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Earth Science - New York Regents June 2003 Exam

This is a test of your knowledge of Earth science. Use that knowledge to answer all the question in this examination. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables. The Earth Science Reference Tables are supplied separately. Be certain you have a copy of the 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006) of these reference tables before you begin the examination.
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Part A

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (1-35): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
1. The planetary winds in Earth’s Northern Hemisphere generally curve to the right due to Earth’s
(1) orbit around the Sun
(2) spin on its axis
(3) magnetic field
(4) force of gravity
2

2. The redshift of light from distant galaxies provides evidence that the universe is
(1) shrinking, only
(2) expanding, only
(3) shrinking and expanding in a cyclic pattern
(4) remaining the same size
2

3. Which of these characteristics identity an Earth surface that is likely to be the best absorber of insolation?
(1) light colored and smooth
(2) light colored and rough
(3) dark colored and smooth
(4) dark colored and rough
4


4. Which phase change requires water to gain 540 calories per gram?
(1) solid ice melting
(2) liquid water freezing
(3) liquid water vaporizing
(4) water vapor condensing
3

5. The diagram below shows the positions of the Moon and the Sun at sunset during an evening in New York State. Points A, B, C, and D represent positions along the western horizon.

At sunset on the following evening, the Moon will be located at position
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
1

6. Which diagram best illustrates how air rising over a mountain produces precipitation?

2

7. A student used a sling psychrometer to measure the humidity of the air. If the relative humidity was 65% and the dry-bulb temperature was 10°C, what was the wet-bulb temperature?
(1) 5°C
(2) 7°C
(3) 3°C
(4) 10°C
2

8. A gradual increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide would warm Earth’s atmosphere because carbon dioxide is a
(1) poor reflector of ultraviolet radiation
(2) good reflector of ultraviolet radiation
(3) poor absorber of infrared radiation
(4) good absorber of infrared radiation
4

9. Why are the beaches that are located on the southern shore of Long Island often considerably cooler than nearby inland locations on hot summer afternoons?
(1) A land breeze develops due to the lower specific heat of water and the higher specific heat of land.
(2) A sea breeze develops due to the higher specific heat of water and the lower specific heat of land.
(3) The beaches are closer to the Equator than the inland locations are.
(4) The beaches are farther from the Equator than the inland locations are.
2


Base your answers to questions 10 and 11 on the chart below, which shows the geologic ages of some well-known fossils.

 
10. The Spirifer, Crinoid stem, and Neospirifer fossils might be found in some of the surface bedrock of which New York State landscape region?
(1) the Allegheny Plateau southeast of Jamestown
(2) the Catskills near Slide Mountain
(3) the Adirondack Mountains near Mt. Marcy
(4) the Erie-Ontario Lowlands northeast of Niagara Falls
1

11. Which New York State fossil is found in rocks of the same period of geologic history as Meekoceras?
(1) Condor
(2) Placoderm fish
(3) Eurypterus
(4) Coelophysis
4


12. The flowchart below shows part of Earth’s water cycle. The question marks indicate a part of the flowchart that has been deliberately left blank.

Which process should be shown in place of the question marks to best complete the flowchart?
(1) condensation
(2) deposition
(3) evaporation
(4) infiltration
3

13. Which weather-station model shows an air pressure of 993.4 millibars?

3

14. An Earth science student observed the following weather conditions in Albany, New York, for 2 days: The first day was warm and humid with southerly winds. The second day, the temperature was 15 degrees cooler, the relative humidity had decreased, and wind direction was northwest. Which type of air mass most likely had moved into the area on the second day?
(1) continental tropical
(2) continental polar
(3) maritime tropical
(4) maritime polar
2

15. A sample of wood found in an ancient tomb contains 25% of its original carbon-14. The age of this wood sample is approximately
(1) 2,800 years
(2) 5,700 years 
(3) 11,400 years
(4) 17,100 years
3

16. Which set of conditions would produce the most runoff of precipitation?
(1) gentle slope and permeable surface
(2) gentle slope and impermeable surface
(3) steep slope and permeable surface
(4) steep slope and impermeable surface
4

17. Which map view best shows the movement of surface air around a low-pressure system in the Northern Hemisphere?

1

18. The surface bedrock of a region of eastern New York State is shale. Which statement best explains why the soil that covers the shale in this region contains abundant garnet and gneiss pebbles?
(1) Volcanic lava flowed over the shale bedrock.
(2) A meteor impact scattered garnet and gneiss pebbles over the area.
(3) The soil consists of rock materials transported to this region by agents of erosion.
(4) The soil formed from the chemical and physical weathering of shale.
3


Base your answers to questions 19 and 20 on the satellite image below, which shows cloud patterns associated with weather fronts over the United States on a certain day. The states of Nebraska (NE) and New York (NY) have been labeled.

 
19. At the time this satellite image was taken, what were the weather conditions in New York State?
(1) clear skies with no precipitation
(2) mostly cloudy in the northern part of the State and clear in the southern part
(3) cloudy with heavy precipitation
(4) very cloudy with no precipitation
1

20. Which type of front was producing the weather in Nebraska when this image was taken?
(1) cold front
(2) warm front
(3) stationary front
(4) occluded front
1


Base your answers to questions 21 and 22 on the graph below, which shows the changes in relative humidity and air temperature during a spring day in Washington, D.C.

 
21. Which statement best describes the relationship between relative humidity and air temperature as shown by the graph?
(1) Relative humidity decreases as air temperature decreases.
(2) Relative humidity decreases as air temperature increases.
(3) Relative humidity increases as air temperature increases.
(4) Relative humidity remains the same as air temperature decreases.
2

22. What were the relative humidity and air temperature at noon on this day?
(1) 47% and 32°F
(2) 65% and 32°F
(3) 47% and 48°F
(4) 65% and 48°F
3


23. Landscapes will undergo the most chemical weathering if the climate is
(1) cool and dry
(2) cool and wet
(3) warm and dry
(4) warm and wet
4

24. A huge undersea earthquake off the Alaskan coastline could produce a
(1) tsunami
(2) cyclone 
(3) hurricane
(4) thunderstorm
1

25. Which rock is foliated, shows mineral alignment but not banding, and contains medium-sized grains of quartz and pyroxene?
(1) phyllite
(2) schist 
(3) gneiss
(4) quartzite
2

26. The cross section below shows a V-shaped valley and the bedrock beneath the valley.

Which agent of erosion is responsible for cutting most V-shaped valleys into bedrock?
(1) surface winds
(2) running water
(3) glacial ice
(4) ocean waves
2

27. The geologic cross section below shows a hillslope and the rock layers that underlie it.

Which difference between the sandstone, shale, and limestone layers caused the formation of the relatively gently sloped section labeled “bench”?
(1) rock age
(2) fossil content
(3) resistance to weathering
(4) amount of uranium-238
3

28. Which graph best represents the range of particle sizes that can be carried by a glacier?

3


Base your answers to questions 29 and 30 on the diagram below, which shows three minerals with three different physical tests, A, B, and C, being performed on them.

 
29. Which sequence correctly matches each test, A, B, and C, with the mineral property tested?
(1) A—cleavage; B—streak; C—hardness
(2) A—cleavage; B—hardness; C—streak
(3) A—streak; B—cleavage; C—hardness
(4) A—streak; B—hardness; C—cleavage
1

30. The results of all three physical tests shown are most useful for determining the
(1) rate of weathering of the minerals
(2) identity of the minerals
(3) environment where the minerals formed
(4) geologic period when the minerals formed
2


31. An air temperature of 95°C most often exists in which layer of the atmosphere?
(1) troposphere
(2) stratosphere
(3) mesosphere
(4) thermosphere
4

32. During the intrusion of the Palisades Sill, contact metamorphism changed sandstone and shale into
(1) diorite
(2) marble
(3) limestone
(4) hornfels
4

33. Which process most likely formed a layer of the sedimentary rock, gypsum?
(1) precipitation from seawater
(2) solidification of magma
(3) folding of clay-sized particles
(4) melting of sand-sized particles
1

34. The diagram below shows a stream flowing past points X and Y. If the velocity of the stream at point X is 100 centimeters per second, which statement best describes the sediments being transported past these points?

(1) At points X and Y only clay is being transported.
(2) At points X and Y only sand, silt, and clay are being transported.
(3) Some pebbles being transported at point Y are bigger than those being transported at point X.
(4) Some pebbles and cobbles are being transported at points X and Y, but not sand, silt, or clay.
3

35. Specific mass extinction of living organisms and global climatic changes in geologic history are inferred by most scientists to have been caused by
(1) the impact of asteroids or large meteors on Earth’s surface
(2) the gravitational pull of the Sun on Earth's surface
(3) large energy surges from the surface of the Sun
(4) earthquakes occurring along crustal plate boundaries
1



Part B-1

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (36-50): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 36 through 38 on the data table below, which gives information collected at seismic stations A, B, C, and D for the same earthquake. Some of the data has been deliberately omitted.

 
36. What is the most probable reason for the absence of S-waves at station A?
(1) S-waves cannot travel through liquids.
(2) S-waves were not generated at the epicenter.
(3) Station A was located on solid bedrock.
(4) Station A was located too close to the epicenter
1

37. What is the approximate distance from station C to the earthquake epicenter?
(1) 3,200 km
(2) 2,400 km 
(3) 1,600 km
(4) 1,000 km
3

38. How long did it take the P-wave to travel from the epicenter of the earthquake to seismic station D?
(1) 00:46:20
(2) 00:39:20
(3) 00:17:20
(4) 00:09:40
4


Base your answers to questions 39 and 40 on the map below, which shows the latitude and longitude of five observers, A, B, C, D, and E, on Earth.

 
39. What is the altitude of Polaris (the North Star) above the northern horizon for observer A?
(1) 0°
(2) 10°
(3) 80°
(4) 90°
2

40. Which two observers would be experiencing the same apparent solar time?
(1) A and C
(2) B and C
(3) B and E
(4) D and E
3


Base your answers to questions 41 through 43 on the diagram below, which shows a model of the apparent path and position of the Sun in relation to an observer at four different locations, A, B, C, and D, on Earth’s surface on the dates indicated. The zenith (z) and the actual position of the Sun in the model at the time of the observation are shown. [The zenith is the point directly over the observer.]

 
41. According to the Sun’s actual position shown in the diagrams, the most intense insolation is being received by the observer at location
(1) A
(2) B 
(3) C
(4) D
1

42. Where on Earth’s surface is the observer at location C located?
(1) at the Equator
(2) at the South Pole
(3) at the North Pole
(4) in Oswego, New York
3

43. From sunrise to sunset at location B, the length of the observer’s shadow will
(1) increase, only
(2) decrease, only
(3) increase, then decrease
(4) decrease, then increase
4


Base your answers to questions 44 through 46 on the map below, which shows the location of mid-ocean ridges and the age of some oceanic bedrock near these ridges. Letters A through D are locations on the surface of the ocean floor.

 
44. What is the most probable age, in millions of years, of the bedrock at location B?
(1) 5
(2) 12
(3) 48
(4) 62
3

45. Rising convection currents in the asthenosphere would most likely be under location
(1) A
(2) B 
(3) C
(4) D
3

46. The age of oceanic bedrock on either side of a mid-ocean ridge is supporting evidence that at the ridges, tectonic plates are
(1) diverging
(2) converging
(3) locked in place
(4) being subducted
1


Base your answers to questions 47 and 48 on the geologic cross section below. The large cone-shaped mountain on Earth’s surface is a volcano. Letters A, B, and C represent certain rocks.

 
47. Which statement correctly describes the relative ages of rocks A and C and gives the best supporting evidence from the cross section?
(1) A is younger than C, because A is a lower sedimentary rock layer.
(2) A is younger than C, because the intrusion of A metamorphosed part of rock layer C.
(3) A is older than C, because A has older index fossils.
(4) A is older than C, because the intrusion of A cuts across rock layer C.
2

48. Rock B is most likely which type of igneous rock?
(1) granite
(2) peridotite
(3) pegmatite
(4) basalt
4


Base your answers to questions 49 and 50 on the diagram below, which shows sunlight entering a room through the same window at three different times on the same winter day.

 
49. The apparent change in the Sun’s position shown in the diagram is best explained by
(1) the Sun rotating at a rate of 15° per hour
(2) Earth rotating at a rate of 15° per hour
(3) the Sun’s axis tilted at an angle of 23½°
(4) Earth’s axis tilted at an angle of 23½°
2

50. This room is located in a building in New York State. On which side of the building is the window located?
(1) north
(2) south
(3) east
(4) west
2



Part B-2

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (51-60): Record your answers in the spaces provided below. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 51 through 54 on the topographic map below. Points A, BY and Z are reference points on the topographic map. The triangular symbol represents the highest elevation on Aurora Hill.

 
51. State the general compass direction in which Maple Stream is flowing. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for south southwest or SSW or south or S or southwest or SW.


52. Calculate the gradient between points Y and Z on the map, and label the answer with the correct units. [2]
Gradient = _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] Allow 1 credit for 6 or 6.0 (±0.3).
and
Allow 1 credit for feet/mile or ft/mi.


53. Describe the evidence shown on the map that indicates that the southern side of Holland Hill has the steepest slope. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Contour lines are closer together on the southern section of the hill.
The south side has the greatest change in elevation per mile.


54. On the grid provided below, construct a topographic profile from point A to point B by following the directions below.
a Plot the elevation along line AB by marking with an X each point where a contour line is crossed by line AB. Points A and B have been plotted for you. [2]
b Complete the profile by correctly connecting the plotted points with a smooth, curved line. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[3] The correct profile is shown below.

a Allow 2 credits if seven or eight student-plotted Xs are plotted correctly.
Allow only 1 credit if only four to six student-plotted Xs are plotted correctly.

Note: The center of each student-plotted X must fall within the symbol on the scoring grid.
Allow credit even if the student uses a symbol other than X.
b Allow 1 credit if the student-plotted Xs are properly connected with a smooth, curved line. The Aurora hilltop must be greater than 530 but less than 535. The low point of the profile must be less than 510 feet but greater than 500 feet.



55. The cross section below illustrates the normal pattern of sediments deposited where a stream enters a lake. Letter X represents a particular type of sediment.

a Briefly explain why deposition of sediment usually occurs where a stream enters a lake. [1]
b Name the type of sediment most likely represented by letter X. [1]
a _______
_______
b _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] a Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
The stream velocity decreases.
The still water of the lake slows the stream current.

b Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
silt
clay



Base your answers to questions 56 and 57 on the temperature field map provided below. The map shows air temperatures, in degrees Fahrenheit, recorded at the same time at weather stations across North America. The air temperature at location A has been deliberately left blank.

56. On the map provided below, use smooth, curved solid lines to draw the 30°F, 40°F, and 50°F isotherms. [2]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] An example of correctly drawn isotherms is shown below.

Allow 2 credits for correctly drawing all three required isotherms. If the student draws more than the three required isotherms, all must be correct to receive 2 credits.
Allow only 1 credit for correctly drawing only two required isotherms.

or


Allow only 1 credit for correctly drawing all three required isotherms, but any additional isotherms drawn are incorrect.
Note: Allow credit even if the isotherms extend to the border of the map.


57. What is the most probable air temperature at location A? [1]
_______ °F
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for any temperature value between the student-drawn isotherms adjacent to point A. Allow credit for the isotherm value only if the isotherm passes through point A.



Base your answers to questions 58 through 60 on the information, data table, and diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth science.

        Astronomers have discovered strong evidence for the existence of three large extrasolar (outside our solar system) planets that orbit Upsilon Andromedae, a star located 44 light years from Earth. The three planets are called planet B, planet C, and planet D. Some of the information gathered about these three new planets is shown in the table below. The period of revolution for planet C has been deliberately left blank.

The diagram below compares a part of our solar system to the Upsilon Andromedae planetary system. Planet distances from their respective star and the relative size of each planet are drawn to scale. [The scale for planet distances is not the same scale used for planet size.]
 
58. Planet D's diameter is 10 times greater than Earth’s diameter. What planet in our solar system has a diameter closest in size to the diameter of planet D? [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for Saturn.


59. As planet B travels in its orbit, describe the change in orbital velocity of planet B as the distance between Upsilon Andromedae and planet B decreases. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
As the distance between them decreases, the orbital velocity increases.
It speeds up.
increases


60. If our solar system had a planet located at the same distance from the Sun as planet C is from Upsilon Andromedae, what would be its approximate period of revolution? [1]
_______ days
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for any answer from 224.7 days to less than 365.26 days.




Part C

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (61-75): Record your answers in the spaces provided below. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 61 and 62 on the information below and on your knowledge of Earth science.

Howe Caverns


Many scientists believe that the formation of the rocks in which Howe Caverns is now found began millions of years ago. At that time, an ocean covered the eastern region of New York State. Hundreds of feet of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) sediments were deposited in layers along the edge of this ocean. These layers eventually formed the sedimentary rock limestone, which makes up the walls of today’s Howe Caverns.

Much later, tectonic forces raised this region of New York State above sea level exposing the rock to weathering and erosion. These tectonic forces cracked the thick limestone, creating pathways for groundwater to infiltrate and gradually increase the size of the cracks. Eventually some of the larger cracks provided pathways for the underground stream, which carved the winding passages of Howe Caverns seen today.
61. State two processes that caused these sediments to become limestone. [2]
Process 1: _______
Process 2: _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] Allow 2 credits, 1 credit for each of two correct responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
cementation
compaction
deposition
burial
pressure caused by overlying sediments


62. Identify one method that could be used to determine that the walls of Howe Caverns are made of limestone. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
acid test
Limestone bubbles when acid is placed on it.



Base your answers to questions 63 through 66 on the passage and map below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The passage provides some information about the sediments under Portland, Oregon, and the map shows where Portland is located.

Bad seismic combination under Portland: Earthquake faults and jiggly sediment


Using a technique called seismic profiling, researchers have found evidence of ancient earthquake faults under Portland, Oregon. The faults may still be active, a USGS [United States Geological Survey] seismologist will announce tomorrow. The research also turned up a 250-foot deep layer of silt and mud, deep under the city, which may have been caused by a catastrophic ice dam break some 15,000 years ago. The two findings could together mean bad news, as soft sediment is known to amplify ground shaking during strong earthquakes. In the 1989 San Francisco earthquake, much of the damage to buildings was caused by liquefaction, a shaking and sinking of sandy, water-saturated soil along waterways....

— Robert Roy Britt

excerpted from

“Bad sesimic combination under Portland:

Earthquake faults and jiggly sediment”

explorezone.com 05/03/99



63. Explain why Portland is likely to experience a major earthquake. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Tectonic plates are shifting in this region.
The ancient faults detected under Portland may still be active
Soft sediment causes minor earthquakes to become major earthquakes. Portland is located near a plate boundary.

Note: Do not allow credit for hot spot.


64. Why is the presence of a layer of silt and mud deep under the city a danger to Portland? [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Soft sediment can amplify earthquake ground movement.
Buildings can be damaged by liquefaction within those sediments during the earthquakes. Structures can collapse, tilt, or sink during an earthquake.


65. Describe one precaution that can be taken to prevent or reduce property damage in preparation for a future earthquake in Portland. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Reinforce buildings to provide greater stability.
Make buildings more flexible.
Redesign or reconstruct highway overpasses.
Rewrite or enforce strict building codes.
Restrict building in surface areas identified as more susceptible to earthquake damage.


66. What type of tectonic plate boundary is shown at the San Andreas Fault? [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for transform plate boundary or transform fault or transform.
Note: Do not allow credit for faulting, fault, or hot spot.



Base your answers to questions 67 and 68 on the diagram of the ellipse below

 
67. Calculate the eccentricity of the ellipse to the nearest thousandth. [1]
Eccentricity = _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for 0.333 (±0.026) or .333 (±0.026).
Note: Do not allow credit if units are included with the numerical answer.


68. State how the eccentricity of the given ellipse compares to the eccentricity of the orbit of Mars. [1]
_______
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
The given ellipse has a higher eccentricity than the orbit of Mars. The orbit of Mars is more circular than the given ellipse.

or


Allow 1 credit for a correct response based on the student-determined eccentricity.



Base your answers to questions 69 through 72 on your knowledge of Earth science and on the table below, which lists the seven brightest stars, numbered 1 through 7, in the constellation Orion. This constellation can be seen in the winter sky by an observer in New York State. The table shows the celestial coordinates for the seven numbered stars of Orion.

 
69. On the grid provided below, graph the data shown in the table by following the steps below.
a Mark with an X, the position of each of the seven stars. Write the number of the plotted star beside each X.
The first star has been plotted for you. [2]
b Show the apparent shape of Orion by connecting the Xs in the following order:
5 — 1 — 2 — 7 — 3 — 4 — 5 — 6 — 7 [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[3] The correctly plotted graph is shown below.

a Allow 2 credits if all six student-plotted Xs are plotted and numbered correctly.
Allow only 1 credit if only four or five student-plotted Xs are plotted and numbered correctly.

or


Allow only 1 credit if all six student-plotted Xs are plotted correctly but not numbered.

Note: Each X must be on the correct vertical line of celestial longitude and be within ±0.5 of the correct celestial latitude.
Allow credit even if the student uses a symbol other than X.
b Allow 1 credit for connecting the Xs in the order specified.
Allow this credit even it the Xs are located incorrectly.

or


Allow 1 credit if the student has drawn the apparent shape of Orion even it the Xs are not numbered.


70. Star 1 plotted on the grid is the star Betelgeuse. Star 3 plotted on the grid is the star Rigel. How do the temperature and luminosity of Betelgeuse compare to the temperature and luminosity of Rigel? [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Both temperature and luminosity must be included to receive credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, this example:
Betelgeuse is cooler and less luminous than Rigel.


71. The seven stars of the constellation Orion that were plotted are located within our galaxy. Name the galaxy in which the plotted stars of Orion are located. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for Milky Way or Milky Way Galaxy.


72. State one reason why an observer in New York State can never observe the constellation Orion at midnight during July but can observe the constellation Orion at midnight during January. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Earth revolves in its orbit.
Orion is only visible during the daytime in July.
The Sun is between Earth and Orion in July.



Base your answers to questions 73 through 75 on your knowledge of Earth science and on the data table below, which shows the industrial uses of wollastonite, a mineral mined in the eastern Adirondack Mountains of New York State.

 
73. On the pie graph provided below, complete the graph to show the percent of each industrial use of wollastonite. Label each section of the pie graph with its industrial use. The percent for Miscellaneous and for Asbestos substitute has been drawn and labeled for you. [2]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] An example of a correctly drawn graph is shown below.

Allow 2 credits if all four student-graphed sections are drawn and labeled correctly. Sections may be graphed in any order.
Allow only 1 credit if only two or three student-graphed sections are drawn and labeled correctly.
or
Allow only 1 credit if all tour student-graphed sections are drawn correctly but are not labeled.


74. Wollastonite forms during the intense metamorphism of a sandy limestone. The expression below shows part of the process that results in the formation of wollastonite.

a Name the two minerals involved in the formation of wollastonite. [1]
b What two conditions normally cause intense metamorphism? [1]
a _______ and _______
b _______ and _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] a Allow 1 credit for calcite and quartz.
b Allow 1 credit for heat and pressure.


75. Identify the geologic age of the New York State Adirondack Mountain bedrock in which wollastonite deposits are found. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Proterozoic
Middle Proterozoic
Late Proterozoic
Precambrian
about 1000 million years
between 1600 and 1000 million years ago



  Try the Quiz :     Earth Science - New York Regents June 2003 Exam


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