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Earth Science - New York Regents August 2005 Exam

This is a test of your knowledge of Earth science. Use that knowledge to answer all the question in this examination. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables. The Earth Science Reference Tables are supplied separately. Be certain you have a copy of the 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006) of these reference tables before you begin the examination.
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Part A

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (1-35): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
1. Compared to Earth’s solar system, the universe is inferred to be
(1) younger and larger
(2) younger and smaller
(3) older and larger
(4) older and smaller
3

2. Terrestrial planets move more rapidly in their orbits than the Jovian planets because terrestrial planets are
(1) rotating on a tilted axis
(2) more dense
(3) more massive
(4) closer to the Sun
4

3. Which event is a direct result of Earth’s revolution?
(1) the apparent deflection of winds
(2) the changing of the Moon phases
(3) the seasonal changes in constellations viewed in the night sky
(4) the daily rising and setting of the Sun
3


4. The cyclic rise and fall of ocean tides on Earth is primarily caused by Earth’s rotation and the
(1) temperature differences in ocean currents
(2) revolution of Earth around the Sun
(3) direction of Earth’s planetary winds
(4) gravitational attraction of the Moon and the Sun
4

5. The apparent change in direction of a swinging Foucault pendulum is the result of the
(1) rotation of Earth
(2) revolution of Earth
(3) tilt of Earth’s axis
(4) shape of Earth’s orbit
1

6. Which statement about Polaris is best illustrated by the diagrams shown below?

(1) Polaris is located in a winter constellation.
(2) Polaris is located at the zenith at each location.
(3) Polariss apparent movement through the sky follows a south-to-north orientation.
(4) Polariss altitude is equal to a location’s latitude.
4

7. The diagram below represents the shape of the Milky Way Galaxy.

The Milky Way Galaxy is best described as
(1) elliptical
(2) irregular 
(3) circular
(4) spiral
4

8. Compared to the temperature and luminosity of the star Polaris, the star Sirius is
(1) hotter and more luminous
(2) hotter and less luminous
(3) cooler and more luminous
(4) cooler and less luminous
2

9. The Big Bang Theory, describing the creation of the universe, is most directly supported by the
(1) redshift of light from distant galaxies
(2) presence of volcanoes on Earth
(3) apparent shape of star constellations
(4) presence of craters on Earth’s Moon
1

10. Which process requires water to gain 540 calories of energy per gram?
(1) vaporization
(2) condensation 
(3) melting 
(4) freezing
1

11. Which geographic area is a common source region for cP air masses that move into New York State?
(1) southwestern United States
(2) central Canada
(3) the north Pacific Ocean
(4) the Gulf of Mexico
2

12. A parcel of air has a dry-bulb temperature of 24°C and a relative humidity of 55%. What is the dewpoint of this parcel of air?
(1) 6°C
(2) 14°C 
(3) 24°C
(4) 29°C
2

13. Which statement can best be supported by the fossil record?
(1) Humans have lived on Earth throughout geologic history.
(2) The organisms on Earth have not changed.
(3) Most life-forms that existed on Earth have become extinct.
(4) Dinosaurs existed on Earth for more than 544 million years.
3

14. The diagram below shows a geologic cross section. Letters A through D represent different rock units.
Which sequence correctly shows the age of the lettered rock units, from oldest to youngest?
(1) ABCD
(2) CDAB
(3) DBAC
(4) DCBA
4


Base your answers to questions 15 and 16 on the United States time zone map shown below. The dashed lines represent meridians (lines of longitude).

 
15. If the time in Buffalo, New York, is 5 a.m., what time would it be in San Francisco, California?
(1) 8 a.m.
(2) 2 a.m. 
(3) 3 a.m.
(4) 4 a.m.
2

16. The basis for the time difference between adjoining time zones is Earth’s
(1) 1° per hour rate of revolution
(2) 1° per hour rate of rotation  
(3) 15° per hour rate of revolution
(4) 15° per hour rate of rotation
4


17. The table below shows some observed physical properties of a mineral.

Based on these observations, the elements that make up this mineral’s composition are
(1) sulfur and lead
(2) sulfur, oxygen, and hydrogen
(3) oxygen, silicon, hydrogen, and magnesium
(4) oxygen, silicon, aluminum, and iron
3

18. The columns A, B, C, and D shown below contain equal volumes of sediment.

When an equal volume of water is added to each column, the greatest rate of infiltration will occur in which column?
(1) A
(2) B 
(3) C
(4) D
2

19. The three cross sections of sedimentary bedrock shown below represent widely separated surface exposures of layers that contain fossils. Letters A, B, C, and D represent four different marine fossils found in these rock layers.

Which letter best represents an index fossil?
(1) A
(2) B 
(3) C
(4) D
3

20. The diagram below represents a geologic cross section of a portion of Earth's crust.

Folding and erosion occurred after the formation of the
(1) Gayle shale
(2) Freeport sandstone
(3) Erie coal, but before formation of Freeport sandstone
(4) Dunbar limestone, but before formation of Erie coal
3

21. The surface winds in a typical Northern Hemisphere high-pressure system are generally moving
(1) counterclockwise away from the high-pressure center
(2) counterclockwise toward the high-pressure center
(3) clockwise away from the high-pressure center
(4) clockwise toward the high-pressure center
3


Base your answers to questions 22 through 24 on the diagram below, which shows a meandering stream. Letters A, B, C, and D indicate locations on the streambed.

 
22. At which two locations is the rate of erosion greater than the rate of deposition?
(1) A and B
(2) B and C  
(3) C and D
(4) D and A
4

23. What are the largest particles that this stream can transport when its velocity is 200 centimeters per second?
(1) silt
(2) sand 
(3) pebbles 
(4) cobbles
4

24. A decrease in the velocity of this stream will most likely cause an increase in
(1) the amount of sediment carried by the stream
(2) the size of the articles carried by the stream
(3) deposition within the stream channel
(4) abrasion of the stream channel
3


25. Beneath which surface location is Earth’s crust the thinnest?
(1) East Pacific Ridge
(2) the center of South America
(3) Old Forge, New York
(4) San Andreas Fault
1

26. On which weather map do the front symbols best represent the direction of movement of the cold front and warm front associated with the low-pressure system shown on the map?

2

27. The graph below shows the different velocities of P-waves and S-waves through Earth’s interior.

Which cross section best shows the inferred thickness of Earth’s interior layers that cause these different velocities?

2

28. The diagram below represents the pattern of normal and reversed magnetic polarity and the relative age of the igneous bedrock composing the ocean floor on the east side of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The magnetic polarity of the bedrock on the west side of the ridge has been deliberately left blank.

Which diagram best shows the magnetic pattern and relative age of the igneous bedrock on the west side of the ridge?

1

29. Which conditions normally can be found in Earth’s asthenosphere, producing a partial melting of ultramafic rock?
(1) temperature = 1,000°C; pressure = 10 million atmospheres
(2) temperature = 2,000°C; pressure = 0.1 million atmospheres
(3) temperature = 3,500°C; pressure = 0.5 million atmospheres
(4) temperature = 6,000°C; pressure = 4 million atmospheres
2

30. Which color of the visible light spectrum could have a wavelength of 5.5 × 10−5 centimeter?
(1) green
(2) orange  
(3) yellow
(4) red
3

31. Compared to the climate conditions of dry inland locations, the climate conditions of locations influenced by a nearby ocean generally result in
(1) hotter summers and colder winters, with a larger annual range of temperatures
(2) hotter summers and colder winters, with a smaller annual range of temperatures
(3) cooler summers and warmer winters, with a larger annual range of temperatures
(4) cooler summers and warmer winters, with a smaller annual range of temperatures
4

32. Biotite mica and muscovite mica have different chemical compositions. Compared to the magma from which biotite mica forms, the magma from which muscovite mica forms is usually
(1) more mafic and less dense
(2) more mafic and more dense
(3) more felsic and less dense
(4) more felsic and more dense
3

33. An increase in the amount of which atmospheric gas is thought to cause global climate warming?
(1) oxygen
(2) hydrogen
(3) nitrogen
(4) carbon dioxide
4

34. The diagram below shows a drill core of sediment that was taken from the bottom of a lake.

Which types of rock would most likely form from compaction and cementation of these sediments?
(1) sandstone and limestone
(2) shale and coal
(3) breccia and rock salt
(4) conglomerate and siltstone
1

35. Which intrusive igneous rock could be composed of approximately 60% pyroxene, 25% plagioclase Feldspar, 10% olivine, and 5% amphibole?
(1) granite
(2) rhyolite
(3) gabbro
(4) basalt
3



Part B-1

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (36-50): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 36 through 39 on the water cycle diagram shown below. Some arrows are numbered 1 through 4 and represent various processes.

 
36. Which numbered arrow best represents the process of transpiration?
(1) 1
(2) 2 
(3) 3
(4) 4
1

37. The clouds have formed primarily because moist air
(1) rises, expands, and cools
(2) rises, expands, and warms
(3) sinks, compresses, and cools
(4) sinks, compresses, and warms
1

38. For infiltration to occur, the ground must be
(1) permeable and saturated
(2) permeable and not saturated 
(3) impermeable and saturated
(4) impermeable and not saturated
2

39. Which atmospheric condition is most likely responsible for the wind blowing the clouds from the sea toward the land?
(1) high air temperature over the sea and low air temperature over the land
(2) high air pressure over the sea and low air pressure over the land
(3) low air density over the sea and high air density over the land
(4) low visibility over the sea and high visibility over the land
2


Base your answers to questions 40 through 42 on the world map below, which shows regions of Earth where a solar eclipse was visible on May 20, 1947. Locations A, B, C, and D are on Earth’s surface.

 
40. At which location could an observer have viewed this total solar eclipse if the skies were clear?
(1) A
(2) B 
(3) C
(4) D
3

41. Which statement best describes the visibility of this eclipse from locations in New York State?
(1) A total eclipse was visible all day.
(2) A total eclipse was visible only from noon until sunset.
(3) A partial eclipse was visible only from noon until sunset.
(4) Neither a partial nor a total eclipse was visible.
4

42. Which diagram best represents the positions of Earth (E), the Sun, and the Moon (M) that created the solar eclipse?
(Diagrams are not drawn to scale.)

2


Base your answers to questions 43 through 46 on the two topographic maps below. A grid system of numbers and letters appears along the edge of each map to help locate features. Both maps show elevations in feet above sea level.

 
43. Which statement correctly describes one difference between these maps?
(1) Map A has a greater relief (elevation change between high and low locations) than map B.
(2) Map A represents a much larger surface area than map B.
(3) Map A shows more contour lines than map B.
(4) Map A generally shows gentler slopes than map B.
4

44. On map B, what is the approximate straight-line distance from the center of the X within grid area B-11 to the center of the X within grid area H-11?
(1) 0.3 mi
(2) 0.6 mi 
(3) 1.2 mi
(4) 1.5 mi
2

45. Which direction is the stream mainly flowing within grid area H-1 on map B?
(1) northward
(2) southward 
(3) eastward
(4) westward
4

46. Which cross section best represents the topographic profile along the straight line from point Y to point Z on map B?


2


Base your answers to questions 47 through 50 on the information, map, and cross section below

        The map represents a portion of Earth’s surface in the Pacific Ocean. The positions of islands, earthquake epicenters, active volcanoes, and the Tonga Trench are shown. Lines of latitude and longitude have been included.
The cross section shows earthquakes that occurred beneath line XY on the map. Depth beneath Earth’s surface is indicated by the scale along the left side of the cross section, as are the range of depths for shallow, intermediate, and deep earthquakes. Distance from the trench is indicated by the scale along the bottom of the cross section.
 
47. The Tonga Trench is located at the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the
(1) Antarctic Plate
(2) Philippine Plate 
(3) Indian-Australian Plate
(4) Nazca Plate
3

48. The greatest number of earthquakes shown in the cross section occurred
(1) at sea level
(2) between sea level and a depth of 100 km
(3) at a depth between 100 and 300 km
(4) at a depth between 300 and 600 km
4

49. Which cross section has arrows that best represent the relative motion of the crustal plates along the Wadati-Benioff zone beneath the Tonga Trench?

1

50. The latitude and longitude of the center of Vanau Leva is closest to
(1) 17° N 179° W
(2) 17° N 181° W 
(3) 17° S 179° E
(4) 17° S 181° E
3



Part B-2

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (51-64): Record your answers in the spaces provided below. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 51 through 55 on the data table and map below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The data table shows the altitude of the top of a thunderstorm cloud and the probability of hail being formed for a location in New York State. The map shows the average number of days per year hail strikes the ground in different regions of the United States.

 
51. Describe the relationship between the altitude of the top of a thunderstorm cloud and the probability that hail will be produced by that cloud. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The higher the altitude of the top of the cloud, the greater the probability that hail will be produced.
— direct relationship


52. Into which atmospheric temperature zone (layer) above New York State would the top of a thunderstorm cloud extend to have a 100% probability of hail? [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for stratosphere.


53. State the average number of days per year that Syracuse, New York, will experience hail. [1]
_______ days/yr
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for one day per year.


54. The table below shows weather conditions recorded in Syracuse, New York, at the time of a severe hailstorm.

On the weather map station mode below, use the correct symbols and proper format to indicate the weather conditions shown in the table. [2]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] Allow a maximum of 2 credits, allocated as follows:

• Allow 2 credits if five or six weather conditions are correctly indicated, using the proper format.

• Allow 1 credit if only three or four weather conditions are correctly indicated, using the proper format.

Note: Feathers may be placed on either side of the staff.
Do not allow credit for numbers with units.


55. State one way that humans could protect themselves from harm if a severe hail warning is issued for their locality. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Seek indoor shelter.
— If indoors, stay away from windows.



Base your answers to questions 56 through 59 on the geologic time line shown below. Letters a through g on the time line indicate specific reference points in geologic time.

56. Place an X on the geologic time line below, so that the center of the X shows the time that the coral index fossil Lichenaria shown below existed on Earth. [1]


MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[l] Allow l credit if the center of the X falls within the circle shown on the time line below.


57. Letter a indicates a specific time during which geologic period? [1]
_______ Period
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for Cambrian Period.


58. Identify the mountain building event (orogeny) that was occurring in eastern North America at the time represented by letter g. [1]
_______ Orogeny
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for Appalachian Orogeny or Alleghanian Orogeny.


59. Identify one letter that indicates a time for which there is no rock record in New York State. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for f or g.



Base your answers to questions 60 and 61 on the geologic cross section shown below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The cross section shows the surface of a landscape region in the southwestern United States and indicates the age, type, and thickness of the bedrock.

 
60. State one characteristic, other than the horizontal bedrock structure, shown in the cross section that supports the idea that this region is correctly classified as a plateau landscape. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The landscape has a high relief.
— There is a large difference in elevation between the top and bottom rocks in the cross section.
— steep slopes
— high elevation


61. Which New York State landscape region has surface bedrock of the same geologic age as the surface bedrock shown in this cross section? [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for Newark Lowlands.


62. The diagram below represents a beaker of water that is being heated. As the colored dye pellet dissolves, the dye will show the movement of water in the beaker. On the diagram, draw arrows in the water to show the direction the colored dye will move when the water is heated as shown. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for arrows that exhibit clockwise convective circulation.



Base your answers to questions 63 and 64 on the diagram below, which shows two seismogram tracings, at stations A and B, for the same earthquake. The arrival times of the P-waves and S-waves are indicated on each tracing.

 
63. Explain how the seismic tracings recorded at station A and station B indicate that station A is farther from the earthquake epicenter than station B. [1]
_______
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The arrival time of the P-wave at station A is later than the arrival time of the P-wave at station B.
— The arrival time difference between the P-wave and S-wave is greater at station A.
— The amplitudes of the P-wave and S-wave tracings are greater on the seismogram at station B.


64. Seismic station A is located 5,400 kilometers from the epicenter of the earthquake. How much time would it take for the first S-wave produced by this earthquake to reach seismic station A? [1]
_______ min _______ sec
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for 15 minutes 50 seconds (±10 seconds).




Part C

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (65-82): Record your answers in the spaces provided below. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
65. The diagram below shows the average distance between the Sun and Earth drawn to a scale of 1 centimeter = 100,000,000 kilometers. Using this same scale, place a small dot representing Jupiter along the line to indicate how far Jupiter would be from the Sun, and label the dot “Jupiter.” [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the center of the dot for Jupiter is 7.8 (±0.4) cm from the center of the Sun and the dot is labeled.

Allow credit if a symbol other than a dot is used to correctly locate and label the position of Jupiter.



Base your answers to questions 66 and 67 on the diagram and information below about fossil snails and on your knowledge of Earth science.


Snails have lived in most of the world’s oceans over a period of hundreds of millions of years. Paleontologists discovered that in warm, tropical waters more snails have shells that, when viewed from the top, spiral outward in a clockwise direction. In cool or cold waters, more snails have shells that spiral outward in a counterclockwise direction. Both clockwise- and counterclockwise-spiraled snail fossils have been found in New York State bedrock.
66. In a slab of rock that contains many fossil snails, what evidence would lead geologists to conclude that the slab was formed in a tropical climate? [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Clockwise spiral snail shells are found in greater numbers.
— more clockwise fossil shells than counterclockwise


67. State one reason bedrock that formed in tropical regions is found in New York State. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— New York State experienced a warmer climate when it was located closer to the Equator.
— The North American Plate has drifted northward from the equator region over time.
— New York State used to be in the tropics.



Base your answers to questions 68 through 70 on the data table below, which shows the average date of the first breakup of ice on the Tanana River at Nenana, Alaska (65° N 149° W). The average date of the first ice breakup is shown for four decades.

 
68. On the grid below, construct a bar graph of the average date of the first ice breakup for each decade shown on the data table. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if all four bars are correctly drawn.

Note: Do not allow credit it the student constructs a line graph.


69. State one possible climate change responsible for the difference in the average dates of the first ice breakups shown by the data table. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The climate appears to have warmed.
— Average yearly temperature increased.
Allow credit for a response that is consistent with the student’s graph in question 68.


70. Explain why the number of daylight hours on May 5 for an observer located at Nenana, Alaska, will be different than the number of daylight hours for an observer located at New York, New York (41° N 73° 45' W). [1]
_______
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— They are at different latitudes.
— Nenana is located farther from the equator.
— The Sun’s apparent daily path is longer in Nenana on May 5th.
— The tilt of Earth’s axis causes a longer period of daylight in Nenana.



71. Complete the table below, by listing three agents of erosion and identifying one characteristic surface feature formed by each agent of erosion. [2]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] Allow a maximum of 2 credits, allocated as follows:
• Allow 2 credits for correctly listing three agents of erosion and identifying a characteristic surface feature formed by each of the three agents of erosion.

• Allow 1 credit for correctly listing only two agents of erosion and identifying a characteristic surface feature formed by each of the two agents of erosion.

or


Allow 1 credit for correctly listing three agents of erosion even if the surface feature is incorrectly identified.

Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:



Base your answers to questions 72 and 73 on the diagram below, which represents an asteroid’s elliptical orbit around the Sun. The dashed line is the major axis of the ellipse.

 
72.
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the center of the circle is within the circle shown.


73. The Sun is located at one focal point of the orbit. Place an X on the diagram at the location of the second focal point. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the center of the X is within the circle shown.

Note: Allow credit if a symbol other than X is used.



    Base your answers to questions 74 through 77 on the three western New York State snowfall maps below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The three maps represent three different winter seasons. The isolines show the total inches of snowfall received each winter season. Some western New York State counties are labeled on each map. The dotted line AB has been drawn on the 1991-1992 winter season map.

 
74. Calculate the average snowfall gradient along the dotted line between points A and B on the 1991-1992 winter season map, and label your answer with the correct units. [2]
Gradiant = _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] Allow a maximum of 2 credits, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for 4 or 4.0 (±0.2).
• Allow 1 credit for the correct unit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— inches/mile
— in/ mi


75. Once the surface of Lake Erie completely freezes over with ice, the amount of snow from each snowstorm is usually reduced. Explain why a covering of ice on Lake Erie may cause the amount of snow from snowstorms to be reduced. [1]
_______
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— When Lake Erie is covered with ice, the air moving over it will pick up less moisture.
— Less evaporation will take place.
— When Lake Erie is covered with ice, the air is heated less.


76. On the grid below, draw a line graph to show the general relationship between the amount of snowfall recorded in northern Erie County with the amount of snowfall recorded in southern Erie County, as shown on the three snowfall maps. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the line graph shows that southern Erie County has more snowfall than northern Erie County.


77. On the map below that shows the total inches of snowfall received at various locations for the 1984-1985 winter season, draw the 120-inch snowfall isoline. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correctly drawn 120-inch snowfall isoline.

Note: It additional isolines are drawn, all isolines must be correct to receive credit.



Base your answers to questions 78 and 79 on the passage below and on your knowledge of Earth science.

Radiocarbon Dating


Radioactive carbon-14 (C14), because of its short half-life, is used for the absolute dating of organic remains that are less than 70,000 years old.
Carbon-14 is an isotope of carbon that is produced in Earth’s upper atmosphere. High-energy cosmic rays from the Sun hit nitrogen-14 (N14), producing radioactive C14. This C14 is unstable and will eventually change back into N14 through the process of radioactive decay. The proportions of C14 and ordinary C12 in Earth’s atmosphere remain approximately constant.
Radioactive C14, just like ordinary C12, can combine with oxygen to make carbon dioxide. Plants use CO2 during photosynthesis. The proportion of C14 to C12 in the cells and tissues of living plants is the same as the proportion of C14 to C12 in the atmosphere. After plants die, no new C14 is taken in because there is no more photosynthesis. Meanwhile, the C14 in the dead plant keeps changing back to N14, so there is less and less C14. The longer the plant has been dead, the less C14 is found in the plant. The age of organic remains can be found by comparing how much C14 is still in the organic remains to how much C14 is in a living organism.
78. Radioactive C14 was used to determine the geologic age of old wood preserved in a glacier The amount of C14 in the old wood is halt the normal amount of C14 currently found in the wood of living trees. What is the geologic age of the old wood? [1]
_______ yr
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— 5,700 years
— 547 × 103 years


79. State one difference between dating with the radioactive isotope C14 and dating with the radioactive isotope uranium-238 (U238). [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— U238 has a longer half-life.
— U238 can be used to date older geologic events.
— C14 is used to date organic remains while U238 is not.



Base your answers to questions 80 through 82 on the passage below and on your knowledge of Earth science.

Great Balls of Fire


The Earth’s predicted near-miss with asteroid XF11 in the year 2028 has once again focused attention on the fear that a large asteroid or comet hitting our planet could trigger a global catastrophe.
To back this up, every article and television program about XF11 boldly asserted that the dinosaur extinction was caused by a giant asteroid impacting into the Earth 65 million years ago. This has typically been accompanied by a picture of frightened dinosaurs looking skyward at a huge flaming meteorite streaking across the horizon. This scenario is so widely accepted that few commentators bother to question it any more. There is, however, much evidence to suggest that an asteroid may not have hit the Earth 65 million years ago and that, even if it did, it did not cause the mass extinction of life attributed to it. There is also the possibility that dinosaurs may not have been around to witness it!

by Paul Chambers

http://www.forteantimes.com/articles/111_asteroid.shtmI (6/98)


80. It an asteroid struck Earth 65 million years ago, what surface feature was most likely created by this asteroid impact? [1]
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MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— crater
— impact crater
— large hole


81. Identify one geologic process occurring on Earth that could have hidden or even destroyed this inferred impact feature. [1]
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_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— deposition of sediment
— erosion
— subduction
— volcanic lava flow
— weathering


82. Explain how an asteroid impact may have been able to cause a worldwide mass extinction of dinosaurs. [1]
_______
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Dust that was thrown into Earth’s atmosphere caused a change in Earth’s climate.
— The impact caused fires that killed plants and animals.
— Dust from the impact blocked sunlight that cooled Earth and caused many green plants to die.



  Try the Quiz :     Earth Science - New York Regents August 2005 Exam


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