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Earth Science - New York Regents August 2004 Exam

This is a test of your knowledge of Earth science. Use that knowledge to answer all the question in this examination. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables. The Earth Science Reference Tables are supplied separately. Be certain you have a copy of the 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006) of these reference tables before you begin the examination.
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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.
Directions (1−35): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.

1. One complete cycle of the phases of the Moon takes approximately one
(1) day
(2) week
(3) month
(4) year
3

2. The diagram below shows the Moon at four positions in its orbit around Earth.

An observer on Earth could see a solar eclipse when the Moon is at position
(1) 1
(2) 2 
(3) 3
(4) 4
4

3. Which two stars have the most similar luminosity and temperature?
(1) Betelgeuse and Barnard's Star
(2) Rigel and Betelgeuse
(3) Alpha Centauri and the Sun
(4) Sirius and Procyon B
3


4. Which planet would float if it could be placed in water?
(1) Mercury
(2) Earth
3) Saturn
(4) Pluto
3

5. The diagram below is a constructed ellipse. F1 and F2 are the foci of the ellipse.

The eccentricity of this constructed ellipse is closest to the eccentricity of the orbit of which planet?
(1) Mercury
(2) Earth
(3) Saturn
(4) Pluto
4

6. The diagram below shows the noontime shadow cast by a vertical post located in New York State.

Which letter indicates a location west of the post?
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
2

7. On March 21, at which location in New York State would sunrise occur first?
(1) Riverhead
(2) Syracuse
(3) Buffalo
(4) Massena
1

8. Earth is farthest from the Sun during the Northern Hemisphere’s summer, and Earth is closest to the Sun during the Northern Hemisphere’s winter. During which season in the Northern Hemisphere is Earth’s orbital velocity greatest?
(1) winter
(2) spring
(3) summer
(4) fall
1

9. The diagram below represents the direction of Earth’s rotation as it appears from above the North Pole. Point X is a location on Earth’s surface.

The time at point X is closest to
(1) 9 a.m.
(2) 12 noon
(3) 9 p.m.
(4) 12 midnight
4

10. As a ship crosses the Prime Meridian, an observer on the ship measures the altitude of Polaris at 60°. What is the ship’s location?
(1) 60° south latitude and 0° longitude
(2) 60° north latitude and 0° longitude
(3) 0° latitude and 60° east longitude
(4) 0° latitude and 60° west longitude
2

11. Which part of the Sun’s electromagnetic spectrum has the longest wavelength?
(1) radio wave radiation
(2) infrared radiation
(3) visible light radiation
(4) x-ray radiation
1

12. Which weather change is most likely indicated by rapidly falling air pressure?
(1) Humidity is decreasing.
(2) Temperature is decreasing.
(3) Skies are clearing.
(4) A storm is approaching.
4

13. Which diagram correctly shows how surface winds are deflected (curved) in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres due to Earth’s rotation?

3

14. The diagram below shows points A, B, C, and D on a meandering stream.

At which point does the greatest stream erosion occur?
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
3

15. The diagram below shows a greenhouse.

What is the primary function of the clear glass of the greenhouse?
(1) The glass reduces the amount of insolation entering the greenhouse.
(2) The glass allows all wavelengths of radiation to enter and all wavelengths of radiation to escape.
(3) The glass allows short wavelengths of radiation to enter, but reduces the amount of longwavelength radiation that escapes.
(4) The glass allows long wavelengths of radiation to enter, but reduces the amount of shortwavelength radiation that escapes.
3

16. The cross section below shows the prevailing winds that cause different climates on the windward and leeward sides of this mountain range.

Compared to the climate conditions on the leeward side of this mountain range, the conditions on the Windward side are usually
(1) cooler and wetter
(2) cooler and drier
(3) warmer and wetter
(4) warmer and drier
1

17. The California Ocean Current, which flows along the west coast of North America, is a
(1) cool current, flowing north
(2) cool current, flowing south
(3) warm current, flowing north
(4) warm current, flowing south
2

18. Which change at a particular location in a stream usually causes more sediments to be deposited at that location?
(1) decrease in stream velocity
(2) decrease in stream width
(3) increase in stream slope
(4) increase in stream discharge
1

19. Rocks are classified as igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic based primarily on their
(1) texture
(2) crystal or grain size
(3) method of formation
(4) mineral composition
3

20. The internal atomic structure of a mineral most likely determines the mineral’s
(1) color, streak, and age
(2) origin, exposure, and fracture
(3) size, location, and luster
(4) hardness, cleavage, and crystal shape
4

21. How are the minerals biotite mica and muscovite mica different?
(1) Biotite mica is colorless, but muscovite mica is not.
(2) Biotite mica contains iron and/or magnesium, but muscovite mica does not.
(3) Muscovite mica scratches quartz, but biotite mica does not.
(4) Muscovite mica cleaves into thin sheets, but biotite mica does not.
2

22. Which three minerals are most commonly found in the igneous rock granite?
(1) amphibole, calcite, and hematite
(2) amphibole, biotite mica, and gypsum
(3) plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene, and olivine
(4) plagioclase feldspar, potassium feldspar, and quartz
4

23. The cross sections below show different patterns of air movement in Earth’s atmosphere. Air temperatures at Earth’s surface are indicated in each cross section. Which cross section shows the most likely pattern of air movement in Earth’s atmosphere that would result from the surface air temperatures shown?

2

24. The diagrams below represent four permeable sediment samples. The sediments are composed of the same material, but differ in particle size and sorting. Which sediment sample will most likely have the fastest groundwater infiltration rate?

1

25. The diagram below represents three seismograms showing the same earthquake as it was recorded at three different seismic stations, A, B, and C.

Which statement correctly describes the distance between the earthquake epicenter and these seismic stations?
(1) A is closest to the epicenter, and C is farthest from the epicenter.
(2) B is closest to the epicenter, and C is farthest from the epicenter.
(3) C is closest to the epicenter, and A is farthest from the epicenter.
(4) A is closest to the epicenter, and B is farthest from the epicenter.
3

26. A camera was placed outside at night and pointed directly at Polaris and several other stars. The lens was kept open and a time-exposure photograph was taken. The diagram below represents that photograph of Polaris and star trails, with an angular protractor to measure apparent motion.

How many hours was the lens kept open to create the star trails in this photograph?
(1) 1 hour
(2) 6 hours
(3) 3 hours
(4) 4 hours
4

27. The sequence of bedrock cross sections below represents the same landscape region over a period of geologic time.

This sequence best represents
(1) an arid region that experienced mostly uplifting forces
(2) an arid region that experienced mostly erosional forces
(3) a humid region that experienced mostly uplifting forces
(4) a humid region that experienced mostly erosional forces
2

28. Which method of energy transfer is primarily responsible for energy being lost from Earth into space?
(1) conduction
(2) convection
(3) solidification
(4) radiation
4

29. When a continental crustal plate collides with an oceanic crustal plate, the continental crust is forced to move over the oceanic crust. What is the primary reason that the continental crust stays on top of the oceanic crust?
(1) Continental crust is less dense.
(2) Continental crust deforms less easily.
(3) Continental crust melts at higher temperatures.
(4) Continental crust contains more mafic minerals.
1

30. Earth’s fossil record shows evidence that
(1) very few life-forms have become extinct
(2) life-forms existed on land before life-forms existed in water
(3) more complex life-forms probably have evolved from less complex life-forms
(4) older bedrock contains a great variety of lifeforms, while younger bedrock contains less variety of life-forms
3

31. Large garnet mineral crystals are found in the metamorphic surface bedrock in which New York State landscape region?
(1) Catskills
(2) Adirondacks
(3) Erie-Ontario Lowlands
(4) Tug Hill Plateau
2

32. Bedrock outcrops A and B are located at two different locations along the Genesee River in western New York State. Rock layers 1, 2, and 4 are the same in both outcrops.

Which statement best explains why rock layer 3 is missing from outcrop B?
(1) A fault exists between outcrops A and B.
(2) Erosion created an unconformity between rock layers 2 and 4 in outcrop B.
(3) A volcanic eruption destroyed rock layer 3 in outcrop B.
(4) Metamorphism of outcrop A created rock layer 3.
2

33. Fossilized footprints of Coelophysis dinosaurs have been found in bedrock closest to which New York State location?
(1) New York City
(2) Old Forge
(3) Watertown
(4) Niagara Falls
1

34. A sample of wood that originally contained 100 grams of carbon-14 now contains only 25 grams of carbon-14. Approximately how many years ago was this sample part of a living tree?
(1) 2,850 years
(2) 5,700 years 
(3) 11,400 years
(4) 17,100 years
3

35. The block diagram below represents a deeply eroded dome.

Which map shows the stream drainage pattern that would most likely develop on this deeply eroded dome?

2



Part B-1

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (36-50): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 36 through 38 on the diagram below, which shows the altitude and apparent position of the noontime Sun, as seen from various latitudes on Earth on a particular day of the year. Letters A through D represent locations on Earth’s surface.

 
36. Which lettered location will experience the shortest period of daylight during one Earth rotation on this day?
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
1

37. What is the altitude of the noontime Sun at the Equator on this date?
(1) 23½°
(2) 43°
(3) 66½°
(4) 90°
3

38. Which season will begin at 41° N latitude, three months after the date represented by this diagram?
(1) summer
(2) tail
(3) winter
(4) spring
4


Base your answers to questions 39 through 41 on the graph below, which shows the water levels of ocean tides measured in Boston, Massachusetts, for a 2-day period.

 
39. The graph shows that high tides at Boston occur approximately every
(1) 3.5 hours
(2) 6.0 hours
(3) 12.5 hours
(4) 16.0 hours
3

40. It the trends shown by the graph continue, which statement best describes the next low tide at Boston that is expected to occur on Wednesday?
(1) It will occur about 3 a.m. with a 0.4-meter water level.
(2) It will occur about 6 a.m. with a 0.6-meter water level.
(3) It will occur about 9 p.m. with a 2.6-meter water level.
(4) It will occur about 10 p.m. with a 2.8-meter water level.
1

41. The gravitational pull of the Moon has the greatest influence on the water levels of Earth’s ocean tides. If the distance between the Moon and Earth were to decrease steadily for the week following the time shown on the graph, which water-level changes would be expected to occur?
(1) High tides would get higher and low tides would get lower.
(2) High tides would get lower and low tides would get higher.
(3) Both high tides and low tides would get higher.
(4) Both high tides and low tides would get lower.
1


Base your answers to questions 42 through 45 on the satellite image below, which shows a Northern Hemisphere hurricane, and on your knowledge of Earth science.

 
42. What is the usual surface wind pattern around the eye of Northern Hemisphere hurricanes?
(1) clockwise and outward
(2) clockwise and inward 
(3) counterclockwise and outward
(4) counterclockwise and inward
4

43. Which air mass is normally associated with the formation of hurricanes?
(1) continental tropical
(2) maritime tropical
(3) continental polar
(4) maritime polar
2

44. Clouds form in the hurricane because the air is
(1) sinking, expanding, and cooling
(2) sinking, compressing, and warming
(3) rising, expanding, and cooling
(4) rising, compressing, and warming
3

45. When the eye of this hurricane reaches 43° N latitude, this hurricane will most likely be pushed by planetary winds toward the
(1) northwest
(2) northeast
(3) southwest
(4) southeast
2


Base your answers to questions 46 through 48 on the diagram below, which shows details of a section of a rift valley in the center of a mid-ocean ridge. The vertical lines in the diagram represent faults and fractures within the ocean floor bedrock.

 
46. What will be the primary result of the continuation of the geologic processes indicated at this location?
(1) Earth's magnetic field will reverse direction.
(2) Continental crust will be forced downward.
(3) Earth's circumference will increase.
(4) New oceanic crust will form.
4

47. Which type of crustal plate boundary is shown in this diagram?
(1) divergent
(2) convergent
(3) universal
(4) transform
1

48. The dark-colored lava flows shown in the diagram were pushed from the magma chamber onto the surface of the ocean floor. Which characteristics are present in the solid rock that formed when the lava flows cooled?
(1) generally small grain size and mafic composition
(2) generally small grain size and felsic composition
(3) generally large grain size and mafic composition
(4) generally large grain size and felsic composition
1


Base your answers to questions 49 and 50 on the cross section below The cross section shows a typical bedrock structure where oil and natural gas deposits are found.

 
49. The natural gas, oil, and saltwater have formed layers at different levels in the same rock layer due to the
(1) principle of superposition
(2) principle of original horizontality
(3) differences in the density of the three materials
(4) differences in the geologic age of the three materials
3

50. According to the diagram, in which type of rock are these natural gas and oil deposits found?
(1) coarse-textured igneous rock
(2) foliated metamorphic rock
(3) porous clastic sedimentary rock
(4) intrusive crystalline sedimentary rock
3



Part B-2

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (51-65): Record your answers in the spaces provided below. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 51 and 52 on the weather map below, which shows the position of a lowpressure system. The L is the center of the low. The shaded portion represents an area of precipitation. A weather station model for Albany, New York, is shown on the map.

 
51. What type of front extends eastward from the low-pressure center? [1]
_______ front
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for an occluded front.


52. Complete the weather data table for Albany, New York, based on the station model shown on the map. [2]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] The correct responses are shown below.

Allow 2 credits it all four weather variables are correct.
Allow only 1 credit it only two or three weather variables are correct.
Note: Do not allow credit for “precipitation” as the response to present weather because it is too general.



Base your answers to questions 53 and 54 on the diagram below, which shows a clear Plastic tube containing water and a beaker containing a mixture of rounded quartz grains of different sizes.

 
53. When the rounded quartz grains are poured all at once into the tube, the grains will settle to the bottom of the tube. On the cross section provided below, draw the approximate grain sizes and pattern of arrangement of the rounded quartz grains at the bottom of the tube. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response that shows a pattern of sorting from large on the bottom to small on top. Grains do not have to be drawn to actual size. The student drawing does not have to completely fill the cross section either vertically or horizontally. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:


54. The side-view diagram below shows the same mixture and amount of rounded quartz grains being poured all at once into a moving stream with a depth of 3 meters.

Describe the general location of the 2-mm-diameter rounded quartz grains compared to the 4-mm-diameter rounded quartz grains as they are transported and deposited downstream. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
The 2-millimeter grains settle farther downstream than the 4-millimeter grains.
The 2-millimeter grains settle farther to the right. The larger grains are not carried as far.



Base your answers to questions 55 and 56 on the weather map provided below, which shows surface air-pressure readings, in millibars, at various locations in the United States and Canada. The 1020-millibar isobars have been drawn and labeled.

55. Draw the 1024and 1028-millibar isobars on the weather map provided below. [2]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] An example of correctly drawn isobars is shown below.

Allow 2 credits it all three isobars are drawn correctly. It more than the three required isobars are drawn, all isobars must be correct for full credit.
Allow only 1 credit if only one or two isobars are drawn correctly.

or


Allow only 1 credit it more than the three required isobars are drawn, and the three required isobars are drawn correctly but the additional isobars are drawn incorrectly.
Note: Isobars do not have to be labeled. Isobars must touch all equal value points to receive credit.


56. What weather instrument was most likely used to measure these air pressures? [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for barometer or barograph.



Base your answers to questions 57 through 60 on the geologic cross section below. Radioactive dating indicates that the granite intrusion is 279 million years old and the vesicular basalt is 260 million years old. The rock layers have not been overturned.

 
57. List the six rock units in the order from the oldest to the youngest. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW


58. During which geologic time period did the shale layer form? [1]
_______ Period
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for Permian.


59. The granite intrusion caused part of the limestone layer to undergo metamorphism. What metamorphic rock would most likely be found in this zone contact metamorphism? [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for marble or hornfels.


60. Describe the rate of cooling that must occur for magma to form vesicular basalt. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
fast rate
rapid cooling



Base your answers to questions 61 through 63 on the information, table, and photographs below and on your knowledge of Earth science.

"Herkimer Diamonds"


Gem-quality “Herkimer Diamonds” are hexagonal-shaped quartz crystals found in some of the surface bedrock of Herkimer, New York. Herkimer is located at approximately 43° north latitude and 75° west longitude. The oldest of these gemstones are believed to be approximately 500 million years old. These quartz crystals are magnificent works of nature that have a natural diamondlike geometric shape formed when the quartz crystallized. Natural “Herkimer Diamonds” were not cut or shaped by humans. Due to their appearance, “Herkimer Diamonds are commonly used in jewelry. These quartz crystals are not true diamonds.

 
61. List two mineral characteristics that differ between “Herkimer Diamonds” and true diamonds. [1]
(1) _______
(2) _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for two correct responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
hardness
chemical composition
dominant form of breakage or fracture/cleavage


62. State one use for “Herkimer Diamonds” (quartz), other than their use in jewelry. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
production of glass
electronics
as an abrasive


63. On the New York State map provided below, mark with a dot the location of Herkimer, New York. Draw a small circle around your dot to make the dot easily seen. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for the location of the dot within the box shown on the map. Allow credit even if a circle is not drawn around the dot.

Note: It is recommended that an overlay be used to ensure uniformity in scoring.




Part C

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (66-77): Record your answers in the spaces provided below. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 64 and 65 on the topographic map shown below. Points A, B, C, and D are reference points on the map. Elevations are measured in meters.

 
64. On the grid provided below, construct a topographic profile along line AB, by plotting a point for the elevation of each contour line that crosses line AB and connecting the points with a smooth, curved line to complete the profile. [2]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] The correct responses are shown below.

Allow 2 credits if 12 to 14 points are plotted correctly and are correctly connected with a smooth, curved line and the line extends below the lowest plotted points to show the valley.
Allow only 1 credit if 12 to 14 points are plotted correctly, but no line is drawn or the line is incorrectly drawn.

or


Allow only 1 credit if only 7 to 11 points are plotted correctly and are correctly connected with a smooth, curved line and the line extends below the lowest plotted points to show the valley.

Note: The center of the plotted point must be on the horizontal line within the circle shown.
Allow credit even if the points are not visible, but the line is visible within the circle.
Allow credit even if the student uses a symbol other than a dot.
Do not allow credit if a straight line is drawn between the lowest plotted points or if the valley extends to the next elevation line or below.
It is recommended that an overlay be used to ensure uniformity in scoring.


65. Calculate the gradient of Long Creek between points C and D and label the answer with the correct units. [2]
Gradiant = _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] Allow 1 credit for 27.6 (±2.0).

and


Allow 1 credit for m/km or meter/kilometer



Base your answers to questions 66 and 67 on the map below, which shows one method of classifying Earth’s surface into latitudinal climate belts. In the tropical climate belt, the average monthly temperatures never drop below I8°C. In the polar climate belts, the average monthly temperatures never rise above 10°C. The isotherms show the average monthly temperature of the coolest and warmest months. Effects of elevation have been omitted.

 
66. According to the isotherms on the map, locations in the mid-latitude climate belts have average monthly temperatures between what values? [1]
Between _______ °C and _______ °C
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for 10°C and 18°C or 18°C and 10°C.


67. Describe a specific characteristic of insolation received in the tropical climate belt region that causes the average monthly temperature to remain warm all year. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
1 Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
This region receives a high angle of insolation each day.
High-intensity insolation is received all year.
The Sun is higher in the sky all year.
The tropical region receives more intense sunlight.
Note: Do not allow credit for “The region is near the Equator (0° latitude),” or “receives more sunlight” because the response does not describe a specific characteristic of insolation.



68. New York State’s Adirondacks are classified as a mountain landscape region. Describe one bedrock characteristic and one land surface characteristic that were used to classify the Adirondacks as a mountain landscape region. [2]
Bedrock characteristics _______
_______
Landsurface characteristics _______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] Allow 1 credit for a correct bedrock characteristic. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
The Adirondacks have faulted, folded, and deformed bedrock.
The Adirondacks have intensely metamorphosed bedrock.
The oldest bedrock is near the center of the Adirondacks.

and


Allow 1 credit for a correct land surface characteristic. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
The Adirondacks have high elevations.
The Adirondacks have steep slopes.
The Adirondacks are a partially eroded dome.


69. The map provided below shows six source regions for different air masses that affect the weather of North America. The directions of movement of the air masses are shown. Using the standard two-letter air-mass symbols from the Earth Science Reference Tables, label the air masses by writing the correct symbol in each circle on the map. [2]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] The correct responses are shown below.

Allow 2 credits if five or six air-mass symbols are correct.
Allow only 1 credit if only three or four air-mass symbols are correct.

or


Allow only 1 credit if five or six air masses are correctly labeled with words instead of the two-letter symbol. For example: mT is labeled maritime tropical.
Note: Allow credit for either upper or lower-case letters because it is difficult to identify some students’ lower-case letters. For example, allow credit for MP or Mp or mp or mP. Do not allow credit if the letters are reversed.



Base your answers to questions 70 and 71 on the information below and on your knowledge of Earth science.

Accurate observations of the Sun were made by a New York State observer. This person observed the time of sunrise and the position of sunrise along the eastern horizon for each day during the month of May.
70. Describe how the time of sunrise changed for the observer each day during the month of May. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, this example:
The Sun appeared to rise earlier each day during May.
Note: Do not allow credit for “The days get longer” because the response does not describe the time of sunrise.


71. State the actual Earth motion that causes the Sun to appear to rise each day. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
1 Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Earth's rotation spinning on its axis



Base your answers to questions 72 and 73 on the data table below, which shows the amount of water vapor, in grams per cubic meter, that will saturate 1 cubic meter of air at different temperatures.

 
72. On the grid provided below, construct a line graph of the data, following the directions below.
a Place the name of the correct variable along the y-axis. Include the correct units. [1]
b Mark an appropriate numerical scale showing equal intervals along the y-axis. [1]
c Plot the amount of water that will saturate 1 cubic meter of air at the temperatures shown in the data table. Connect the points with a smooth, curved line. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[3] An example of a correct response is shown below.

a Allow 1 credit for labeling the y-axis water vapor, including units (g/m3).
b Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate numerical scale along the y-axis.
c Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting six or seven points and connecting them with a line. Allow credit even if the student uses a symbol other than a dot.
Note: Allow credit for a line that passes through six or seven correct points, even if the points are not visible beneath the line.


73. Describe the relationship between the air temperature and the amount of water vapor necessary to saturate the air. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
As air temperature increases, the amount of water vapor that the air can hold increases.
Warm air can hold more water vapor than cool air.
It is a direct relationship.
The higher the air temperature, the greater the amount of water vapor required to saturate the air.



Base your answers to questions 74 through 77 on the information below and on your knowledge of Earth science.

In the 1930s, most scientists believed that Earth’s crust and interior were solid and motionless. A small group of scientists were talking about “continental drift,” which is the idea that Earth’s crust is not stationary, but is constantly shifting and moving.
From seismic data, geophysical evidence, and laboratory experiments, scientists now generally agree that lithospheric plates move at the surface. Both Earth’s surface and interior are in motion. Solid rock in the mantle can be softened and shaped when subjected to the heat and pressure within Earth’s interior over millions of years.
Subduction processes are believed by many scientists to be the driving force of plate tectonics. At present, this theory cannot be directly observed and confirmed. The lithospheric plates have moved in the past and are still moving today. The details of why and how they move will continue to challenge scientists.
74. Earth’s crust is described as “constantly shifting and moving.” Give one example of geologic evidence that supports the conclusion that continents have drifted apart. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Continent shapes fit together like puzzle parts.
Sea-floor spreading occurs at mid-ocean ridges.
Bedrock can be correlated on the opposite sides of some oceans.
Fossil evidence is found in the matching bedrock of South America and Africa.
matching mountain ranges between continents


75. The information given suggests that “subduction processes are the driving force of plate tectonics". Identify a specific location of a subduction zone on Earth. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
west coast of South America
Aleutian Trench
boundary of Juan de Fuca Plate and North American Plate


76. According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, at what inferred depth is mantle rock partially melted and slowly moving below the lithospheric plates? [1]
_______ km
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for any response from 70 to 700 kilometers.


77. According to the geologic record, during which geologic time period did the lithospheric plates that made up Pangea begin to break up? [1]
_______ Period
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for Triassic Period.



  Try the Quiz :     Earth Science - New York Regents August 2004 Exam


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