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Earth Science - New York Regents January 2009 Exam

This is a test of your knowledge of Earth science. Use that knowledge to answer all the question in this examination. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables. The Earth Science Reference Tables are supplied separately. Be certain you have a copy of the 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006) of these reference tables before you begin the examination.
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Part A

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (1-35): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
1. Which statement describes the general relationship between the temperature and the luminosity of main sequence stars?
(1) As temperature decreases, luminosity increases.
(2) As temperature decreases, luminosity remains the same.
(3) As temperature increases, luminosity increases.
(4) As temperature increases, luminosity remains the same.
3

2. Which planet has the least distance between the two foci of its elliptical orbit?
(1) Venus
(2) Earth
(3) Mars
(4) Jupiter
1

3. Earth’s rate of rotation is approximately
(1) 1° per day      
(2) 15° per day
(3) 180° per day
(4) 360° per day
4


4. Light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation are given off by stars using energy released during
(1) nuclear fusion            
(2) conduction
(3) convection   
(4) radioactive decay
1

5. The path of a Foucault pendulum provides evidence that Earth
(1) rotates on its axis
(2) revolves in its orbit
(3) is tilted on its axis
(4) has an elliptical orbit
1

6. What time is it in Greenwich, England (at 0° longitude), when it is noon in Massena, New York?
(1) 7 a.m.               
(2) noon
(3) 5 p.m.
(4) 10 p.m.
3

7. The diagram below shows two identical containers filled with uniform particles that were sorted by size.

Which characteristic is most likely the same for these particle-filled containers?
(1) infiltration rate
(2) water retention
(3) capillarity
(4) porosity
4

8. Which soil conditions normally result in the greatest amount of runoff?
(1) low permeability and gentle slope
(2) low permeability and steep slope
(3) high permeability and gentle slope
(4) high permeability and steep slope
2

9. Very cold climates occur at Earth’s North and South Poles because the polar regions
(1) are usually farthest from the Sun
(2) absorb the greatest amount of insolation
(3) receive the most hours of daylight
(4) receive low-angle insolation
4

10. A barometric pressure of 1021.0 millibars is equal to how many inches of mercury?
(1) 29.88
(2) 30.15
(3) 30.25
(4) 30.50
2

11. The diagrams below show apparent changes in the positions of the stars in the Big Dipper that have occurred in the past 200,000 years. The directions of individual star movements as seen from Earth are shown by the arrows.

Which diagram best represents h0w the Big Dipper will appear when viewed from Earth in 200,000 years?

1

12. On which station model would the present weather symbol * most likely be found?

3

13. The letters A through D in the cross section below represent four of the processes that are part of the water cycle.

Which table correctly matches each letter with the process that it represents?

4

14. The cross section below shows a sea breeze blowing from the ocean toward the land. The air pressure at the land surface is 1013 millibars.

The air pressure at the ocean surface a few miles from the shore is most likely
(1) 994 mb
(2) 1005 mb
(3) 1013 mb
(4) 1017 mb
4

15. An instrument used to measure a weather variable is shown below.

Which weather variable is measured by this instrument?
(1) wind direction
(2) air pressure
(3) wind speed
(4) amount of rainfall
3

16. Mt. Marcy often has the coldest nighttime temperatures in New York State because of its
(1) latitude and planetary winds
(2) latitude and elevation
(3) longitude and planetary winds
(4) longitude and elevation
2

17. The map below shows a weather variable recorded at noon on a certain day. Isolines show values from 20 to 70.

Which atmospheric variable is most likely represented by the isolines on this map?
(1) snowfall in inches
(2) wind speed in knots
(3) barometric pressure in millibars
(4) air temperature in degrees Fahrenheit
4

18. Which combination of temperature and pressure is inferred to occur within Earth’s stiffer mantle?
(1) 3500°C and 0.4 million atmospheres
(2) 3500°C and 2.0 million atmospheres
(3) 5500°C and 0.4 million atmospheres
(4) 5500°C and 2.0 million atmospheres
1

19. The diagram below indicates the amount of solar radiation that is reflected by equal areas of various materials on Earth’s surface.

Which material absorbs the most solar radiation?
(1) grassy field
(2) fresh snow
(3) sand
(4) forest
4

20. The diagram below shows a process thought to have produced Earth’s early atmosphere.

Which major component is shown as gas X?
(1) helium
(2) ozone
(3) carbon dioxide
(4) hydrogen
3

21. During which two geologic time periods did most of the surface bedrock of the Taconic Mountains form?
(1) Cambrian and Ordovician
(2) Silurian and Devonian
(3) Pennsylvanian and Mississippian
(4) Triassic and Jurassic
1

22. Which event is an example of chemical weathering?
(1) rocks falling off the face of a steep cliff
(2) feldspar in granite being crushed into clay-sized particles
(3) water freezing in cracks in a roadside outcrop
(4) acid rain reacting with limestone bedrock
4

23. The entire area drained by a river and its tributaries is called a
(1) delta  
(2) watershed
(3) valley
(4) floodplain
2

24. A meandering stream deposits most of its sediments on the
(1) inside of meanders where the stream flows faster
(2) inside of meanders where the stream flows slower
(3) outside of meanders where the stream flows faster
(4) outside of meanders where the stream flows slower
2

25. Which natural agent of erosion is mainly responsible for the formation of the barrier islands along the southern coast of Long Island, New York?
(1) mass movement
(2) running water
(3) prevailing winds
(4) ocean waves
4

26. Which geologic event occurred in New York State at approximately the same time that eurypterids were becoming extinct?
(1) the opening of the Atlantic Ocean
(2) the uplift of the Appalachian Mountains
(3) the formation of the Catskill Delta
(4) the intrusion of the Palisades Sill
3

27. Which group of elements is listed in increasing order based on the percent by mass in Earth’s crust?
(1) aluminum, iron, calcium
(2) aluminum, silicon, magnesium
(3) magnesium, iron, aluminum
(4) magnesium, silicon, calcium
3

28. Which observation provides the best evidence that Earth revolves around the Sun?
(1) The constellation Orion is only visible in the night sky for part of the year.
(2) The North Star, Polaris, is located above the North Pole for the entire year.
(3) The Sun appears to move across Earth’s sky at a rate of 15°/hr.
(4) The Coriolis effect causes Northern Hemisphere winds to curve to the right.
1

29. One reason Tetragraptus is considered a good index fossil is that Tetragraptus
(1) existed during a large part of the Paleozoic Era
(2) has no living relatives found on Earth today
(3) existed over a wide geographic area
(4) has been found in New York State
3

30. What is the dewpoint temperature when the relative humidity is 30% and the air temperature is 20°C?
(1) −28°C
(2) 2°C
(3) 6°C
(4) 9°C
2

31. An igneous rock contains 10 grams of radioactive potassium−40 and a total of 10 grams of its decay products. During which geologic time interval was this rock most likely formed?
(1) Middle Archean
(2) Late Archean
(3) Middle Proterozoic
(4) Late Proterozoic
3

32. The geologic cross section below shows a complex structure containing a granite intrusion.

If the granite intrusion occurred 24 million years ago, what are the most probable ages of the schist and shale, in million of years?
(1) schist − 25; shale − 23
(2) schist − 25; shale − 26
(3) schist − 23; shale − 25
(4) schist − 22; shale − 20
1

33. Which profile best shows the general depositional pattern that occurs when water from a stream enters the ocean?

4

34. The map below shows the locations of Virginia Beach, Virginia, and Springfield, Missouri.

Virginia Beach experiences cooler summers and warmer winters than Springfield because Virginia Beach
(1) is located closer to the Atlantic Ocean
(2) is located closer to the equator
(3) has a greater average yearly duration of insolation
(4) has a greater average yearly intensity of insolation
1

35. The arrows labeled A through D on the map below show the general paths of abandoned boats that have floated across the Atlantic Ocean.

Which sequence of ocean currents was responsible for the movement of these boats?
(1) South Equatorial → Gulf Stream → Labrador → Benguela
(2) South Equatorial → Australia → West Wind Drift → Peru
(3) North Equatorial → Koroshio → North Pacific → California
(4) North Equatorial → Gulf Stream → North Atlantic → Canaries
4



Part B-1

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (36-50): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 36 through 38 on the passage below.

Fossils and the History of Earth’s Rotation

Data from coral fossils support the hypothesis that Earth’s rotation rate has been slowing down by about 2.5 seconds per 100,000 years. Scientists believe this is due to the frictional effects of ocean tides. This slowing rotation rate decreases the number of days in the year.
Scientists have discovered that corals produce a thin layer of shell every day, resulting in growth rings. These daily layers are separated by yearly ridges. The Devonian coral fossil, Pleurodictyum, has approximately 400 growth rings between each yearly ridge, which suggests that there were about 400 days in a year during the Devonian Period.
Supporting this hypothesis, scientists have found coral from the Pennsylvanian Period that have about 390 growth rings per year, while present−day corals have about 365 growth rings per year.
36. Approximately how many fewer Earth days per year are there today than there were during the Devonian Period?
(1) 10
(2) 25
(3) 35
(4) 40
3

37. What inference can be made about the number of growth rings per year for a coral from the Permian Period and Ordovician Period compared to the number of growth rings per year for the Devonian coral, Pleurodictyum?
(1) Ordovician coral would have fewer, but Permian coral would have more.
(2) Ordovician coral would have more, but Permian coral would have fewer.
(3) Both Ordovician and Permian coral would have fewer.
(4) Both Ordovician and Permian coral would have more.
2

38. The evidence of the fossil Pleurodictyum found in surface bedrock in the Finger Lakes region of New York State suggests that this region was once
(1) covered by a glacial ice sheet
(2) covered by a warm, shallow sea
(3) located in a desert area
(4) located in a tropical rain forest
2


Base your answers to questions 39 through 41 on the diagram below, which shows a model of Earth's orbit around the Sun.
Letters A, B, C, and D represent Earth's position at the beginning of each season.


39. Which position of Earth represents the first day of summer in the Northern Hemisphere?
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
3

40. The diagram below shows how Earth is illuminated [lighted] by the Sun as viewed from above the North Pole.

In which orbital position would Earth be illuminated as shown?
(1) A   
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
1

41. How many degrees will the Sun’s vertical rays shift on Earth’s surface as Earth travels from position C to position D?
(1) 15°
(2) 23.5°
(3) 47°
(4) 365°
2


Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the graph below, which shows two days of tidal data from a coastal location in the northeastern United States.


42. The change in the tides as shown on the graph is primarily the result of
(1) Earth’s rotation and the Moon’s revolution
(2) Earth’s rotation and revolution
(3) the Moon’s rotation and Earth’s revolution
(4) the Moon’s rotation and revolution
1

43. It the pattern shown continues, the most likely height and time for the first high tide on day 3 would be
(1) 2.2 meters at 4 a.m.
(2) 2.3 meters at 4 a.m.
(3) 2.2 meters at 5 a.m.
(4) 2.3 meters at 5 a.m.
1


Base your answers to questions 44 through 46 on the map of the Mid−Atlantic Ridge shown below.
Points A through D are locations on the ocean floor. Line XY connects locations in North America and Africa.


44. In which cross section do the arrows best show the convection occurring within the asthenosphere beneath line XY?


2

45. Samples of ocean−floor bedrock were collected at points A, B, C, and D. Which sequence shows the correct order of the age of the bedrock from oldest to youngest?
(1) DCBA
(2) ADBC
(3) CBDA
(4) ABDC
2

46. The boundary between which two tectonic plates is most similar geologically to the plate boundary at the Mid−Atlantic Ridge?
(1) Eurasian and Indian−Australian
(2) Cocos and Caribbean
(3) Pacific and Nazca
(4) Nazca and South American
3


Base your answers to questions 47 through 49 on the cross section below. Rock units are labeled 1 through 8.
The line between A and A' indicates an unconformity.

47. Which characteristic of the granite intrusion provides the most evidence that it solidified deep underground?
(1) very hard
(2) coarse texture
(3) light color
(4) felsic composition
2

48. Which event occurred sometime after the formation of the unconformity?
(1) formation of rock unit 3
(2) tilting of rock unit 5
(3) deposition of the sediments that formed rock unit 8
(4) intrusion of rock unit 7
1

49. Which rock most probably formed in the contact metamorphic zone within rock unit 6?
(1) marble
(2) basalt
(3) quartzite
(4) hornfels
4


Base your answer to question 50 on the diagram below. This diagram shows a portion of the solar system.

50.
What is the average distance, in millions of kilometers, from the Sun to the asteriod belt?
(1) 129
(2) 189
(3) 503
(4) 857
3



Part B-2

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (51-65): Record your answers in the spaces provided below. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 51 and 52 on the diagram below, which represents the sky above an observer in Elmira, New York. Angular distances above the horizon are indicated. The Sun's apparent path for December 21 is shown.


51. On March 21, the altitude of the noon Sun in Elmira is 48°. On the diagram in your answer booklet, draw the Sun’s apparent path for March 21, as it would appear to the observer. Be sure your path begins and ends at the correct positions on the horizon and indicates the correct altitude of the noon Sun. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the Sun’s apparent path begins at due east and ends at due west and is drawn so the altitude of the noon Sun is within the circle shown below.


52. On what date of the year does the maximum duration of insolation usually occur at Elmira? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for any date from June 19 to June 23.



Base your answers to question 53 through 57 on the weather map below, which shows two fronts associated with low−pressure system.


53. On the weather map in your answer booklet, write the letter L at the location of the center of the low−pressure system. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the center of the L is located within the circle shown below.


54. On the weather map in below, write the air−mass symbols to indicate the most likely locations of the continental polar air mass and maritime tropical air mass that have formed this low−pressure system. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. The cP air mass could be located anywhere behind the cold front or ahead of the warm front. The mT air mass should be located in front of the cold front and behind the warm front.

Note: Do not allow credit if air−mass letters are reversed, i.e., Pc and Tm.


55. On the weather map in below, place an X where precipitation is most likely occurring. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the center of the X is placed anywhere within the crosshatched area shown below.


56. Which type of weather front has entered New York State? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a warm front.


57. Warm, moist air is rising along the two frontal surfaces. Describe how the water vapor in this rising air forms clouds. Include dewpoint and condensation in your answer. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Rising air expands, cools to the dewpoint, and condensation of water vapor occurs.
— Condensation occurs when the dewpoint is reached.
— Water vapor condenses when dewpoint is reached.



Base your answers to question 58 and 59 on the map below. The map shows the approximate area in a portion o North America where some sedimentary rock layers composed of gypsum, halite, and potassium salt minerals are found in Earth's crust.


58. Identify one New York State landscape region in which deposits of gypsum and halite are commonly found. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Allegheny Plateau
— Erie−Ontario Lowlands
— Appalachian Plateau


59. Identity the sedimentary rock composed of halite and explain how this rock is usually formed. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for rock salt and a correct explanation. Acceptable explanations include, but are not limited to:
— crystals of halite settling in an evaporating sea
— precipitation from seawater
— chemical deposition



Base your answers to questions 60 through 62 on the topographic map below, which shows three glaciers found in Alaska. Dashed lines show the inferred location of the front edge of each glacier in 1948, 1964, and 1980. Solid lines show the location of the front edge of each glacier in 1998. Points A and B show the location of the front edge of Taku Glacier in 1948 and 1998. Elevations are in feet.


60. Determine the rate, in miles per year, that the front edge of the Taku Glacier moved between point A and point B. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for any value from 0.035 to 0.045 mi/yr.


61. What is the contour interval on this map? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for 1000 ft.


62. If these glaciers completely melted, what two pieces of evidence would a scientist most likely find to indicate that glaciers had existed in this area? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for two correct responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— U−shaped valleys in the area
— parallel scratches in the bedrock
— unsorted sediment deposits
— moraines
— drumlins



Base your answers to questions 63 through 65 on the data table below, which shows the average distance from the Sun, the average surface temperature, and the average orbital velocity for each planet in our solar system.


63. State the relationship between the average distance from the Sun and the average surface temperature of the Jovian planets. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The greater the average distance a Jovian planet is from the Sun, the colder the temperature.
— An inverse relationship exists between distance and temperature for the Jovian planets.
— The closer the Jovian planet is to the Sun, the warmer the average surface temperature.


64. Venus has an atmosphere composed mostly of carbon dioxide. Mercury has almost no atmosphere. Explain how the presence of the carbon dioxide in Venus’ atmosphere causes the average surface temperature on Venus to be higher than the average surface temperature on Mercury. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Carbon dioxide causes a greenhouse effect on Venus.
— Carbon dioxide is an excellent absorber of infrared radiation.
— Carbon dioxide traps heat and keeps it from escaping.
— The carbon dioxide−rich atmosphere absorbs energy in Venus’ atmosphere and reradiates it.


65. On the graph below, draw a line to indicate the general relationship between a planet’s average distance from the Sun and its average orbital velocity. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a graph that shows an inverse relationship.




Part C

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (66-84): Record your answers in the spaces provided below. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 66 through 70 on the passage below, and on the map below. The passage describes the New Madrid fault system. The number on the map show the predicted relative damage at various locations if a large earthquake occurs along the New Madrid fault system. The higher the number, the greater the relative damage.

The New Madrid Fault System


The greatest earthquake risk area east of the Rocky Mountains is along the New Madrid fault system. The New Madrid fault system consists of a series of faults along a weak zone in the continental crust in the midwestern United States. Earthquakes occur in the Midwest less often than in California, but when they do happen, the damage is spread over a wider area due to the underlying bedrock.
In 1811 and 1812, the New Madrid fault system experienced three major earthquakes. Large land areas sank, new lakes formed, the course of the Mississippi River changed, and 150,000 acres of forests were destroyed.

66. On the map below, draw the 4, 6, and 8 isolines indicating relative damage. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if all three isolines are drawn correctly. If more than the three required isolines are drawn, all isolines must be correct to receive credit. Isolines do not have to be labeled but must touch all equal value points to receive credit.


67. Using the predicted damage numbers, place an X on the map to indicate where the New Madrid fault system most likely exists. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the center of the X is located within the crosshatched area below.


68. The distance between the New Madrid fault system and Albany, New York, is 1800 kilometers. What was the time difference between the arrival of the first P−wave and the arrival of the first S−wave at Albany when the 1812 earthquake occurred? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for 3 min 0 sec ± 10 seconds.


69. State one reason why earthquakes occur more frequently on the western coast of the United States than in the New Madrid region. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The western coast of the United States is near plate boundaries.
— More major faults are located on the western coast of the United States.
— Fewer active faults are located in the central portion of the United States compared to the western coast of the United States. — The central portion of the United States is in the middle of a tectonic plate.


70. An emergency management specialist near the New Madrid region is developing a plan that would help save lives and prevent property damage in the event of an earthquake. Describe two actions that should be included in the plan. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for two correct responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— plan evacuation routes
— identify earthquake hazard zones or areas that are subject to damage during an earthquake
— plan emergency communication procedures
— develop emergency information brochures
— store food, supplies, and fresh water
— build earthquake−resistant structures
— identify shelter locations



Base your answers to questions 71 through 74 on the data table below and on the graph below. The data table shows the maximum altitude and phase of the Moon observed above the southern horizon on certain dates during January and February at a New York State location. The line on the graph in your answer booklet shows the altitude of the noontime Sun observed during the same time period at the same New York State location.


71. On the grid below, plot with an X the maximum altitude of the Moon for each date shown on the data table. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the center of seven or eight Xs are correctly plotted within the circles shown below.


72. The multiple−exposure photograph below, taken on February 3, shows a total solar eclipse in the middle of the photograph. The maximum altitude of the Sun on this date was 34° above the southern horizon at this New York State location.

Based on the data table, explain why this total solar eclipse occurred on February 3. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The Sun and the Moon were at the same altitude on February 3.
— The Sun and the Moon were aligned with Earth.
— This solar eclipse occurred at the new Moon phase.
— The apparent paths of the Sun and the Moon crossed.


73. The diagram below shows the Moon’s orbit around Earth. Place an X on the orbit to represent the Moon’s position on February 18. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for correctly placing the center of the X between the brackets shown below.


74. Assuming that February had 28 days, on which date in March did the next full Moon occur? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for March 18 or March 19 or March 20.



Base your answers to questions 75 and 76 on the diagram below of a mineral classification scheme that shows the properties of certain minerals. Letters A through G represent mineral property zones. Zone E represents the presence of all three properties. For example, a mineral that is harder than glass, has a metallic luster, but does not have cleavage, would be placed in zone B. Assume that glass has a hardness of 5.5.


75. In which zone would the mineral potassium feldspar be placed? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for zone D.


76. State the name one mineral listed on the Properties of Common Minerals Table that could not be placed in any of the zones. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— sulfur
— hematite



Base your answers to questions 77 through 81 on the passage and map below. Point F on the map shows the location where an unusual mammal fossil was found.

Fossil Jaw of Mammal Found in  South America
Paleontologists working in Patagonia have found the tiny fossil jaw that may be the first evidence of early mammals in South America.
The fossil, which measures less than a quarter−inch long, is believed to be from the middle or late Jurassic Period. Researchers said it suggests that mammals developed independently in the Southern Hemisphere.
The fossil, named Asfaltomylos patagonicus, was discovered in a shale formation in Patagonia. Dinosaurs were the dominant land animal at that time. Mammals were tiny, and hunted insects in the dense tropical vegetation. The now−arid region also has yielded some remarkable dinosaur fossils from the same period in a vast ancient boneyard covering hundreds of square miles.


77. State the latitude and longitude of point F, to the nearest degree, where the fossil Asfaltomylos patagonicus was discovered. Include the correct units and compass directions in your answer. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for any latitude from 40° S to 44° S and any longitude from 65° W to 69° W.
The correct units and compass directions must be included.


78. State the name of the dominant sediment particle that was compacted to form the shale in which this fossil was found. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for clay.


79. What other life−form first appeared on Earth during the geologic period when Asfaltomylos patagonicus existed?
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— earliest birds
— birds


80. State one method used by geologists to determine the age of the bedrock in which this ancient mammal fossil was found. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— radioactive dating
— identifying an index fossil in the layer containing this fossil
— correlating rock layers or fossils


81. Explain how the uplift of the Andes Mountains changed eastern Patagonia’s climate from a wet tropical forest at the time Asfaltomylos patagonicus lived to the arid conditions of today. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:

— Mountain barriers changed the flow of winds.

— The air sinks on the Patagonia side of the Andes.

— Patagonia is located on the leeward side of the mountains.

— Patagonia is located in the rain shadow.




Base your answers to questions 82 through 84 on the topographic map below. Points A and B are reference points on the map. The triangular symbols show the highest elevation on Eagle Hill and Timony Hill. Elevations are shown in feet.


82. Identify the general compass direction toward which Auroro Creek is flowing. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for southeast or SE.


83. State a possible elevation of the top of Patriot Hill. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for any elevation between 680 feet and 700 feet.


84. On the grid below, construct a topographic profile along line AB by plotting an X for the elevation of each contour line that crosses line AB. Connect the plotted Xs with a smooth, curved line to complete the profile. Points A and B have been plotted. [2]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] Allow a maximum of 2 credits, allocated as follows:

Allow 2 credits if the centers of ten or eleven student−plotted Xs are within the circles shown below and the Xs are correctly connected with a line that falls within the circles.
Allow 1 credit if the centers of only eight or nine student−plotted Xs are within the circles shown below and the Xs are correctly connected with a line that falls within the circles.
or


Allow 1 credit if the centers of ten or eleven student−plotted Xs are within the circles shown below but are not correctly connected with a line that falls within the circles.

Note: Eagle Hill must be greater than 720 feet but less than 740 feet, and Timony Hill must be greater than 700 feet but less than 720 feet. The low point of the profile must be less than 660 feet, but greater than 640 feet.

It is recommended that an overlay be used to ensure uniformity in scoring.



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