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Earth Science - New York Regents August 2013 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.
    Directions (1–35): For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given,
best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.

1.
1 Which two characteristics do all Jovian planets
  have in common?
  (1) small diameters and low densities
  (2) small diameters and high densities
  (3) large diameters and low densities
  (4) large diameters and high densities
Answer: 3

2.
2 Which event occurred approximately 4.6 billion
  years ago?
  (1) evolution of the earliest fish
  (2) evolution of stromatolites
  (3) formation of the oldest known Earth rocks
  (4) formation of Earth and our solar system
Answer: 4

3.
3 Which process combines lighter elements into
  heavier elements and produces energy within
  the Sun and other stars?
  (1) fusion               (3) conduction
  (2) insolation           (4) radioactive decay
Answer: 1


4.
4 Which evidence best supports the Big Bang
  theory?
  (1) rate of rotation of the Sun
  (2) existence of cosmic background radiation
  (3) uniform radioactive decay of uranium-238
  (4) separation of Earth’s interior into different
      layers
Answer: 2

5.
5 Which star has a surface temperature most
  similar to the surface temperature of Alpha
  Centauri?
  (1) Polaris             (3) Procyon B
  (2) Betelgeuse          (4) Sirius
Answer: 1

6.
6 The red shift of light from most galaxies is
  evidence that
  (1) most galaxies are moving away from Earth
  (2) a majority of stars in most galaxies are red
      giants
  (3) the light slows down as it nears Earth
  (4) red light travels faster than other colors of
      light
Answer: 1

7.
7 Which motion causes some constellations to be
  visible in New York State only during winter
  nights and other constellations to be visible only
  during summer nights?
  (1) Stars in constellations revolve around Earth.
  (2) Stars in constellations revolve around the Sun.
  (3) Earth revolves around the Sun.
  (4) Earth rotates on its axis.
Answer: 3

8.
8 Sediment samples A through D below have the
  same volume and packing, but contain different
  percentages of various particle sizes.
    Sample A:   75% clay and 25% silt
    Sample B:   25% clay and 75% sand
    Sample C:   50% pebbles and 50% sand
    Sample D:   50% pebbles and 50% cobbles
  Which sample most likely has the greatest
  permeability?
  (1) A                (3) C
  (2) B                (4) D
Answer: 4

9.
9 Most of Earth’s weather events take place in the
  (1) thermosphere         (3) stratosphere
  (2) mesosphere           (4) troposphere
Answer: 4

10.
10 The diagram below represents a weather
   instrument.
Which weather variable was this instrument
designed to measure?
(1) air pressure
(2) dewpoint
(3) relative humidity
(4) amount of precipitation
Answer: 1

11.
11 Jet stream winds over the United States generally
   move from
   (1) east to west          (3) north to south
   (2) west to east          (4) south to north
Answer: 2

12.
12 What is the dewpoint when the dry-bulb
   temperature is 8°C and the wet-bulb temperature
   is 2°C?
   (1) 28°C                 (3) 3°C
   (2) 6°C                  (4) Ϫ9°C
Answer: 4

13.
13 The cross section below represents prevailing
   winds moving over a coastal mountain range.
   Letters A through D represent locations on
   Earth’s surface.
Which location will most likely have the least
annual precipitation?
(1) A                  (3) C
(2) B                  (4) D
Answer: 4

14.
14 Which transfer of energy occurs mainly through
   the process of convection?
   (1) electromagnetic energy transferred from the
       Sun to the Moon
   (2) solar energy transferred through space to
       Earth’s surface
   (3) heated air in the lower atmosphere transferred 
       upward by density differences
   (4) heat from radioactive decay transferred by
       molecular collisions to surrounding mantle
       rock
Answer: 3

15.
15 In which planetary wind belt do most storms
   move toward the northeast?
   (1) 30° N to 60° N     (3) 0° to 30° S
   (2) 0° to 30° N        (4) 30° S to 60° S
Answer: 1


16.
16 What is the inferred pressure, in millions of
   atmospheres, in Earth’s interior at a depth of
   2900 kilometers?
   (1) 1.4                 (3) 3.0
   (2) 9.9                 (4) 4900
Answer: 1

17.
17 Compared to the oceanic crust, the continental
   crust is
   (1) less dense and more basaltic
   (2) less dense and more felsic
   (3) more dense and more granitic
   (4) more dense and more mafic
Answer: 2

18.
18 Which landmass is moving northward with
   Australia as part of the same tectonic plate?
   (1) India                  (3) North America
   (2) Antarctica             (4) South America
Answer: 1

19.
19 The epicenter of an earthquake is located
   6500 kilometers away from a seismic station.
   If the first S-wave arrived at this seismic station
   at 1:30 p.m., at what time did the first P-wave
   arrive?
   (1) 1:20 p.m.              (3) 1:38 p.m.
   (2) 1:22 p.m.              (4) 1:40 p.m.
Answer: 2

20.
20 Which two cities are located in the Interior
   Lowlands?
   (1) Elmira and Binghamton
   (2) Riverhead and New York City
   (3) Massena and Old Forge
   (4) Buffalo and Watertown
Answer: 4

21.
21 The large waterfall at Niagara Falls, New York,
   was originally located at the Niagara
   Escarpment. Which term best describes an
   escarpment?
   (1) U-shaped valley      (3) cliff
   (2) V-shaped valley      (4) drumlin
Answer: 3

22.
22 Trees growing on the edge of a river’s meander
   are most likely to fall into the river due to
   (1) deposition on the inside of the meander
   (2) deposition on the outside of the meander
   (3) erosion on the inside of the meander
   (4) erosion on the outside of the meander
Answer: 4

23.
23 What is the approximate minimum stream velocity
   needed to keep a 6.4-cm-diameter particle in
   motion?
   (1) 10 cm/s              (3) 100 cm/s
   (2) 50 cm/s              (4) 200 cm/s
Answer: 4

24.
24 The photograph below shows a sandstone butte
   in an arid region.
Which agents of erosion are currently changing
the appearance of this butte?
(1) glaciers and mass movement
(2) wave action and running water
(3) wind and mass movement
(4) running water and glaciers
Answer: 3

25.
25 Sediment is deposited in a river delta because
   the
   (1) velocity of the river decreases
   (2) force of gravity decreases
   (3) volume of the river increases
   (4) gradient of the river increases
Answer: 1

26.
26 Which processes lead directly to the formation
   of igneous rock?
   (1) weathering and erosion
   (2) compaction and cementation
   (3) heat and pressure
   (4) melting and solidification
Answer: 4

27.
27 A graph of tidal sea-level changes at a coastal city is shown below.
The number of hours from one high tide to the next high tide is approximately
(1) 4 h                                         (3) 12 h
(2) 8 h                                         (4) 24 h
Answer: 3

28.
28 The diagram below represents planets A and B, of equal mass, revolving around a star.
Compared to planet A, planet B has a
(1) weaker gravitational attraction to the star and a shorter period of revolution
(2) weaker gravitational attraction to the star and a longer period of revolution
(3) stronger gravitational attraction to the star and a shorter period of revolution
(4) stronger gravitational attraction to the star and a longer period of revolution
Answer: 2

29.
29 The arrow on the map below represents the direction a wind is blowing over a land surface in the Northern
   Hemisphere without showing the Coriolis effect.
Which dashed arrow represents how the wind direction will change in the Northern Hemisphere due to
the Coriolis effect?

Answer: 2

30.
30 The map below shows a portion of the Middle East. Points A, B, C, D, and X are locations on Earth’s
   surface.
When it is 10:00 a.m. solar time at location X, at which location is 11:00 a.m. solar time being observed?
(1) A                                               (3) C
(2) B                                               (4) D
Answer: 4

31.
31 The weather map below shows a portion of a low-pressure system.
Which front will most likely pass over location A during the next two hours?
(1) warm                                           (3) occluded
(2) stationary                                     (4) cold
Answer: 4

32.
32 Which pie graph best shows the relative length of time of the major intervals of Earth’s geologic history?

Answer: 1

33.
33 The table below lists some information about the minerals graphite and diamond.
Some properties of diamond are different from those of graphite because diamond
(1) has a different arrangement of atoms         (3) has a different composition
(2) forms larger crystals                        (4) is older in geologic age
Answer: 1

34.
   Base your answers to questions 34 and 35 on the data table below and on your knowledge of Earth science.
The table provides information about four minerals, A through D.
34 The diagram below represents a sample of mineral A.
Mineral A is most likely
(1) garnet                 (3) olivine
(2) galena                 (4) halite
Answer: 2

35.
35 Which mineral can scratch A, B, and C, but can not scratch D?
   (1) talc                                         (3) fluorite
   (2) selenite gypsum                              (4) quartz
Answer: 3


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (36–50): For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best
completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.

36.
    Base your answers to questions 36 through 38 on the passage below and on your knowledge of Earth
science.
                                                  Ice Ages
                  Earth has undergone many ice ages, each lasting millions of years. Some scientists
              infer that most ice ages were caused by landmasses blocking the ocean currents
              between equatorial regions and the poles. Ice ages usually ended when the positions of
              continents allowed ocean currents to resume transporting equatorial heat to the poles.
                  During each ice age there were advances and retreats of glaciers. These cool glacial
              and warm interglacial climate intervals were caused mostly by changes in Earth’s orbit
              and tilt. Earth is presently in a warm interglacial interval.
 36 Earth’s warm interglacial intervals are due primarily to
    (1) changes in Earth’s period of rotation           (3) increases in elevation of North America
    (2) changes in Earth’s orbit and tilt               (4) divergence at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Answer: 2

37.
37 Approximately 359 million years ago, the average intensity of insolation received in a year by the land area
   that is now eastern North America was likely
   (1) greater, because eastern North America was at a lower latitude
   (2) greater, because eastern North America was at a higher latitude
   (3) less, because eastern North America was at a lower latitude
   (4) less, because eastern North America was at a higher latitude
Answer: 1

38.
38 Evidence that glaciers covered large areas of New York State is best provided by
   (1) long-term temperature measurements            (3) kettle lakes and drumlins
   (2) folded layers of bedrock                      (4) the presence of streams and rivers
Answer: 3

39.
    Base your answers to questions 39 through 41 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The diagram represents the Moon in eight positions, A through H, in its orbit around Earth.
39 When a solar eclipse is viewed from Earth, the Moon must be located at orbital position
   (1) A                                            (3) C
   (2) E                                            (4) G
Answer: 1

40.
40 How many days are required for the Moon to complete a cycle of phases from the new Moon position
   represented in the diagram to the new Moon the following month?
   (1) 2.2 d                                       (3) 29.5 d
   (2) 27.3 d                                      (4) 365.26 d
Answer: 3

41.
41 Which Moon phase is observed in New York State when the Moon is located at position F?

Answer: 1

42.
    Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the map below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The
map shows the coast of the northwestern United States. The Explorer and Gorda ridges and plates are parts of
the Juan de Fuca tectonic system.
42 The arrow on which map best shows the direction of movement of the Juan de Fuca Plate in relation to the
   Juan de Fuca Ridge?

Answer: 1

43.
43 The Explorer Ridge is the boundary between the Explorer Plate and the
   (1) North American Plate                        (3) Juan de Fuca Plate
   (2) Pacific Plate                               (4) Gorda Plate
Answer: 2

44.
    Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the cross section below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The cross section represents rock units that have not been overturned. Lines CCЈ and GGЈ represent
unconformities. The geologic ages of some of the lettered rock units are shown below the cross section.
44 Which rock unit was formed most recently?
   (1) A                                       (3) L
   (2) F                                       (4) M
Answer: 1

45.
45 Why is there no contact metamorphism indicated between rock unit L and rock unit F?
   (1) Conglomerate does not metamorphose.
   (2) The intrusion was not hot enough to metamorphose rock unit F.
   (3) The contact metamorphism within rock unit F eroded away.
   (4) Rock unit F was deposited after the intrusion of rock unit L.
Answer: 4

46.
46 The diagrams below represent three index fossils found in one of the rock units.
These fossils are most likely found in
(1) rock unit I                          (3) rock unit K
(2) rock unit J                          (4) rock unit M
Answer: 3

47.
47 Which inference about rock units D, E, and H can best be supported by evidence in the cross section?
   (1) They contain mostly sand-sized sediment.
   (2) They contain both land and marine fossils.
   (3) They were altered by contact metamorphism.
   (4) They were deposited as horizontal layers and were later tilted.
Answer: 4

48.
    Base your answers to questions 48 through 50 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The diagram represents four apparent paths of the Sun, labeled A, B, C, and D, observed in Jamestown,
New York. The June 21 and December 21 sunrise and sunset positions are indicated. Letter S identifies the
Sun’s position on path C at a specific time of day. Compass directions are indicated along the horizon.
48 The greatest duration of insolation in Jamestown occurs when the Sun appears to travel along path
   (1) A                                             (3) C
   (2) B                                             (4) D
Answer: 1

49.
49 At what time of day is the Sun at position S?
   (1) 6 a.m.                                      (3) 3 p.m.
   (2) 9 a.m.                                      (4) 6 p.m.
Answer: 2

50.
50 When the Sun appears to travel along path D at Jamestown, which latitude on Earth receives the most
   direct rays from the Sun?
   (1) 42° N                                      (3) 0°
   (2) 23.5° N                                    (4) 23.5° S
Answer: 4


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (51–65): Record your answers in the spaces provided in your answer booklet. Some questions
may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science.

51.
    Base your answers to questions 51 through 54 on the field map below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The map shows the depth of Lake Ontario. Isoline values indicate water depth, in feet. Points A, B, and
C represent locations on the shoreline of Lake Ontario. Points D and E represent locations on the bottom of the
lake.
51 On the grid in your answer booklet, draw a profile of the bottom of western Lake Ontario by plotting the
   depth of the water along line AB. Plot each point where an isoline showing depth is crossed by line AB.
   Connect the plots with a line, starting at A and ending at B, to complete the profile. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the centers of all ten plots are located within the boxes shown and a correctly
    drawn line passes within each box. The low point of the line must extend below 400 feet but not
    below 500 feet.
    Note: It is recommended that an overlay of the same scale as the student answer booklet be used
          to ensure reliability in rating.


52.
52 Calculate the gradient of the lake bottom between point C and point D. Label your answer with the
   correct units. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for any value from 18 to 23 with the correct units. Acceptable units include, but are
       not limited to:
            — ft/mi
            — feet/mile
            — feet per mile
            — ft/mile


53.
53 What is a possible depth of the water at location E? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for any depth greater than 600 ft and less than 700 ft.


54.
54 What evidence shown on the map indicates that the southern section of the bottom of Lake Ontario has the
   steepest slope? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The isolines are close together.
            — The spaces between the lines are small.
            — There is a greater change in depth over a shorter distance.
            — The deepest waters are closer to the southern shore than they are to the northern shore.


55.
    Base your answers to questions 55 through 58 on the cross sections below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The cross sections represent three bedrock outcrops, 1, 2, and 3, found several kilometers apart.
The geologic time period when each sedimentary rock layer formed is shown. The symbols ( , , X , , and )
represent fossils of different types of organisms present in the rock layers.
55 Draw the fossil symbol that represents the best index fossil. Describe one piece of evidence shown in the
   outcrops that indicates that this fossil has characteristics of a good index fossil. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit if both the circle fossil symbol ○ and the evidence are correct. Acceptable evidence
       includes, but is not limited to:
            — The fossil was found only in the Devonian layer/one layer in each outcrop.
            — The fossil was geographically widespread.
            — The fossil indicates a short existence in geologic time/limited time interval.


56.
56 Write the outcrop number of the cross section that could be found in New York State. Describe the
   evidence that supports your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit if both outcrop 2 is stated and the evidence is correct. Acceptable evidence includes,
       but is not limited to:
            — The rock layers of the same age as those shown in outcrop 2 are all found in New York State.
            — Permian Period rock is not present in New York State, but is shown in outcrops 1 and 3.


57.
57 Explain why the geologic age of these rock layers could not be accurately dated using carbon-14. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Carbon-14 has a short half-life.
            — These rock layers are too old to contain measurable carbon-14.
            — Carbon-14 is used to date recent remains.
            — No organic material remains in the rock.


58.
58 Explain why the index fossil Coelophysis is not preserved in any of the rock outcrops. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The bedrock in the outcrops formed during the Paleozoic Era, and Coelophysis lived
              during the Mesozoic Era.
            — The youngest rock layer is from the Permian, and Coelophysis did not exist yet.
            — Coelophysis lived at a much later time.
            — No Triassic bedrock is shown.
            — Layers containing Coelophysis have been removed by erosion.


59.
    Base your answers to questions 59 through 62 on the map below and on your knowledge of Earth science.
The map shows a retreating valley glacier and the features that have formed because of the advance and retreat
of the glacier.
59 Describe one piece of evidence likely to be found on the exposed bedrock surfaces that could indicate the
   direction this glacier moved. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — scratches/striations on the bedrock surface
            — grooves in bedrock
            — a boulder transported from a more northerly outcrop on the bedrock
            — an erratic
            — drumlin


60.
60 Describe one difference between the arrangement of sediment in the moraines and the arrangement of
   sediment in the outwash plain. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit if both responses are correct. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
         Moraines:
            — unsorted sediments/mixed particles
            — unlayered
         Outwash plain:
            — sorted deposits
            — layered sediments


61.
61 Describe the most likely shape of the valley being formed due to erosion by this glacier. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The valley would have a U-shaped appearance.
            — flat bottom and steep sides
            — rounded shape


62.
62 Explain why the glacial ice absorbs less solar radiation than the surrounding exposed bedrock and soil. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The ice is white/light colored.
            — The smooth ice reflects better than rougher land terrain.
            — The bedrock/soil is darker colored.
            — Snow and ice reflect more insolation.
            — has a higher albedo


63.
    Base your answers to questions 63 through 65 on the model below and on your knowledge of Earth science.
The model shows the movement of water in the water cycle. Arrow A represents a process within the water
cycle.
63 Identify one water cycle process represented by arrow A. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — precipitation
            — raining
            — snowing
            — sleeting
            — hailing


64.
64 How many joules of heat energy are required to evaporate 2 grams of water from the lake surface? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for 4520 J.


65.
65 A portion of the land surface shown was recently paved with asphalt and concrete. Describe the change in
   the amount of runoff and infiltration that will occur. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit if both responses are correct. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        Runoff:
            — increases
            — goes up
        Infiltration:
            — decreases
            — less
            — would drop to zero/near zero



Part C
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (66–85): Record your answers in the spaces provided in your answer booklet. Some questions
may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science.

66.
    Base your answers to questions 66 through 69 on the table below and on your knowledge of Earth science.
The table lists the average surface temperature, in kelvins, and the average orbital velocity, in kilometers per
second, of each planet of our solar system.
66 On the grid in your answer booklet, construct a bar graph to represent the average surface temperature for
   each planet. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the tops of all eight bars end within the acceptable range rectangles indicated
    below.
    Note: It is recommended that an overlay of the same scale as the student answer booklet be used
          to ensure reliability in rating.


67.
67 Approximately 97% of Venus’s atmosphere is carbon dioxide. Describe how carbon dioxide contributes to
   the unusually high average surface temperature of Venus. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        — Carbon dioxide traps heat in the atmosphere.
        — Carbon dioxide absorbs infrared and reradiates it back to Venus.
        — Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas.


68.
68 Use the set of axes in your answer booklet to draw a line that represents the general relationship between
   the mean distances of planets from the Sun and the average orbital velocities of the planets. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a line with a negative slope.
    Examples of 1-credit responses:


69.
69 The orbital velocity of Earth is sometimes faster and sometimes slower than its average orbital velocity.
   Explain why the orbital velocity of Earth varies in a cyclic pattern. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        — Earth’s distance to the Sun changes in a cyclic pattern.
        — Gravity is greater when Earth is closer to the Sun.
        — Earth moves slower when it is farther from the Sun.
        — Earth has an elliptical/slightly eccentric orbit.


70.
    Base your answers to questions 70 through 73 on the weather map in your answer booklet and on your
knowledge of Earth science. The map shows air temperatures (in °F) at locations in the northeastern United
States and part of Canada. Syracuse, New York, is labeled. Line AB represents a stationary frontal boundary.
 70 On the map in your answer booklet, draw the isotherm for 0°F. Extend each end of the isotherm to the
    edge of the map. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the 0° isotherm is correctly drawn with each end drawn to the edge of the map.
    If additional isotherms are drawn, all isotherms must be correct to receive credit.
    Note: The isotherm need not be continued over the lakes.
    Example of a 1-credit response:


71.
71 Convert the air temperature at Syracuse from degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for any value from –20°C to –24°C.


72.
72 Write the two-letter weather map symbol for the type of air mass that is most likely located north of frontal
   boundary AB. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for cP or cA or mP. Allow credit for either uppercase or lowercase letters.
        Note: Do not allow credit if air-mass letters are reversed, such as Ac or Pc.
              For students who used the Spanish edition, either exclusively or in conjunction with the
              English edition of the exam, allow credit for the correct two-letter air-mass symbol as it
              appears in either the English or Spanish 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/
              Earth Science.


73.
73 Explain why locations near the Atlantic Ocean have air temperatures that are warmer than locations farther
   inland. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The ocean changes temperature more slowly than the nearby land does.
            — Large bodies of water moderate climatic temperatures.
            — A warm ocean current is flowing nearby.
            — The water has a higher specific heat than the land does.


74.
    Base your answers to questions 74 through 76 on the sky model below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The model shows the Sun’s apparent path through the sky as seen by an observer in the Northern
Hemisphere on June 21.
74 Describe the evidence, shown in the sky model, which indicates that the observer is not located at the
   North Pole. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Polaris is not overhead.
            — All compass directions are shown.
            — The Sun’s path is tilted.
            — At the North Pole, the altitude of Polaris is 90°.


75.
75 The diagram in your answer booklet represents the position of Earth in its orbit on March 21. Place an X
   on Earth’s orbit to represent Earth’s orbital position when the apparent path of the Sun in the sky model
   was observed. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the center of the X is located within the clear outlined area shown below.
    Note: Allow credit if a symbol other than an X is used.
          It is recommended that an overlay of the same scale as the student answer booklet be used
          to ensure reliability in rating.


76.
76 Identify the cause of the apparent daily motion of the Sun through the sky. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — the rotation of Earth
            — Earth is spinning on its axis.


77.
    Base your answers to questions 77 through 79 on the passage below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The passage describes unusual lava from a volcano in Africa.
                                                 Unusual Volcano
                  Nyiragongo, located at 2° S 29° E, is an active African volcano. It has the most fluid
              lava on Earth. The lava has a composition unlike any other lava in the world. The rare
              isotopes found in the lava are similar to those found in ancient asteroids. This fact leads
              scientists to infer that the lava may be as old as our solar system and that it comes from
              deep inside the mantle near Earth’s outer core. Nyiragongo is one volcano in a ring of
              many volcanoes surrounding an area that is domed upward nearly a mile above sea
              level, causing scientists to infer that a new mantle hot spot is forming there.
 77 Two rocks, scoria and basalt, have formed from the cooled lava that erupted from Nyiragongo. Describe the
    texture of each rock. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for an acceptable response for both rocks. Acceptable responses include, but are not
       limited to:
        Scoria:
            — noncrystalline
            — glassy
            — vesicular
        Basalt:
            — fine
            — nonvesicular


78.
78 Identify the type of tectonic plate boundary found in the vicinity of Nyiragongo. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — an uncertain or complex plate boundary
            — a divergent plate boundary
            — rift valley/East African Rift


79.
79 Identify two other locations on Earth, not on a plate boundary, where mantle rock is rising to Earth’s
   surface. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for two acceptable responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Hawaii
            — Yellowstone
            — Canary Islands
            — Tasman Hot Spot
            — St. Helena Hot Spot
            — Galapagos Hot Spot
        Note: Do not allow credit for Bouvet Hot Spot, Iceland Hot Spot, or Easter Island Hot Spot.


80.
    Base your answers to questions 80 through 82 on the cross section below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The cross section represents rock formations that exist in the southwestern part of the United States.
Names of the faults and rock units are indicated on the diagram.
80 Formation A consists of three thin sandstone layers interbedded with shale layers. Hornfels and quartzite
   are found at the top of formation A. Describe how the hornfels and quartzite formed. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The shale and sandstone were metamorphosed by the heat of the lava.
            — The lava flow heated the rocks that it flowed over.
            — Contact metamorphism changed the top layer of formation A.
            — Heat and pressure formed hornfels and quartzite.
            — metamorphism/recrystallization


81.
81 Explain why the Two Peaks sandstone is not a continuous layer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Faulting displaced the sandstone layer.
            — Two Peaks sandstone was broken by faults in two locations.
            — faulting


82.
82 List three minerals that are likely present in the Precambrian granite rock. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for three acceptable responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited
       to:
            — potassium feldspar or orthoclase
            — quartz
            — plagioclase feldspar
            — biotite or mica
            — muscovite
            — amphibole or hornblende
        Note: If a student answers “feldspar” as one of the three responses, credit is not allowed for other
              responses of specific feldspar minerals. If a student answers “mica” as one of the three
              responses, credit is not allowed for other responses of specific mica minerals.


83.
   Base your answers to questions 83 through 85 on the weather station model below and on your knowledge of
Earth science. The model shows atmospheric conditions at Oswego, New York.
83 In your answer booklet, fill in the correct information for each weather variable listed for this station model. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit if all four weather variables are correct.
            Air temperature: 31°F
            Dewpoint: 29°F
            Wind speed: 10 knots
            Cloud cover: 100%


84.
84 Explain how the data on the station model indicate a high relative humidity. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The dewpoint and air temperature are nearly the same.
            — Snow is falling in Oswego.
            — There is 100% cloud cover.
            — Air pressure is low.


85.
85 Convert the coded air pressure shown on the station model into the actual millibars of air pressure. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for 999.5 mb.



  Try the Quiz :     Earth Science - New York Regents August 2013 Exam


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