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Earth Science - New York Regents August 2002 Exam

This is a test of your knowledge of Earth science. Use that knowledge to answer all the question in this examination. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables. The Earth Science Reference Tables are supplied separately. Be certain you have a copy of the 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006) of these reference tables before you begin the examination.
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Part A

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (1-35): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
1. The apparent rising and setting of the Sun, as viewed from Earth, is caused by
(1) Earth’s rotation
(2) Earth’s revolution
(3) the Sun’s rotation
(4) the Sun’s revolution
1

2. In which direction on the horizon does the Sun appear to rise on July 4 in New York State?
(1) due north
(2) due south 
(3) north of due east
(4) south of due east
3

3. Which graph best represents the change in gravitational attraction between the Sun and a comet as the distance between them increases?

1


4. The best evidence that Earth spins on its axis is provided by
(1) variations in atmospheric density
(2) apparent shifts in the swing of a Foucault pendulum
(3) changes in the position of sunspots on the Sun
(4) eclipses of the Moon
2

5. A major belt of asteroids is located between Mars and Jupiter. What is the approximate average distance between the Sun and this major asteroid belt?
(1) 110 million kilometers
(2) 220 million kilometers
(3) 390 million kilometers
(4) 850 million kilometers
3

6. A cycle of Moon phases can be seen from Earth because the
(1) Moon’s distance from Earth changes at a predictable rate
(2) Moon’s axis is tilted
(3) Moon spins on its axis
(4) Moon revolves around Earth
4

7. Which diagram represents the approximate altitude of Polaris as seen by an observer located in Syracuse, New York?

2

8. Compared to Earth’s crust, Earth's core is believed to be
(1) less dense, cooler, and composed of more iron
(2) less dense, hotter, and composed of less iron
(3) more dense, hotter, and composed of more iron
(4) more dense, cooler, and composed of less iron
3

9. Which graph best represents the relative periods of rotation of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars?

1

10. An environmental scientist needs to prepare a report on the potential effects that a proposed surface mine in New York State will have on the watershed where the mine will be located. In which reference materials will the scientist find the most useful data with which to determine the watershed’s boundaries?
(1) topographic maps
(2) geologic time scales
(3) tectonic plate maps
(4) planetary wind maps
1

11. Which two kinds of adjoining bedrock would most likely have a zone of contact metamorphism between them?
(1) shale and conglomerate
(2) shale and sandstone
(3) limestone and sandstone
(4) limestone and granite
4

12. Which graph best shows the relationship between the probability of precipitation and the difference between air temperature and dewpoint?

3

13. A high air-pressure, dry-climate belt is located at which Earth latitude?
(1) 0°
(2) 15° N 
(3) 30° N
(4) 60° N
3

14. The Canaries Current along the west coast of Africa and the Peru Current along the west coast of South America are both
(1) warm currents that flow away from the Equator
(2) warm currents that flow toward the Equator
(3) cool currents that flow away from the Equator
(4) cool currents that flow toward the Equator
4

15. Which two gases in Earth’s atmosphere are believed by scientists to be greenhouse gases that are major contributors to global warming?
(1) carbon dioxide and methane
(2) oxygen and nitrogen
(3) hydrogen and helium
(4) ozone and chlorine
1

16. The average temperature at Earth’s North Pole is colder than the average temperature at the Equator because the Equator
(1) receives less ultraviolet radiation
(2) receives more intense insolation
(3) has more cloud cover
(4) has a thicker atmosphere
2

17. On a certain day, the isobars on a weather map are very close together over eastern New York State. To make the people of this area aware of possible risk to life and property in this situation, the National Weather Service should issue
(1) a dense-fog warning
(2) a high-wind advisory
(3) a heat-index warning
(4) an air-pollution advisory
2

18. During which geologic time period did the earliest reptiles and great coal-forming forests exist?
(1) Devonian
(2) Quaternary
(3) Mississippian
(4) Pennsylvanian
4

19. In the diagram below, the spectral lines of hydrogen gas from three galaxies, A, B, and C, are compared to the spectral lines of hydrogen gas observed in a laboratory.

What is the best inference that can be made concerning the movement of galaxies A, B, and C?
(1) Galaxy A is moving away from Earth, but galaxies B and C are moving toward Earth.
(2) Galaxy B is moving away from Earth, but galaxies A and C are moving toward Earth.
(3) Galaxies A, B, and C are all moving toward Earth.
(4) Galaxies A, B, and C are all moving away from Earth.
4

20. What is the dewpoint temperature when the dry-bulb temperature is 16°C and the wet-bulb temperature is 11°C?
(1) 5°C
(2) 7°C
(3) 9°C
(4) −17°C
2

21. A strong west wind steadily blew over Lake Ontario picking up moisture. As this moist air flowed over the Tug Hill Plateau, the plateau received a 36-inch snowfall. This snow fell from clouds that formed when rising air was
(1) cooled by expansion, causing water vapor to condense
(2) cooled by compression, causing water vapor to condense
(3) warmed by expansion, causing water vapor to evaporate
(4) warmed by compression, causing water vapor to evaporate
1

22. The map below shows a meandering river. AA' is the location of a cross section. The arrows show the direction of the riverflow.

Which cross section best represents the shape of the river bottom at AA' ?

3

23. During which phase change of water is the most energy released into the environment?
(1) water freezing
(2) ice melting
(3) water evaporating
(4) water vapor condensing
4

24. During a rainfall, surface runoff will probably be greatest in an area that has a
(1) steep slope and a clay-covered surface
(2) steep slope and a gravel-covered surface
(3) gentle slope and a grass-covered surface
(4) gentle slope and a tree-covered surface
1

25. The cross section below illustrates the general sorting of sediment by a river as it flows from a mountain to a plain.

Which factor most likely caused the sediment to be sorted in the pattern shown?
(1) velocity of the river water
(2) hardness of the surface bedrock
(3) mineral composition of the sediment
(4) temperature of the water
1

26. The map below shows the location of four cities, A, B, C, and D, in the western United States where prevailing winds are from the southwest.

Which city most likely receives the least amount of average yearly precipitation?
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
1

27. Earth’s troposphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere contain relatively large amounts of which element?
(1) iron
(2) oxygen
(3) hydrogen
(4) potassium
2

28. The long, sandy islands along the south shore of Long Island are composed mostly of sand and rounded pebbles arranged in sorted layers. The agent of erosion that most likely shaped and sorted the sand and pebbles while transporting them to their island location was
(1) glaciers
(2) landslides
(3) wind
(4) ocean waves
4

29. Which river is a tributary branch of the Hudson River?
(1) Delaware River
(2) Susquehanna River
(3) Mohawk River
(4) Genesee River
3

30. What are the largest particles that a stream can transport when its velocity is 200 centimeters per second?
(1) silt
(2) sand
(3) pebbles
(4) cobbles
4

31. The diagrams below show the relative sizes of particles from soil samples A, B, and C. Equal volumes of each soil sample were placed in separate containers. Each container has a screen at the bottom. Water was poured through each sample to determine the infiltration rate.

Which graph best shows how the infiltration rates of the three soil samples would compare?

1

32. Which common rock is formed from the solidification of molten material?
(1) rock gypsum
(2) slate
(3) rhyolite
(4) coal
3

33. Rocks can be classified as sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic based primarily upon differences in their
(1) color
(2) density
(3) origin
(4) age
3

34. Buffalo, New York, and Plattsburgh, New York, are both located in landscape regions called
(1) mountains
(2) highlands
(3) plateaus
(4) lowlands
4

35. The diagram below shows how a sample of the mineral mica breaks when hit with a rock hammer.

This mineral breaks in smooth, flat surfaces because it
(1) is very hard
(2) is very dense
(3) contains large amounts of iron
(4) has a regular arrangement of atoms
4



Part B-1

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (36-50): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 36 through 38 on the diagram below, which represents the position of the Sun with respect to Earth’s surface at solar noon on certain dates. The latitudes of six locations on the same line of longitude are shown. The observer is located at 42° N in New York State. The date for the Sun at position A has been deliberately left blank.

 
36. At which New York State location could the observer be located?
(1) Plattsburgh
(2) Mount Marcy
(3) New York City
(4) Slide Mountain
4

37. When the Sun is at position A, which latitude receives the most direct rays of the Sun?
(1) Tropic of Cancer (23.5° N)
(2) Tropic of Capricorn (23.5° S)
(3) Equator (0°)
(4) Antarctic Circle (66.5° S)
2

38. When the Sun is at the March 21 position, New York State will usually have
(1) longer days than nights
(2) 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness
(3) the lowest annual altitude of the Sun at solar noon
(4) the highest annual altitude of the Sun at solar noon
2


Base your answers to questions 39 and 40 on the graph below. The graph shows air temperature and relative humidity at a single location during a 24-hour period.

 
39. What was the approximate change in relative humidity from 12 noon to 4 p.m.?
(1) 10%
(2) 15%
(3) 20%
(4) 30%
2

40. At which time would the rate of evaporation most likely be greatest?
(1) 11 p.m.
(2) 6 a.m.
(3) 10 a.m.
(4) 4 p.m.
4


Base your answers to questions 41 and 42 on the map below of Iceland, a country located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Four locations are represented by the letters A through D.

 
41. The fine-grained texture of most of the igneous rock formed on the surface of Iceland is due to
(1) rapid cooling of the molten rock
(2) high density of the molten rock
(3) numerous faults in the island’s bedrock
(4) high pressure under the island
1

42. The youngest bedrock is most likely found at which location?
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
3


Base your answers to questions 43 through 46 on the diagram and map below. The diagram shows three seismograms of the same earthquake recorded at three different seismic stations, X, Y, and Z. The distances from each seismic station to the earthquake epicenter have been drawn on the map. A coordinate system has been placed on the map to describe locations. The map scale has not been included.


 
43. Approximately how far away from station Y is the epicenter?
(1) 1,300 km
(2) 2,600 km
(3) 3,900 km
(4) 5,200 km
2

44. The S-waves from this earthquake that travel toward Earth’s center will
(1) be deflected by Earth’s magnetic field
(2) be totally reflected off the crust-mantle interface
(3) be absorbed by the liquid outer core
(4) reach the other side of Earth faster than those that travel around Earth in the crust
3

45. Seismic station Z is 1,700 kilometers from the epicenter. Approximately how long did it take the P-wave to travel to station?
(1) 1 min 50 sec
(2) 2 min 50 sec
(3) 3 min 30 sec
(4) 6 min 30 sec
3

46. On the map, which location is closest to the epicenter of the earthquake?
(1) E-5
(2) G-
(3) H-3
(4) H-8
3


Base your answers to questions 47 through 49 on the diagram below The diagram shows a model of the relationship between Earth’s surface and its interior.

 
47. Mid-ocean ridges (rifts) normally form where tectonic plates are
(1) converging
(2) diverging
(3) stationary
(4) sliding past each other
2

48. The motion of the convection currents in the mantle beneath the Atlantic Ocean appears to be mainly making this ocean basin
(1) deeper
(2) shallower
(3) wider
(4) narrower
3

49. According to the diagram, the deep trench along the west coast of South America is caused by movement of the oceanic crust that is
(1) sinking beneath the continental crust
(2) uplifting over the continental crust
(3) sinking at the Mid-Atlantic ridge
(4) colliding with the Atlantic oceanic crust
1


50. A student incorrectly measured the volume of a mineral sample as 63 cubic centimeters. The actual volume was 72 cubic centimeters. What was the student’s approximate percent deviation (percentage of error)?
(1) 940%
(2) 12.5%
(3) 14.2%
(4) 15.3%
2



Part B-2

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (51-59): Record your answers in the spaces provided below. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 51 and 52 on the topographic map of an island shown below. Elevations are expressed in feet. Points A, B, C, and D are location on the island. A triangulation point shows the highest elevation on the island.


 
51. On the grid provided below, construct a topographic profile representing the cross-sectional view between point A and point B, following the directions below.
a Plot the elevation of the land along line AB by marking, with a dot, the elevation of each point where a contour line is crossed by line AB. [2]
b Connect the dots with a smooth, curved line to complete the topographic profile. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW


a Allow 2 credits if 15 to 18 points are plotted correctly on the elevation line (within ±2.5 mm horizontally).
Allow only 1 credit if only 7 to 14 points are plotted correctly on the elevation line (within ±2.5 mm horizontally).
Note: Allow credit if the student uses some other symbol instead of dots.

b Allow 1 credit for drawing a smooth, curved line that shows hilltops above the horizontal elevation lines and valleys extending below the horizontal elevation lines. Do not allow credit for flat hilltops or flat valleys drawn exactly on the horizontal elevation line.
Hilltops’ elevations should be between 300 and 325, and 200 and 250. The valley-bottom elevation should be between 100 and 150.

or


If the points have been plotted incorrectly, the hilltops should be drawn so that the peaks are within the interval above the highest plotted elevations and the valley is within the interval below the lowest plotted valley elevation.


52. What is the average gradient, in feet per mile, along the straight line from point C to point D? [1]
_______ ft/mi
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for 25 ft/mi (±1).



53. The photograph below shows an impact crater approximately 1 mile wide located in Diablo Canyon, Arizona. Describe the event that produced this crater. [1]
_______

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, this example:
Barringer Crater was caused by the impact of a meteorite (or meteor or comet or asteroid).


54. A weather station records the following data:
Air pressure is 1,001.0 millibars.
Wind is from the south.
Wind speed is 25 knots.

Using the proper weather map symbols, place this information in the correct locations on the weather station model provided below. [3]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[3]

Allow 1 credit if the student places the correct symbol for air pressure in the appropriate position.
Do not allow this credit if the decimal point or units are given.

and


Allow 1 credit if the student draws the correct symbol for wind direction.

and


Allow 1 credit for the correct symbol for wind speed. Feathers may be placed on either side of the staff.


55. On the United States time zone map provided below, indicate the standard time in each time zone when it is 9 a.m. in the Central Time Zone. The dashed lines represent the standard-time meridians for each time zone. Be sure to indicate the time for all three zones. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1]

Allow 1 credit for all three times indicated correctly. Pacific is 7 a.m.; Mountain is S a.m.; and Eastern is 10 am.


56. The weather map below shows a typical midlatitude low-pressure system centered in Illinois.

a On the weather map provided below, indicate which boxed area has the highest surface air temperatures by marking an X in one of the four boxes on the map. [1]
b On the weather map provided below, draw an arrow to predict the normal storm track that this low-pressure center would be expected to follow. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2]

a Allow 1 credit if the X is located in the area behind the warm front but ahead of the cold front even if the X is not placed in the box.
b Allow 1 credit if the arrow indicates the normal storm track to be toward the northeast. Allow credit if the arrow points to any compass direction in between east and north-northeast.



Base your answers to questions 57 through 59 on the flowchart below, which shows a sequence of geologic processes at or near Earth's surface. Box A has been deliberately left blank. The diagrams are not drawn to scale.

 
57. Identify the three minerals that are normally found with quartz in samples of andesite rock. [2]
(1) _______
(2) _______
(3) _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] Allow 2 credits for correctly identifying all three minerals: plagioclase feldspar, biotite, and amphibole.
Allow only 1 credit for correctly identifying only two of the three minerals.
Note: Do not accept pyroxene because it is not found with quartz.


58. State one geologic process represented by box A. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
weathering
erosion
deposition


59. Identify by name one type of rock layer, other than sandstone, shown in the outcrop. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for siltstone or conglomerate or limestone.




Part C

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (60-75): Record your answers in the spaces provided below. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
60. A family wants to use rock materials as flooring in the entrance of their new house. They have narrowed their choice to granite or marble. Which of these rocks is more resistant to the physical wear of foot traffic and explain why this rock is more resistant. [2]
Rock: _______
Reason: _______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] Allow 2 credits for granite and for an answer describing the greater hardness of the minerals found in granite. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, this example:

Granite is composed mainly of quartz and feldspar that are resistant to abrasion because of their hardness
(7 and 6, respectively), while marble is made of calcite, which is softer (hardness of 3).

Allow only 1 credit if granite is chosen but the explanation is not acceptable. Allow no credit if the student chooses marble.



Base your answers to questions 61 and 62 in part on the newspaper article below.

Ancient human footprints found

PARIS — In the darkness of an underground cave lined with prehistoric paintings, French scientists believe they have discovered the oldest footprints of humans in Europe.
Embedded in damp clay, the imprints, slightly more than 8 inches long, appear to be those of a boy, 8 or 10 years old, who was walking barefoot between 25,000 and 30,000 years ago, prehistorians said Wednesday.
They said the dates are only hypothetical because there is no precise way to determine when the markings were made. But Michel—Andre Garcia, one prehistorian who has studied the site, said that the carbon datings in the cave and the context make this very strong hypothesis? The four footprints were found in the Ardeche region of southern France, deep inside the Chauvet cave.

— Times Union, June 10, 1999


61. Scientists have inferred that these “oldest” European human footprints were made during which geologic epoch? [1]
_______ epoch
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for Pleistocene epoch.


62. Which characteristic of the radioactive isotope carbon-14 explains why carbon-14, rather than the radioactive isotope uranium-238, was used by archeologists in dating the age of their findings? [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
The half-life of radioactive carbon is shorter.
Radioactive carbon-14 is found in recent organic remains.



Base your answers to questions 63 through 66 on the diagram below, which represents an exaggerated model of Earth’s orbital shape. Earth is closest to the Sun at one time of year (perihelion) and farthest from the Sun at another time of year (aphelion).

 
63. State the actual geometric shape of Earth’s Orbit. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
ellipse
oval
elliptical with the Sun at one focus
Note: Do not accept circle, sphere, or egg shaped.


64. Identify the season in the Northern Hemisphere when Earth is at perihelion. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
early winter
winter
Note: Do not accept January or any other month.


65. Describe the change that takes place in the apparent size of the Sun, as viewed from Earth, as Earth moves from perihelion to aphelion. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
As Earth moves from perihelion to aphelion, the apparent size decreases. The Sun appears smaller.


66. State the relationship between Earth’s distance from the Sun and Earth's orbital velocity. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
As Earth moves from perihelion to aphelion, the orbital velocity decreases.
As distance of Earth from the Sun increases, orbital velocity decreases.
an inverse relationship



Base your answers to questions 67 and 68 on the cross section provided below, which represents a house at an ocean shoreline at night. Smoke from the chimney is blowing out to sea.

 
67. Label the two lines provided on the cross section below to show where air pressure is relatively “high” and where it is relatively “low.” [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

[1] Allow 1 credit for showing “high” air pressure over the land and “low” air pressure over the ocean.


68. Assume that the wind blowing out to sea on this night is caused by local air-temperature conditions. Label the two lines provided on the cross section below to show where Earth’s surface air temperature is relatively “warm” and where it is relatively “cool.” [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for showing “warm” air temperature over the ocean and “cool” air temperature over the land.



Base your answers to questions 69 through 71 on data tables I and II and on the Hurricane Tracking Map below. Table I represents the storm track data for an Atlantic hurricane. Location, wind velocity, air pressure, and storm strength are shown for the storm’s center at 3 p.m. Greenwich time each day. Table II shows a scale of relative storm strength. The map shows the hurricane’s path.

 
69. Describe two characteristics of the circulation pattern of the surface winds around the center (eye) of a Northern Hemisphere low-pressure hurricane. [2]
_______ and _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] Allow 1 credit for a correct response describing the general direction of circulation. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, this example:
counterclockwise

and


Allow 1 credit for a correct response describing the inward movement toward the eye. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, this example: spirals toward the eye


70. The hurricane did not continue moving toward the same compass direction during the entire period shown by the data table. Explain why the hurricane changed direction. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
The storm entered the prevailing southwesterly wind belt north of 30° N, which pushed it to the northeast.
The hurricane moved into a different wind belt.


71. In the space provided below, calculate the average daily rate of movement of the hurricane during the period from 3 p.m. August 24 to 3 p.m. August 28. The hurricane traveled 2,600 kilometers during this 4-day period. Follow the directions given below.
a Write the equation used to determine the rate of change.
b Substitute data into the equation. [1]
c Calculate the rate and label it with the proper units. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] a Allow no credit for writing the equation.
b Allow 1 credit for correctly substituting both acceptable values into the equation given in part a. The student need not record the units. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:

c Allow 1 credit for correctly calculating the rate, based on the student’s answer in part b. Correct units must be given. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
rate of change = 650 km/day
r = 27 km/hr



Base your answers to questions 72 through 74 on the cross section provided below. The cross section represents a portion of Earth’s crust. Letters A, B, C , and D are rock units.

72. Igneous rock B was formed after rock layer D was deposited but before rock layer A was deposited. Using the contact metamorphism symbol shown in the key, draw that symbol in the proper locations on the cross section provided below to indicate those rocks that underwent contact metamorphism when igneous rock B was molten. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1]

Allow 1 credit for the correct placement of contact metamorphism symbols above and below B as shown in the diagram above.


73. In relation to rock units A and B in the cross section, when was igneous rock C formed? [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
C was formed before both B and A.
C is older than both B and A.


74. Describe one observable characteristic of rock A that indicates that rock A is sedimentary. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Rock A is a mixture of rounded rock fragments of different sizes connected together.
Rock A is a horizontal layer.


75. The diagram provided below represents the Sun and Earth as viewed from space on a certain date.
a Using a symbol for the Moon of approximately this size draw the position of the Moon on the diagram provided below at the time when the full-Moon phase is observed from Earth. [1]
b Draw an arrow on the diagram provided in your answer booklet that shows the Earth motion that causes surface ocean currents and surface winds to curve (Coriolis effect). [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2]

a Allow 1 credit for the Moon drawn on the night side of Earth directly opposite the Sun. Allow credit even if the size of the Moon is not drawn proportionally or if the Moon is not shaded or is shaded incorrectly.
b Allow 1 credit if the arrow or arrows clearly show Earth rotating counterclockwise.



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