
85 On the diagram in your answer booklet, place an X on the Moon’s orbit to represent the location of the
   Moon on May 28. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit if the center of the X falls within or touches the band in the Moon’s orbit shown
below.
Note: Allow credit if a symbol other than an X is used.
      It is recommended that an overlay of the same scale as the student answer booklet be used
      to ensure reliability in rating.



  Try the Quiz :     Earth Science - New York Regents June 2015 Exam


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