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Earth Science - New York Regents January 2015

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–35): For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best
completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.

1.
1 The theory that the universe is expanding is
  supported by data from the
  (1) nuclear decay of radioactive materials
  (2) nuclear fusion of radioactive materials
  (3) blue shift of light from distant galaxies
  (4) red shift of light from distant galaxies
Answer: 4

2.
2 The photograph below shows a feature of the
  universe as seen through a telescope.
This feature is best identified as
(1) a galaxy               (3) an asteroid
(2) a comet                (4) a star
Answer: 1

3.
3 Fourteen billion years represents the approximate
  age of
  (1) Earth                  (3) our solar system
  (2) Earth’s Moon           (4) the universe
Answer: 4


4.
4 Which terms describe the motion of most
  objects in our solar system?
  (1) noncyclic and unpredictable
  (2) noncyclic and predictable
  (3) cyclic and unpredictable
  (4) cyclic and predictable
Answer: 4

5.
5 Which planet has completed less than one orbit
  of the Sun in the last 100 years?
  (1) Mars                   (3) Neptune
  (2) Mercury                (4) Uranus
Answer: 3

6.
6 Compared to the size and density of Earth,
  the Moon has a
  (1) smaller diameter and lower density
  (2) smaller diameter and higher density
  (3) larger diameter and lower density
  (4) larger diameter and higher density
Answer: 1

7.
7 In the Northern Hemisphere, planetary winds
  are deflected to the right due to the
  (1) Doppler effect
  (2) Coriolis effect
  (3) tilt of Earth’s axis
  (4) uneven heating of Earth’s surface
Answer: 2

8.
8 Which event is inferred to have contributed to
  the significant global climate change that may
  have caused the mass extinctions of organisms at
  the end of the Late Cretaceous Epoch?
  (1) the Big Bang
  (2) an asteroid impact
  (3) formation of Pangaea
  (4) shifting of Earth’s magnetic poles
Answer: 2

9.
9 The diagram below represents the placoderm
  fish Bothriolepis, an index fossil found in
  New York State.
The surface bedrock at which location is most
likely to contain this fossil?
(1) Ithaca                   (3) Albany
(2) Old Forge                (4) New York City
Answer: 1

10.
10 The geologic cross section below includes an
   unconformity and an igneous intrusion.
Which two events produced the geologic
unconformity in the rock record?
(1) intrusion of magma, followed by contact
    metamorphism
(2) intrusion of magma, followed by erosion of
    rock layers
(3) erosion of rock layers, followed by deposition
    of more sediments
(4) erosion of rock layers, followed by intrusion
    of magma
Answer: 3

11.
11 Which map best represents the surface
   wind pattern around Northern Hemisphere
   high-pressure and low-pressure centers?

Answer: 1

12.
12 What is the dewpoint when the dry-bulb
   temperature is 12°C and the wet-bulb temperature
   is 7°C?
   (1) 1°C                   (3) 28°C
   (2) Ϫ5°C                  (4) 48°C
Answer: 1

13.
13 The station model below shows some weather
   conditions at a location on Earth’s surface.
Which present weather symbol represents the
most likely type of precipitation occurring at this
location?

Answer: 4

14.
14 In which atmospheric temperature zone does
   most precipitation occur?
   (1) thermosphere          (3) stratosphere
   (2) mesosphere            (4) troposphere
Answer: 4

15.
15 Which tectonic feature is associated with a
   complex or uncertain plate boundary?
   (1) Southwest Indian Ridge
   (2) East African Rift
   (3) Mariana Trench
   (4) Galapagos Hot Spot
Answer: 2


16.
16 Which types of surface bedrock are most likely
   found near Jamestown, New York?
   (1) slate and marble
   (2) quartzite and granite
   (3) shale and sandstone
   (4) schist and gneiss
Answer: 3

17.
17 The map of North America below shows the
   source region of an air mass forming mostly over
   Mexico.
This air mass originating over Mexico is
classified as
(1) continental polar    (3) maritime polar
(2) continental tropical (4) maritime tropical
Answer: 2

18.
18 Which cross section best represents the valley
   shape where a rapidly flowing stream is cutting
   into the bedrock in a mountainous area?

Answer: 4

19.
19 The photograph below shows scratched and
   grooved bedrock with boulders on its surface.
The scratches and grooves were most likely
created when
(1) alternating thawing and freezing of water
    cracked the bedrock
(2) flooding from a nearby lake covered the
    bedrock
(3) a glacier dragged rocks over the bedrock
(4) rocks from a landslide slid along the bedrock
Answer: 3

20.
20 The natural sandblasting (abrasion) of surface
   bedrock in a desert region is the result of
   (1) wind erosion
   (2) wave erosion
   (3) mass movement
   (4) chemical precipitation
Answer: 1

21.
21 Which group of substances is arranged in order
   of decreasing specific heat values?
   (1) iron, granite, basalt
   (2) copper, lead, iron
   (3) dry air, water vapor, ice
   (4) liquid water, ice, water vapor
Answer: 4

22.
22 The minerals talc, muscovite mica, quartz, and
   olivine are similar because they
   (1) have the same hardness
   (2) are the same color
   (3) contain silicon and oxygen
   (4) break along cleavage planes
Answer: 3

23.
23 The photograph below shows Mt. Kilimanjaro, a
   volcano in Africa, located near the equator.
Which climate factor is responsible for the snow
seen on Mt. Kilimanjaro?
(1) high latitude
(2) high elevation
(3) nearness to a cold ocean current
(4) nearness to a high-pressure weather center
Answer: 2

24.
24 The photograph below shows a large outcrop of
   rock composed primarily of visible crystals of
   mica, quartz, and feldspar.
Based on the composition and foliated texture,
this rock can best be identified as
(1) marble                (3) slate
(2) schist                (4) anthracite coal
Answer: 2

25.
25 Which diagram best represents the regions of Earth in sunlight on June 21 and December 21?
   [NP indicates the North Pole and the shading represents Earth’s night side. Diagrams are not drawn to
   scale.]

Answer: 3

26.
26 The diagram below represents three identical beakers, A, B, and C, each containing an equal volume of
   uniform-sized spherical beads. Water is poured into each beaker until all of the pore spaces are filled.
Which table best indicates the percentage of pore space compared to the total volume of each beaker?

Answer: 1

27.
27 The timeline below represents time on Earth from the beginning of the Paleozoic Era (A) to the present (B).
Which numbered position best represents the time when humans first appeared in the fossil record?
(1) 1                                           (3) 3
(2) 2                                           (4) 4
Answer: 4

28.
28 The cross sections below represent three outcrops, labeled I, II, and III, containing some New York State
   index fossils. The rock layers have not been overturned.
When the rock layers in the three outcrops are correlated, the oldest layer is the
(1) shale layer in outcrop I                      (3) limestone layer in outcrop III
(2) siltstone layer in outcrop II                 (4) conglomerate layer in outcrop III
Answer: 2

29.
29 A bar graph of the radioactive decay of carbon-14 is shown below.
The solid black sections of the bars on the graph represent the percentages of
(1) carbon-14 from the original sample that has not decayed
(2) uranium-238 from the original sample that has not decayed
(3) nitrogen-14 decay product resulting from the radioactive decay
(4) lead-206 decay product resulting from the radioactive decay
Answer: 3

30.
30 Which weather instrument is used to determine wind direction?

Answer: 2

31.
31 Which bar graph best shows the percent by volume of the elements that make up Earth’s hydrosphere?

Answer: 1

32.
32 Four locations, A, B, C, and D, are represented on the topographic map below.
Which lettered location has the highest elevation?
(1) A                                              (3) C
(2) B                                              (4) D
Answer: 2

33.
33 Which cross section best represents how surface winds form by midafternoon near a shoreline on a hot
   summer day? [Diagrams are not drawn to scale.]

Answer: 4

34.
34 The cross section below represents a prevailing wind flow that causes different climates on the windward
   and leeward sides of a mountain range.
Compared to the temperature and moisture of the air rising on the windward side, the temperature and
moisture of the air descending at the same altitude on the leeward side will be
(1) warmer and drier                               (3) cooler and drier
(2) warmer and more moist                          (4) cooler and more moist
Answer: 1

35.
35 The diagram of Bowen’s Reaction Series below indicates the relative temperatures at which specific
   minerals crystallize as magma cools.
Which statement is best supported by Bowen’s Reaction Series?
(1) Most minerals crystallize at the same temperature.
(2) Most felsic minerals usually crystallize before most mafic minerals.
(3) Muscovite mica and quartz are the last minerals to crystallize as magma cools.
(4) Biotite mica is the first mineral to crystallize as magma cools.
Answer: 3


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (36–50): For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best
completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.

36.
    Base your answers to questions 36 through 40 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The diagram represents Earth’s revolution around the Sun. Points A, B, C, and D represent Earth’s
positions in its orbit on the first day of each of the four seasons. The major axis and the foci (the center of the
Sun and the other focus) of Earth’s orbit are shown.
36 Approximately how many days (d) does it take Earth to travel from position A to position C?
   (1) 91 d                                         (3) 274 d
   (2) 182 d                                        (4) 365 d
Answer: 2

37.
37 Since Earth has an elliptical orbit, the
   (1) distance between the Sun and Earth varies
   (2) distance between the Sun and the other focus varies
   (3) length of Earth’s major axis varies
   (4) length of Earth’s period of revolution varies
Answer: 1

38.
38 At positions A, B, C, and D, the north end of Earth’s axis of rotation is pointing toward
   (1) Betelgeuse                                     (3) the center of the Milky Way
   (2) Polaris                                        (4) the center of our solar system
Answer: 2

39.
39 The constellation Orion is visible at night in New York State when Earth is at position A, but not at
   position C because Earth’s
   (1) nighttime is shorter when Earth is at position A
   (2) period of rotation is shorter than its period of revolution
   (3) distance to Orion is too great for the constellation to be seen
   (4) nighttime side is facing toward a different portion of space
Answer: 4

40.
40 At which two positions will an observer in New York State experience approximately 12 hours of daylight
   during one rotation of Earth?
   (1) A and B                                      (3) B and C
   (2) A and C                                      (4) B and D
Answer: 4

41.
   Base your answers to questions 41 through 44 on the passage and cross section below and on your
knowledge of Earth science. The cross section represents a generalized region of the Pacific Ocean along the
equator during normal (non-El Niño) conditions. The relative temperatures of the ocean water and the
prevailing wind direction are indicated.
                                                  El Niño
                  Under normal Pacific Ocean conditions, strong winds blow from east to west along
              the equator. Surface ocean water piles up on the western part of the Pacific due to
              these winds. This allows deeper, colder ocean water on the eastern rim of the Pacific
              to be pulled up (upwelling) to replace the warmer surface water that was pushed
              westward.
                  During an El Niño event, these westward-blowing winds get weaker. As a result,
              warmer water does not get pushed westward as much, and colder water in the east is
              not pulled toward the surface. This creates warmer surface ocean water temperatures
              in the east, allowing the thunderstorms that normally occur at the equator in the
              western Pacific to move eastward. A strong El Niño is often associated with wet
              winters along the northwestern coast of South America and in the southeastern
              United States, and drier weather patterns in Southeast Asia (Indonesia) and Australia.
              The northeastern United States usually has warmer and drier winters in an El Niño
              year.
41 Which statement best describes the planetary wind belts that produce the winds represented in the cross
   section above?
   (1) Southwest and northwest winds diverge at the equator and blow toward the west.
   (2) Southwest and northwest winds diverge at the equator and blow toward the east.
   (3) Northeast and southeast winds converge at the equator and blow toward the west.
   (4) Northeast and southeast winds converge at the equator and blow toward the east.
Answer: 3

42.
42 Compared to non-El Niño years, which climatic conditions exist near the equator on the western and
   eastern sides of the Pacific Ocean during an El Niño event?
   (1) The western Pacific is drier and the eastern Pacific is wetter.
   (2) The western Pacific is wetter and the eastern Pacific is drier.
   (3) The western and the eastern Pacific are both wetter.
   (4) The western and the eastern Pacific are both drier.
Answer: 1

43.
43 Which cross section best represents the changed wind conditions and Pacific Ocean temperatures during
   an El Niño event? [Diagrams are not drawn to scale.]

Answer: 2

44.
44 During an El Niño year, winter climatic conditions in New York State will most likely be
   (1) colder and wetter                             (3) warmer and wetter
   (2) colder and drier                              (4) warmer and drier
Answer: 4

45.
    Base your answers to questions 45 through 47 on the cross section of Earth below and on your knowledge
of Earth science. The cross section represents the pattern of seismic wave movement away from an earthquake.
Point W represents a location at the boundary between two layers of Earth’s interior. Points X, Y, and Z
represent seismic stations on Earth’s surface.
45 Which data best describe the depth below Earth’s surface and the density of Earth’s interior at location W?
   (1) Depth: 600 km
       Density: changes from 3.4 g/cm3 to 5.6 g/cm3
   (2) Depth: 1000 km
       Density: averages 4.5 g/cm3
   (3) Depth: 2900 km
       Density: changes from 5.6 g/cm3 to 9.9 g/cm3
   (4) Depth: 5100 km
       Density: averages 11.1 g/cm3
Answer: 3

46.
46 Which statement best explains why no S-waves were received directly from this earthquake at some
   seismic stations?
   (1) An interior Earth layer absorbs S-waves. (3) S-waves travel slower than P-waves.
   (2) Earth’s mantle reflects S-waves.         (4) S-waves travel only on Earth’s surface.
Answer: 1

47.
47 The diagram below represents the seismograms of this earthquake recorded at seismic stations X, Y, and Z.
Which table best matches each seismic station with its likely seismogram?

Answer: 4

48.
    Base your answers to questions 48 through 50 on the drawing below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The drawing represents a swamp-forest environment that existed in North America at the base of the
Acadian Mountains during the Carboniferous Period. Organism A lived in this swamp-forest.
48 Organism A is a labyrinthodont and is most likely classified as
   (1) a mastodont                                    (3) a dinosaur
   (2) an amphibian                                   (4) a mammal
Answer: 2

49.
49 The Acadian Mountains were formed as a result of the collision between North America and
   (1) Avalon                                      (3) Pangaea
   (2) South America                               (4) Queenston Delta
Answer: 1

50.
50 At the time represented by this drawing, the region now known as New York State was inferred to be located
   (1) at 45° S latitude                               (3) near the equator
   (2) at 45° N latitude                               (4) near the North Pole
Answer: 3


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (51–65): Record your answers in the spaces provided in your answer booklet. Some questions
may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science.

51.
   Base your answers to questions 51 through 53 on the graph below and on your knowledge of Earth science.
The graph shows the average daily heights above or below sea level of high and low tides from April 15 to
May 15, for a New York State location. Five Moon phases are indicated at the dates on which they occurred.
51 On the diagram in your answer booklet, place an X on the Moon’s orbit to indicate the Moon’s position on
   April 15. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the center of the X is drawn within or touches the clear banded region shown
    below.
    Note: Allow credit if a symbol other than an X is used.
          It is recommended that an overlay of the same scale as the student answer booklet be used
          to ensure reliability in rating.


52.
52 On the diagram in your answer booklet, circle the two numbers on Earth’s surface that best represent the
   locations of high tide when the Moon is in the position shown on the diagram. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if both numbers 1 and 5, only, are circled.
    Note: Allow credit if a student indicates numbers 1 and 5 by using a symbol other than a circle.


53.
53 Infer the date when the next first-quarter Moon phase occurred. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for May 21 or May 22.


54.
    Base your answers to questions 54 through 58 on the cross section below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The cross section represents a portion of Earth’s crust. Letters A, B, C, and D indicate sedimentary rock
layers that were originally formed from deposits in a sea. The rock layers have not been overturned.
54 Geologic events V through Z are listed below.
                      V. Metamorphism of some sedimentary rock
                      W. Formation of sedimentary rock layers
                      X. Tilting and erosion of sedimentary rock layers
                      Y. Intrusion/extrusion of igneous rock
                      Z. Erosion of some igneous rock
   List the letters V through Z to indicate the correct order of the geologic events, from oldest to youngest,
   that formed this portion of Earth’s crust. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
4 [1] Allow 1 credit for the sequence shown below:


55.
55 Identify the name of the contact metamorphic rock formed at the boundary of the igneous rock and rock
   layer B. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for quartzite or hornfels.


56.
56 Describe one piece of evidence that suggests that rock layer C formed in a deeper sea environment than
   did rock layer A. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        — The grain size of rock layer C is smaller.
        — Smaller sediment is deposited in deeper water.
        — Shale is made of clay-sized particles/clay.
        — Rock layer A contains larger sediments.


57.
57 Describe one piece of evidence represented in the cross section that indicates Earth’s crust has moved at
   this location. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        — Rock layers A through D are tilted/slanted.
        — The sedimentary rock layers are not horizontal.
        — Sedimentary rocks that formed under water have been uplifted above sea level.
        — An intrusion/extrusion has occurred.
        — An unconformity/erosional surface has been buried by igneous rock.


58.
58 Identify the mineral composition of rock layer D. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for calcite or CaCO3 or calcium carbonate.


59.
    Base your answers to questions 59 through 61 on the block diagram in your answer booklet, which
represents a house in New York State with a well that supplies water for people. A truck is spreading salt near
a gasoline station to melt the snow on the road. Two soil zones are labeled on the diagram.
 59 Place an X on the block diagram in your answer booklet to indicate the location of the water table. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the center of the X is within or touches the clear area that separates the Saturation
    zone from the Aeration zone.
    Note: Allow credit if a symbol other than an X is used.
          It is recommended that an overlay of the same scale as the student answer booklet be used
          to ensure reliability in rating.


60.
60 Identify one process that occurred in rising, moist air that caused the clouds to form at this location. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        — expansion
        — condensation
        — cooling


61.
61 Explain why, in winter, most of the meltwater produced by salting the road will not infiltrate the soil. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        — Ice has filled the pore spaces
        — The ice has produced impermeable soil.
        — The ground is frozen.


62.
    Base your answers to questions 62 through 65 on the map in your answer booklet and on your knowledge of
Earth science. The map shows the generalized ages of surface bedrock of Iceland, an island located on the
Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift. The location of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift is indicated. Points A and B represent
locations on the surface bedrock, which is igneous in origin. The ages of the surface bedrock, in million years
(my), are indicated in the key.
 62 On the map in your answer booklet, identify the two tectonic plates, one on each side of the Mid-Atlantic
    Ridge rift at Iceland, by writing their names on the lines provided on the map. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for North American Plate to the west of the ridge and Eurasian Plate to the east of
    the ridge as shown below.


63.
63 On the map in your answer booklet, draw one arrow through point A and one arrow through point B to
   indicate the relative direction that each plate is moving to produce the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the two student-drawn arrows point away from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift to indicate a divergent plate boundary.
    Note: Allow credit even if the arrows do not go through points A and B.
    Example of a 2-credit response for questions 62 and 63:


64.
64 Identify one dark-colored, mafic igneous rock with a vesicular texture that is likely to be found on the
   surface of Iceland. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for vesicular basalt or scoria.
    Note: Do not allow credit for “basalt” alone, because some basalts do not have a vesicular texture.


65.
65 Identify one feature in the mantle beneath Iceland that causes larger amounts of magma formation in
   Iceland than at most other locations along the rest of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        — Iceland is over a mantle hot spot.
        — A mantle plume rises in the region.
        — Iceland Hot Spot
    Note: Do not allow credit for “diverging plate,” “convection currents,” or “rising magma” because
          they occur mostly along the rest of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift.



Part C
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (66–85): Record your answers in the spaces provided in your answer booklet. Some questions
may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science.

66.
66 State the average annual snowfall at location A. [1]
Base your answers to questions 66 through 68 on the maps below and on your knowledge of Earth science.
The snowfall map shows isolines of average annual snowfall, measured in inches, across part of Michigan
between two of the Great Lakes. Letters A through C represent locations on Earth’s surface. The snowfall map
is an enlargement of the map area outlined on the following Great Lakes regional map.

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for any value greater than 100 in but less than 120 in.


67.
67 On the grid in your answer booklet, construct a profile of the average annual snowfall along line BC by
   plotting the value of each isoline that crosses line BC. Connect all eight plots with a line to complete the
   profile. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the centers of all eight student plots are within or touch the rectangles shown
    below and are correctly connected with a line that passes within or touches the rectangles. The
    line of greatest snowfall must extend above 160 in but remain below 180 in.
    Note: Allow credit if the student-drawn line does not pass through the student plots, but is still
          within or touches the rectangles. It is recommended that an overlay of the same scale as the
          student answer booklet be used to ensure reliability in rating.


68.
68 The surface elevation of Lake Huron is 176 meters above sea level. Identify one New York State river that
   receives water that flows from Lake Huron. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for Niagara River or St. Lawrence River.


69.
   Base your answers to questions 69 through 73 on the landscape diagram below and on your knowledge of
Earth science. The diagram represents a long river system from its origin (source) in the mountains to its end
(mouth) at the ocean.
69 Describe one characteristic of the coastal plain that caused the river to develop meanders. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The slope is less steep.
            — gentle slope
            — The land is nearly flat.


70.
70 Identify one change that would cause an increase in the rate of stream erosion in the river valley in the
   mountains. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — increase in stream discharge/velocity
            — precipitation
            — snowmelt
            — higher/steeper slope
            — uplift of the mountains or plateau
            — cutting down into softer bedrock layers
            — deforestation


71.
71 Explain why the sediments deposited in the delta are arranged in layers. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The stream velocity varied over time, producing layered deposits.
            — Sediments deposited in water are sorted by size and density.
            — Large particles settle faster.
            — The smallest particles were dropped last.
            — Sediments were deposited by a stream.
            — Sediments are sorted.


72.
72 List two processes that would change the accumulated sediments in the delta into sedimentary rock. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for two acceptable responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — compaction/compression/pressure
            — cementation
            — burial
            — deposition/deposition of more sediment on top
            — dewatering
        Note: Do not allow credit for “weathering and erosion” because weathering and erosion do not
              change the already accumulated sediments into sedimentary rock.


73.
73 State one reason for the restriction of the construction of buildings near a meandering river on a coastal
   plain. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Buildings could be damaged or destroyed by flooding.
            — The river’s course changes due to erosion and deposition.
            — It’s on the floodplain.
            — The ground might be unstable.
            — The ground can become saturated/a swamp.
            — The meanders change positions over time.


74.
    Base your answers to questions 74 through 78 on the passage and data table below and on your knowledge
of Earth science. The data table shows the apparent hourly change in the direction of a pendulum’s swing, in
degrees per hour (°/h), for six different Northern Hemisphere latitudes.
                                            Foucault’s Pendulum
                  In 1851, Jean-Bernard-Léon Foucault attached a heavy iron ball to a steel wire
              hanging from the high ceiling of a church in Paris to demonstrate an apparent motion
              caused by Earth’s rotation. This pendulum could swing freely back and forth. A spike
              on the bottom of Foucault’s pendulum produced straight lines in sand spread on the
              floor. The position of each new line appeared to gradually shift in a clockwise direction.
              Eventually, the pendulum returned to its original path, completing a 360° pattern in
              approximately 32 hours. At other northern latitudes, a Foucault pendulum will
              complete a 360° pattern of swing in different amounts of time. In the Northern
              Hemisphere, the number of degrees that a pendulum appears to change its clockwise
              direction of swing each hour varies with latitude.
74 On the grid in your answer booklet, plot the apparent rate of change in a Foucault pendulum’s direction of
   swing for each of the latitudes given in the data table. Connect the plots with a line. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
4 [1] Allow 1 credit if the centers of all six plots are within or touch the circles shown and the plots are
      correctly connected with a line that passes within or touches the circles.
       Note: Allow credit if the student-drawn line does not pass through the student plots, but is still
             within or touches the circles.
             It is recommended that an overlay of the same scale as the student answer booklet be used
             to ensure reliability in rating.


75.
75 Based on the data table, state the relationship between latitude and the apparent rate of change in a
   Foucault pendulum’s direction of swing. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        — As latitude increases, the apparent hourly change in the direction of a pendulum’s swing
          increases.
        — Pendulums located farther north have a greater shift.
        — a direct relationship
        — The rate is slower closer to the equator/faster closer to the poles.


76.
76 Based on the data table, state the approximate apparent rate of change in the direction of a pendulum’s
   swing, in degrees per hour, at Riverhead, New York. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for any value greater than 7.5°/h but less than 10.6°/h.


77.
77 Identify one location on Earth where the apparent direction of a pendulum’s swing would complete a 360°
   circular pattern in 24 hours. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        — 90° N/North Pole
        — 90° S/South Pole
        — either pole


78.
78 The diagram below represents a swinging pendulum located in Earth’s Northern Hemisphere.
   The pendulum knocked over two pegs during its first swing.
The diagram in your answer booklet represents a top view of the same pegs. Circle the next two pegs that
would fall as the pendulum appears to change its direction of swing in the Northern Hemisphere. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if both pegs indicated below are the only pegs circled.
Note: Allow credit if a symbol other than a circle is used.


79.
   Base your answers to questions 79 through 82 on the Characteristics of Stars graph in your answer booklet
and on your knowledge of Earth science.
 79 The star Canopus has a surface temperature of 7400 K and a luminosity (relative to the Sun) of 1413.
    In your answer booklet, use an X to plot the position of Canopus on the graph, based on its surface
    temperature and luminosity. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the center of the X is placed within or touches the box shown below.
    Note: Allow credit if a symbol other than an X is used.
          It is recommended that an overlay of the same scale as the student answer booklet be used
          to ensure reliability in rating.


80.
80 Identify two stars from the Characteristics of Stars graph that are at the same life-cycle stage as the Sun.
   [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for two acceptable responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        — Spica
        — Sirius
        — Alpha Centauri
        — Barnard’s Star
        — Proxima Centauri


81.
81 Describe one characteristic of the star Spica that causes it to have a greater luminosity than Barnard’s Star.
   [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — more massive/larger/giant sized/supergiant
            — Spica emits energy at a greater rate than Barnard’s Star.
            — hotter/greater surface temperature
            — Spica is a blue-colored star.


82.
82 Describe how the relative surface temperature and the relative luminosity of Aldebaran would change if it
   collapses and becomes a white dwarf like Procyon B. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit if both the relative surface temperature change and the relative luminosity change
       are acceptable. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        Relative surface temperature:
            — Aldebaran’s surface temperature will increase.
            — It will get hotter.
        Relative luminosity:
            — Its luminosity will be reduced.
            — Luminosity will decrease.


83.
    Base your answers to questions 83 through 85 on the table below, on the map in your answer booklet, and
on your knowledge of Earth science. The table lists the latitude, longitude, and barometric pressure, in millibars
(mb), of the center of a low-pressure system (L) as it moved across North America from March 14 to March 17.
The map in your answer booklet shows the center of this low-pressure system (L) and associated fronts on
March 14. The location of the low-pressure system 24 hours later on March 15 is also indicated.
83 On the map in your answer booklet, use the latitudes and longitudes listed in the data table to plot the
   March 16 and March 17 locations of the center of the low-pressure system (L) by placing an X at each
   location. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the centers of the two Xs fall within or touch the two empty boxes shown below.
    Note: Allow credit if a symbol other than an X is used.
          It is recommended that an overlay of the same scale as the student answer booklet be used
          to ensure reliability in rating.


84.
84 Calculate the average speed, in kilometers per hour, at which this low-pressure center (L) traveled during
   the 24 hours between March 14 and March 15. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for any value from 45 km/h to 55 km/h.


85.
85 On the station model in your answer booklet, using the proper format, record the barometric pressure of
   the low-pressure center (L) on March 16. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for 985 placed in its proper location.
    Example of a 1-credit response:
Note: If other weather variables are included on the station model, only the barometric pressure
      is to be scored.



  Try the Quiz :     Earth Science - New York Regents January 2015


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