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Earth Science - New York Regents January 2003 Exam

This is a test of your knowledge of Earth science. Use that knowledge to answer all the question in this examination. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables. The Earth Science Reference Tables are supplied separately. Be certain you have a copy of the 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006) of these reference tables before you begin the examination.
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Part A

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (1-35): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
1. Which diagram correctly shows the apparent motion of Polaris from sunset to midnight for an observer in northern Canada?

4

2. Earth’s orbital velocity is slowest on July 5 because
(1) the Moon is closest to Earth
(2) Earth’s distance from the Sun is greatest
(3) Earth, the Moon, and the Sun are located along a straight line in space
(4) the highest maximum temperatures occur in the Northern Hemisphere
2

3. Three planets that are relatively large, gaseous, and of low density are
(1) Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn
(2) Venus, Jupiter, and Neptune
(3) Mars, Jupiter, and Uranus
(4) Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus
4


4. Which diagram sequence correctly shows the order of Moon phases, as viewed from Earth, for a period of 1 month? [Note that some phases have been omitted.]

2

5. The diagram below shows the relative positions of the Sun, the Moon, and Earth when an eclipse was observed from Earth. Positions A and B are locations on Earth’s surface.

Which statement correctly describes the type of eclipse that was occurring and the position on Earth where this eclipse was observed?
(1) A lunar eclipse was observed from position A.
(2) A lunar eclipse was observed from position B.
(3) A solar eclipse was observed from position A.
(4) A solar eclipse was observed from position B.
3

6. The diagram below shows the types of electromagnetic energy given off by the Sun. The shaded part of the diagram shows the approximate amount of each type actually reaching Earth’s surface.

Which conclusion is best supported by the diagram?
(1) All types of electromagnetic energy reach Earth’s surface.
(2) Gamma rays and x rays make up the greatest amount of electromagnetic energy reacting Earth’s surface.
(3) Visible light makes up the greatest amount of electromagnetic energy reaching Earth’s surface.
(4) Ultraviolet and infrared radiation make up the greatest amount of electromagnetic energy reaching Earth’s surface.
3

7. Land surfaces of Earth heat more rapidly than water surfaces because
(1) more energy from the Sun falls on land than on water
(2) land has a lower specific heat than water
(3) sunlight penetrates to greater depths in land than in water
(4) less of Earth’s surface is covered by land than by water
2

8. The geologic drill core below shows bedrock layers A, B, and C that have not been overturned. The geological ages of layers A and C are shown.

What is the geologic age of layer B?
(1) Cambrian
(2) Ordovician
(3) Devonian
(4) Permian
3

9. Most of Earth’s surface ocean current patterns are primarily caused by
(1) the force of gravity
(2) the impact of precipitation
(3) prevailing winds
(4) river currents
3

10. A student uses a sling psychrometer outdoors on a clear day. The dry-bulb (air) temperature is 10°C. The water on the wet bulb will most likely
(1) condense, causing the wet-bulb temperature to be higher than the air temperature
(2) condense, causing the wet-bulb temperature to be equal to the air temperature
(3) evaporate, causing the wet-bulb temperature to be lower than the air temperature
(4) evaporate, causing the wet-bulb temperature to be equal to the air temperature
3

11. In which direction do surface winds around lowpressure centers in the Northern Hemisphere generally move?
(1) counterclockwise, toward the center of the low
(2) clockwise, toward the center of the low
(3) counterclockwise, away from the center of the low
(4) clockwise, away from the center of the low
1

12. The profile below shows the average diameter of sediment that was sorted and deposited in specific areas A, B, C, and D by a stream entering an ocean.

As compaction and cementation of these sediments eventually occur, which area will become siltstone
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
3

13. The sequence of diagrams below represents the gradual geologic changes in layer X, located just below Earth’s surface.

Which type of sedimentary rock was formed at layer X?
(1) conglomerate
(2) shale
(3) rock salt
(4) coal
4

14. Most water vapor enters the atmosphere by the processes of
(1) convection and radiation
(2) condensation and precipitation
(3) evaporation and transpiration
(4) erosion and conduction
3

15. Glaciers often form parallel scratches and grooves in bedrock because glaciers
(1) deposit sediment in unsorted piles
(2) deposit rounded sand in V-shaped valleys
(3) continually melt and refreeze
(4) drag loose rocks over Earth’s surface
4

16. Which graph correctly represents the three most abundant elements, by mass, in Earth’s crust?

4

17. The photograph below shows actual crystal sizes in a light-colored igneous rock that contains several minerals, including potassium feldspar, quartz, and biotite mica.

The rock should be identified as
(1) granite
(2) gabbro
(3) basalt
(4) rhyolite
1

18. Which weather station model shows the highest relative humidity?

2

19. The graph below shows the average change in the elevation of a mountain range over time.

According to the graph, the rate of uplifting was greater than the rate of erosion during which geologic time period?
(1) Silurian
(2) Devonian
(3) Carboniferous
(4) Permian
3

20. The photograph below shows an eroded plateau found in the southwestern United States.

The landscape was developed by the processes of
(1) crustal uplift and stream erosion
(2) crustal uplift and glacial erosion
(3) crustal folding and stream erosion
(4) crustal folding and glacial erosion
1

21. At which latitude and longitude in New York State would a salt mine in Silurian-age bedrock most likely be located?
(1) 41° N 72° W
(2) 43° N 77° W 
(3) 44° N 74° W
(4) 44° N 76° W
2

22. An unidentified mineral that is softer than calcite exhibits a metallic luster and cubic cleavage. This mineral most likely is
(1) galena
(2) pyrite 
(3) halite
(4) pyroxene
1

23. The study of how seismic waves change as they travel through Earth has revealed that
(1) P-waves travel more slowly than S-waves through Earth’s crust
(2) seismic waves travel more slowly through the mantle because it is very dense
(3) Earth’s outer core is solid because P-waves are not transmitted through this layer
(4) Earth’s outer core is liquid because S-waves are not transmitted through this layer
4

24. The map below shows major streams in the New York State area. The bold lines mark off sections A through I within New York State.

The best title for the map would be
(1) “Tectonic Plate Boundaries in New York State”
(2) “Bedrock Geology Locations of New York State”
(3) “Landscape Regions of New York State”
(4) “Watershed Areas of New York State”
4


Base your answers to questions 25 and 26 on the earthquake seismogram below.

 
25. When did the first P-waves arrive at this seismic station?
(1) 3 minutes after an earthquake occurred 2,600 km away
(2) 5 minutes after an earthquake occurred 2,600 km away
(3) 9 minutes after an earthquake occurred 3,500 km away
(4) 11 minutes after an earthquake occurred 3,500 km away
2

26. How many additional seismic stations must report seismogram information in order to locate this earthquake?
(1) one
(2) two
(3) three
(4) four
2


27. The diagram below shows some features of Earth’s crust and upper mantle.

Which model most accurately shows the movements (arrows) associated with the surface features shown in the diagram?

1


Base your answers to questions 28 through 30 on the map below. The map shows the continents of Africa and South America, the ocean between them, and the ocean ridge and transform faults. Locations A and D are on the continents. Locations B and C are on the ocean floor.

 
28. The hottest crustal temperature measurements would most likely be found at location
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
3

29. Which table best shows the relative densities of the crustal bedrock at locations A, B, C, and D?

2

30. Which graph best shows the relative age of the ocean-floor bedrock from location B to location C?

4


Base your answers to questions 31 and 32 on the diagram below, which shows a cross section of Earth’s crust.

 
31. Which statement gives an accurate age relationship for the bedrock in the cross section?
(1) Intrusion A is younger than intrusion C.
(2) Intrusion C is younger than intrusion B.
(3) Intrusion B is older than intrusion A.
(4) Intrusion C is older than layer E.
2

32. The most apparent buried erosional surface is found between rock units
(1) A and B
(2) C and D
(3) D and F
(4) E and H
3


33. During a heavy rainfall, runoff will be greatest on a soil that has an infiltration (permeability) rate of
(1) 0.1 cm/sec
(2) 0.2 cm/sec 
(3) 0.3 cm/sec
(4) 1.2 cm/sec
1

34. Which inference is best supported by the rock and fossil record in New York State?
(1) Eurypterids lived in shallow seas near presentday Syracuse.
(2) Coelophysis wandered through jungles near present-day Albany.
(3) The first coral reefs formed off the shoreline of present-day Long Island.
(4) The condor nested on the peaks of the ancestral Adirondack Mountains during the Grenville Orogeny.
1

35. The diagram below shows a rock with deformed structure and intergrown crystals.

The rock was probably formed by
(1) sediments that were deposited on the ocean floor
(2) heat and pressure that changed a preexisting rock
(3) volcanic lava that cooled on Earth’s surface
(4) a meteor impact on Earth’s surface
2



Part B-1

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (36-50): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
36. The table below shows the duration of insolation at different latitudes for three different days during the year.

Which dates are represented most correctly by Day 1, Day 2, and Day 3, respectively?
(1) March 21, September 22, December 21
(2) June 21, September 22, December 21
(3) September 22, December 21, March 21
(4) December 21, March 21, June 21
2


Base your answers to questions 37 and 38 on the graph below, which shows changes in the Sun’s magnetic activity and changes in the number of sunspots over a period of approximately 100 years. Sunspots are dark, cooler areas within the Sun’s photosphere that can be seen from Earth.

 
37. The graph indicates that years having the greatest number of sunspots occur
(1) randomly and unpredictably
(2) precisely at the beginning of each decade
(3) in a cyclic pattern, repeating approximately every 6 years
(4) in a cyclic pattern, repeating approximately every 11 years
4

38. Which graph best represents the relationship between the number of sunspots and the amount of magnetic activity in the Sun?

1


39. A student performed a laboratory activity in which water was poured slowly into four cups containing equal volumes of loosely packed sediment samples, as shown in the diagram below. All particles were spherical in shape and uniform in size within a container. After the water level reached the surface of each sample, the student determined the amount of water that had been added.

The results of the activity should have indicated that approximately equal amounts of water were added to the cups of
(1) silt and pebbles, only
(2) sand, silt, and pebbles, only
(3) pebbles and the mixture, only
(4) sand, pebbles, and the mixture, only
2

40. The diagram below shows the apparent path of the Sun as viewed by an observer at a certain Earth location on March 21.

At which latitude is the observer located?
(1) the Equator (0°)
(2) 23½° N 
(3) 66½° N
(4) 90° N
1


Base your answers to questions 41 through 43 on the map below. The map shows an imaginary continent on Earth. Arrows represent prevailing wind directions. Letters A through D represent locations on the continent. Locations A and B are at the same latitude and at the same elevation at the base of the mountains.

 
41. Over the course of a year, compared to location B, location A will have
(1) less precipitation and a smaller temperature range
(2) less precipitation and a greater temperature range
(3) more precipitation and a smaller temperature range
(4) more precipitation and a greater temperature range
3

42. The climate at location C is much drier than at location D. This difference is best explained by the fact that location C is located
(1) farther from any mountain range
(2) closer to a large body of water
(3) at a latitude that experiences longer average annual daylight
(4) at a latitude where air is sinking and surface winds diverge
4

43. Compared to the observations made at location D, the observed altitude of Polaris at location B is
(1) always less
(2) only less from March 21 to September 22
(3) only greater from March 21 to September 22
(4) always greater
4


44. A list of three observed relationships is shown below.
• Erosional rate = depositional rate
• Amount of insolation = amount of terrestrial radiation
• Rate of condensation = rate of evaporation
In which situation would each relationship exist?
(1) when a cyclic change occurs
(2) when a change of state occurs
(3) when dynamic equilibrium is reached
(4) when global warming ceases and global cooling begins
3

45. A student filled a graduated cylinder with 1,000 milliliters of water to represent a radioactive substance. After 30 seconds, the student poured out one-half of the water in the cylinder to represent the decay occurring within the first half-life. The student repeated the process every 30 seconds. How much water did the student pour from the cylinder at the 2-minute mark?
(1) 12.5 mL
(2) 62.5 mL  
(3) 125.0 mL
(4) 250.0 mL
2

46. Which graph best represents the relationship between surface-water runoff and stream discharge?

2

47. The temperature field map below represents surface air temperatures within a park. The location of a lake within the park is also indicated.

Which graph best represents the temperature profile along a straight line from point A to point B?

4

48. The maps below show the amount of sea ice surrounding the continent of Antarctica at two different times of the year. Map A represents late August when the area covered by sea ice approaches its greatest extent. Map B represents the minimum extent of sea ice.

Which month is most probably represented by map B?
(1) February
(2) May
(3) June
(4) October
1

49. The geologic block diagram below shows surface features and subsurface structures of a section of Montana.

The faulting shown in the diagram could have occurred
(1) 2,100 million years ago
(2) 520 million years ago
(3) 250 million years ago
(4) 50 million years ago
4

50. The photograph below shows an outcrop of horizontal rock layers in New York State.

Rock outcrops like this are most commonly found in which area of New York State?
(1) Hudson Highlands
(2) Adirondack Mountains
(3) Atlantic Coastal Plain
(4) Appalachian Plateau
4



Part B-2

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (51-63): Record your answers in the spaces provided below. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
51. Identify by name the surface ocean current that cools the climate of locations on the western coastline of North America. [1]
_______ Current
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for California Current.



Base your answers to questions 52 and 53 on diagrams I through III below. Diagrams I, II, and III represent the length and direction of the shadow of a vertical stick measured at noon on three different dates at 42° N latitude.

 
52. Explain how the changing altitude (angle of incidence) of the noon Sun affects the length of the shadows shown in the diagrams. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
the higher the Sun, the shorter the shadow
the greater the angle, the shorter the shadow
the lower the Sun’s angle, the longer the shadow


53. On the diagram provided below, draw the direction and length of the shadow at noon that will most likely be observed at 42° N latitude on June 21. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

Allow 1 credit for drawing a shadow shorter than the height of the vertical stick. The shadow must be drawn extending north, parallel to the north arrow.



54. The diagram below shows a cross section of New York State bedrock that has not been overturned. Line X represents an unconformity.
_______

The index fossil Eurypterus is found in the limestone layer. What trilobite index fossil could be found in the shale layer? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for the trilobites Elliptocephala or Cryptolithus. Do not allow credit for the trilobite Phacops or any fossil that is not a trilobite.



Base our answers to questions 55 and 56 on the graph below, which shows a generalized sequence of rock types that form from original clay deposits at certain depths and temperature conditions within Earth’s interior.

 
55. When clay materials are buried to a depth of 14 kilometers, which type of metamorphic rock is normally formed? [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for phyllite.


56. Explain why gneiss would not form at a depth of 27 kilometers and at a temperature of 800°C. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response that clearly explains that at this depth and temperature these rock materials would melt. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Rocks at a depth of 27 km and at a temperature of 800°C will be melted.
The temperature should be approximately 600°C in order for gneiss to form. Melted rocks will form igneous rocks.



Base your answers to questions 57 through 60 on the weather map provided below, which shows partial weather-station data for several cities in eastern North America.

57. On the weather map provided, draw isotherms every 10°F, starting with 40°F and ending with 70°F. Isotherms must extend to the edges of the map. [2]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2]

Allow 2 credits for four correctly drawn isotherms. If more than the four required isotherms are drawn, all isotherms must be correct to receive 2 credits.
Allow only 1 credit for only two or three correctly drawn isotherms.

or


Allow only 1 credit if all four required isotherms are drawn correctly, but extra isotherms are drawn incorrectly.
Note: Allow credit even if the isotherms are not labeled.
Allow credit if the isotherms extend to the edge of the map or if the isotherms extend only to the edge of the continent and not into the ocean.


58. In the space provided below, calculate the temperature gradient between Richmond, Virginia, and Hatteras, North Carolina, by following the directions below.
a Write the equation for gradient.
b Substitute data from the map into the equation. [1]
c Calculate the average gradient and label your answer with the correct units. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] a Allow no credit for writing the equation.
b Allow 1 credit for correctly substituting both temperature and distance information (±10 miles) into the equation written in part a. The student need not record the units. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:

c Allow 1 credit for correctly calculating the gradient, based on the student’s answer in part b. Units that are consistent with the students answer in part b must be included to receive credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:


59. State the actual air pressure, in millibars, shown at Miami, Florida. [1]
_______ mb
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for 1020.8 mb.


60. State the general relationship between air temperature and latitude for locations shown on the map. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Temperatures generally decrease as latitude increases. Temperature and latitude are inversely related.



Base your answers to questions 61 through 63 on the diagram below, which shows igneous rock that has undergone mainly physical weathering into sand and mainly chemical weathering into clay.

 
61. Compare the particle size of the physically weathered fragments to the particle size of the chemically weathered fragments. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
The physically weathered sediments are larger in particle size than the chemically weathered particles.
The sand fragments are larger than clay fragments.
The sand fragments range from 0.006 cm to 0.2 cm in diameter and the clay fragments are less than 0.0004 cm in diameter.


62. Describe the change in temperature and moisture conditions that would cause an increase in the rate of chemical weathering into clay. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for giving both correct conditions. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, this example:
Moisture and temperature should both increase.


63. If the igneous rock is a layer of vesicular andesite, identify three types of mineral grains that could be found in the sand. [1]
(1) _______
(2) _______
(3) _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Students must have three of the following mineral grains:
plagioclase feldspar
biotite
amphibole
quartz or pyroxene
Note: Do not allow credit for an answer that includes both quartz and pyroxene.




Part C

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (64-77): Record your answers in the spaces provided below. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 64 and 65 on your knowledge of Earth science and on the newspaper article shown below, written by Paul Recer and printed in the Times Union on October 9, 1998.

Astronomers peer closer to big bang


WASHINGTON — The faintest and most distant objects ever sighted — galaxies of stars more than 12 billion light years away — have been detected by an infrared camera on the Hubble Space Telescope.
The sighting penetrates for the first time to within about one billion light years of the very beginning of the universe, astronomers said, and shows that even at that very early time there already were galaxies with huge families of stars.
“We are seeing farther than ever before,” said Rodger I. Thompson, a University of Arizona astronomer and the principal researcher in the study.
Thompson and his team focused an infrared instrument on the Hubble on a narrow patch of the sky that had been previously photographed in visible light.  The instrument detected about 100 galaxies that were not seen in the visible light and 10 of these were at extreme distance.
He said the galaxies are seen as they were when the universe was only about 5 percent of its present age. Astronomers generally believe the universe began with a massive explosion, called the “big bang,” that occurred about 13 billion years ago.
Since the big bang, astronomers believe that galaxies are moving rapidly away from each other, spreading out and becoming more distant.
64. The big-bang theory is widely believed by astronomers to explain the beginning of the universe. Why does the light from distant galaxies support the big-bang theory? [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
A shift of light from distant galaxies toward the red end of the spectrum shows galaxies are moving away from Earth.
The red shift shows that the universe is expanding.


65. Compare the age of Earth and our solar system to the age of these distant galaxies of stars. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Allow credit for any answer that shows the correct relative-age relationship even if the actual ages are incorrect. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Earth and our solar system are younger than the Milky Way galaxy.

The estimated age of Earth and our solar system is 4.6 billion years and these distant galaxies are 12 billion years old.

Our solar system is about 5 billion years old, much younger than these 12-billion-year-old galaxies.



Base your answers to questions 66 and 67 on the diagram below, which shows the orbit of planet D around the star Upsilon Andromedae. The dashed lines show where the paths of the first four planets of our solar system would be located if they were going around Upsilon Andromedae instead of the Sun. All distances are drawn to scale.

 
66. Describe the eccentricity of planet D’s orbit relative to the eccentricities of the orbits of the planets shown in our solar system. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Planet D has a much more eccentric orbit than any of the first four planets of our solar system.
The first four planets of our solar system have less eccentric orbits than planet D.


67. Describe the changes in gravitational force between planet D and the star Upsilon Andromedae during one complete orbit around the star. Be sure to describe where the force is greatest and where the force is least. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response that includes when the force is greatest and when the force is least.
Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, this example:
The gravitational pull is greatest when planet D is closest to the star and the pull is least when planet D is farthest from the star.



68. The photographs below show the Moon and Earth as viewed from space. It is inferred that Earth had many impact craters similar to those shown on the Moon.

Describe one process that has destroyed many of the impact craters that once existed on Earth. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Weathering has broken down the rock of the craters.
Erosion has removed the weathered rock of the craters.
Earth’s plate tectonics have destroyed surface craters during subduction.


69. Name one region of the United States that is likely to experience a major damaging earthquake. Explain why an earthquake is likely to occur in that region. [1]
Region: _______
Explanation: _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Region: California
Explanation: crustal movement along the San Andreas Fault

Region: Pacific Northwest Coast
Explanation: A subduction zone is nearby.



Base your answers to questions 70 through 73 on the atmospheric cross section below, which represents a winter storm system. Zones A, B, C, and D are located on a west to east line at approximately 43° N latitude across New York State. This cross section shows how solid and liquid forms of precipitation depend on the air temperature above Earth’s surface. The storm is moving from west to east.

 
70. Explain why sleet is occurring in Zone B. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Snow is melting and refreezing to sleet as it falls. The rain freezes as it falls through colder air before it hits the ground.


71. At the time of the events represented by the cross section, Syracuse, New York, is experiencing the following weather conditions:

The temperature, dewpoint, and wind direction are shown on the weather station model below. Using proper format, add the information shown in the table to the model provided below. [2]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2]

Allow 2 credits if four or five variables are drawn correctly.
Allow only 1 credit if only two or three variables are drawn correctly.
Note: Feathers may be placed on either side of the staff.
Do not allow credit for numbers with labels.


72. As the storm moves eastward, the type of precipitation received in Syracuse changes. State the type of precipitation that will immediately follow freezing rain. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for sleet.


73. Describe the general air movement and temperature change that caused the clouds associated with this storm to form. [2]
Air movement: _______
Temperature change: _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] Allow1 credit for indicating that the air rises.
and
Allow 1 credit for indicating that the air cools.



74. An island measures 10 kilometers from east to west and 8 kilometers from north to south. A single hill on the east side of the island has a maximum elevation of 57 meters and is steepest to the north. In the box provided below, draw a simple contour map to represent this island, using a distance scale of 1 centimeter = 1 kilometer and a contour interval of 10 meters. [4]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[4] An example of a correctly drawn island is shown below.

Allow 1 credit if the island is drawn the correct size (±0.5 cm).

and


Allow 1 credit if the hill is placed on the east side of the island.

and


Allow 1 credit if the contour lines are closest together on the north side of the hill.

and

Allow 1 credit if five closed contour lines are used to indicate the hill on the island. These lines do not include the edge of the island.

Note: Allow credit even if the contour lines are not labeled and if a graphic scale is not included.




Base your answers to questions 75 through 77 on the information and diagram below and on the data table provided.

A student used water, a trough, a timer, a Ping-Pong ball, and a metric ruler to investigate waterflow. The trough was set at different angles to compile the data in the data table provided below.

 
75. Calculate the average velocity of the water flowing down the trough in each position, A, B, C, and D. Record your answers in the data table provided above. Express your answers to the nearest tenth. [2]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] The correct answers are shown below.
Trough A = .3 or 0.3
Trough B = .4 or 0.4
Trough C = .6 or 0.6
Trough D = .7 or 0.7
Allow 2 credits if three or four answers are calculated correctly.
Allow only 1 credit if only one or two answers are calculated correctly.
Note: Allow credit even if the answers are not rounded to the nearest tenth.


76. State the purpose of the students investigation. [1]
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_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, this example:
to determine the relationship between stream velocity and the slope of a streambed


77. Based on the data and the values you calculated for average stream velocity, state an appropriate conclusion to this investigation. [1]
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_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, this example:
As the slope of the streambed increases, stream velocity increases.

or


Allow 1 credit for an appropriate response consistent with the student’s results calculated in question 75.



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