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Earth Science - New York Regents June 2013 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–35): For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best
completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.

1.
1 The terrestrial planets differ from the Jovian
  planets because the terrestrial planets are
  (1) less dense and larger
  (2) less dense and smaller
  (3) more dense and larger
  (4) more dense and smaller
Answer: 4

2.
2 Energy is produced within a star’s core by the
  process of
  (1) insolation         (3) nuclear fusion
  (2) conduction         (4) radioactive decay
Answer: 3

3.
3 The graph below shows the tidal changes in
  ocean water level, in meters, recorded at a
  coastal location on a certain day.
Approximately how many hours apart were the
two high tides?
(1) 6 h               (3) 18 h
(2) 12 h              (4) 24 h
Answer: 2


4.
4 Ocean tides observed at coastal locations each
  day are primarily caused by
  (1) Earth’s revolution around the Sun
  (2) the changing phases of the Moon
  (3) the gravitational attraction between the
      Moon and Earth
  (4) seasonal changes in the compass location of
      sunrise
Answer: 3

5.
5 If Earth’s rate of rotation increases, the length of
  one Earth day will be
  (1) shorter than 24 hours
  (2) longer than 24 hours
  (3) 24 hours, with a shorter nighttime period
  (4) 24 hours, with a longer nighttime period
Answer: 1

6.
6 Which hot spot location on Earth’s surface
  usually receives the greatest intensity of insolation
  on June 21?
  (1) Iceland                (3) Easter Island
  (2) Hawaii                 (4) Yellowstone
Answer: 2

7.
7 Compared to the luminosity and surface
  temperature of red main sequence stars, blue
  supergiants are
  (1) less luminous and have a lower surface
      temperature
  (2) less luminous and have a higher surface
      temperature
  (3) more luminous and have a lower surface
      temperature
  (4) more luminous and have a higher surface
      temperature
Answer: 4

8.
8 The station model below shows several weather
  variables recorded at a particular location.
What was the most likely dewpoint at this location?
(1) 32°F                  (3) 61°F
(2) 40°F                  (4) 70°F
Answer: 3

9.
9 Which ocean current warms the climate of
  northwestern Europe?
  (1) North Atlantic Current
  (2) Canary Current
  (3) North Equatorial Current
  (4) Labrador Current
Answer: 1

10.
10 What is the usual surface wind pattern within a
   Northern Hemisphere low-pressure system?
   (1) clockwise and outward
   (2) clockwise and inward
   (3) counterclockwise and outward
   (4) counterclockwise and inward
Answer: 4

11.
11 The diagram below represents Earth in space on
   the first day of a season.
Which season is beginning in New York State on
the day represented in the diagram?
(1) winter               (3) summer
(2) spring               (4) fall
Answer: 1

12.
12 Monsoons develop as a result of
   (1) large changes between the temperatures of
       a continent and neighboring oceans
   (2) a continent and neighboring oceans having
       nearly the same temperatures
   (3) air rising over Earth’s equatorial region
   (4) air sinking over Earth’s polar regions
Answer: 1

13.
13 At what approximate altitude in the atmosphere
   can stratospheric ozone be found?
   (1) 10 km                (3) 70 km
   (2) 30 km                (4) 100 km
Answer: 2

14.
14 What percentage of Earth’s history represents
   human existence?
   (1) less than 1.0%    (3) 23.5%
   (2) 1.8%              (4) more than 98.6%
Answer: 1

15.
15 During which period in geologic history did
   the uplifting of the Adirondack Mountains
   begin?
   (1) Quaternary        (3) Triassic
   (2) Cretaceous        (4) Cambrian
Answer: 2


16.
16 Which New York State location has surface
   bedrock that has been subjected to very intense
   regional metamorphism?
   (1) 41°00' N 72°15' W (3) 44°00' N 76°00' W
   (2) 42°30' N 75°00' W (4) 44°30' N 74°00' W
Answer: 4

17.
17 The cross sections below represent three widely
   separated bedrock outcrops labeled A, B, and C.
   Letters W, X, Y, and Z represent fossils found in
   the rock layers.
Which fossil could best be used as an index fossil?
(1) W                     (3) Y
(2) X                     (4) Z
Answer: 1

18.
18 Which scientific principle states that younger
   rock layers are generally deposited on top of
   older rock layers?
   (1) superposition
   (2) evolution
   (3) original horizontality
   (4) inclusion
Answer: 1

19.
19 The graph below shows the hardness of four
   minerals.
Which mineral is hard enough to scratch calcite
but is not hard enough to scratch amphibole?
(1) muscovite mica       (3) olivine
(2) fluorite             (4) graphite
Answer: 2

20.
20 Earth’s internal heat is the primary source of
   energy that
   (1) warms the lower troposphere
   (2) melts glacial ice at lower altitudes
   (3) moves the lithospheric plates
   (4) pollutes deep groundwater with radioactivity
Answer: 3

21.
21 The cross section of Earth below represents
   a P-wave moving away from an earthquake
   epicenter. Seismic station A is shown on Earth’s
   surface.
At station A, the first P-wave arrives 11 minutes
40 seconds after the earthquake. How long after
the first P-wave arrives will the first S-wave
arrive?
(1) 5 minutes 00 second
(2) 8 minutes 40 seconds
(3) 9 minutes 40 seconds
(4) 21 minutes 20 seconds
Answer: 3

22.
22 The Aleutian Islands extend westward from
   southern Alaska to form the northern boundary
   of the Pacific Ocean. These volcanic islands
   were formed by the nearby
   (1) subduction of a continental plate
   (2) subduction of an oceanic plate
   (3) divergence of a continental plate
   (4) divergence of an oceanic plate
Answer: 2

23.
23 Landscapes characterized by gentle slopes and
   meandering streams are most often found in
   regions with
   (1) steep mountain cliffs
   (2) sediment-covered bedrock
   (3) recently active faults and folds
   (4) high volcanic activity
Answer: 2

24.
24 The photograph below shows a valley.
Which agent of erosion most likely produced this
valley’s shape?
(1) blowing wind        (3) moving ice
(2) ocean waves         (4) running water
Answer: 3

25.
25 Pieces of bedrock material that are broken from
   a cliff and deposited by a landslide at the base of
   the cliff are best described as
   (1) rounded and sorted
   (2) rounded and unsorted
   (3) angular and sorted
   (4) angular and unsorted
Answer: 4

26.
26 Sandstone, limestone, and conglomerate cobbles
   are found in a streambed in New York State
   where the surrounding bedrock is composed of
   shales and siltstones. The most likely explanation
   for the presence of these cobbles is that they
   were
   (1) weathered from the surrounding bedrock
   (2) formed when shale and siltstone bedrock
       were eroded
   (3) transported to this area from another region
   (4) metamorphosed from shale and siltstone
Answer: 3

27.
27 The narrow, sandy, barrier islands in the ocean
   along the south coast of Long Island were
   deposited by
   (1) wind                 (3) glacial ice
   (2) streams              (4) wave action
Answer: 4

28.
    Base your answers to questions 28 and 29 on the
data table below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The data table shows some constellations
that can be seen by an observer in New York State
during different seasons.
28 Which statement best explains why some
   constellations are not seen during all four seasons?
   (1) Earth revolves around the Sun.
   (2) Constellations revolve around the Sun.
   (3) The Moon revolves around Earth.
   (4) The Sun revolves around the center of the
       Milky Way.
Answer: 1

29.
29 The diagram below represents a portion of the
   constellation Ursa Minor. The star Polaris is
   identified.
Ursa Minor can be seen by an observer in New
York State during all four seasons because
Ursa Minor is located almost directly
(1) above Earth’s equator
(2) above Earth’s North Pole
(3) overhead in New York State
(4) between Earth and the center of the Milky Way
Answer: 2

30.
30 Which map shows normal paths followed by low-pressure storm centers as they pass across the
   United States?

Answer: 4

31.
31 The diagram below represents the wet-bulb and dry-bulb temperatures on a sling psychrometer.
What was the relative humidity of the air when these temperatures were recorded?
(1) 5%                                            (3) 20%
(2) 17%                                           (4) 63%
Answer: 4

32.
32 Which set of instruments is correctly paired with the weather variables that they measure?

Answer: 2

33.
33 The map below shows four locations, A, B, C, and D, on the continent of South America.
Which location is the first to experience sunset on September 23?
(1) A                                               (3) C
(2) B                                               (4) D
Answer: 4

34.
34 The data table below lists characteristics of rocks A, B, C, and D.
Which rock is most likely phyllite?
(1) A                                 (3) C
(2) B                                 (4) D
Answer: 4

35.
35 The cross section below represents a pattern of magnetic field reversals preserved in the igneous bedrock
   of the oceanic crust east of the Mid-Atlantic ridge.
Which cross section best represents the magnetic field pattern west of the Mid-Atlantic ridge?

Answer: 1


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (36–50): For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best
completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.

36.
    Base your answers to questions 36 through 38 on the weather map below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The map shows a low-pressure system with two fronts extending from its center (L). Points A, B, C, and
D represent locations on Earth’s surface. Two different air masses are labeled.
36 Which atmospheric conditions describe the air mass that is influencing weather conditions at location C?
   (1) cool and dry                                 (3) warm and dry
   (2) cool and moist                               (4) warm and moist
Answer: 4

37.
37 Which locations are most likely experiencing precipitation?
   (1) A and B                                       (3) C and D
   (2) B and C                                       (4) D and B
Answer: 4

38.
38 Which cross section best represents the frontal boundary ( f b) and general pattern of air movements
   between locations C and D?

Answer: 2

39.
  Base your answers to questions 39 through 43 on the passage below and on your knowledge of Earth science.
                               Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
                 In the 192os, Edwin Hubble’s discovery of a pattern in the red shift of light from
             galaxies moving away from Earth led to the theory of an expanding universe. This
             expansion implies that the universe was smaller, denser, and hotter in the past. In the
             194os, scientists predicted that heat (identified as cosmic microwave background
             radiation) left over from the Big Bang would fill the universe. In the 196os, satellite
             probes found that cosmic microwave background radiation fills the universe uniformly
             in every direction, and indicated a temperature of about 3 kelvins (K). This radiation
             has been cooling as the universe has been expanding.
39 Scientists infer that the universe began approximately
   (1) 1.0 billion years ago                          (3) 8.2 billion years ago
   (2) 3.3 billion years ago                          (4) 13.7 billion years ago
Answer: 4

40.
40 Which graph best shows the relationship of the size of the universe to the temperature indicated by the
   cosmic microwave background radiation?

Answer: 2

41.
41 The diagram below represents the spectral lines from the light of an element in a laboratory on Earth.
Which diagram below best represents the pattern of spectral lines from the same element when it was
observed by Edwin Hubble in the light of one of the distant galaxies?

Answer: 3

42.
42 Cosmic microwave background radiation is classified as a form of electromagnetic energy because it
   (1) travels in waves through space                (3) is visible to humans
   (2) moves faster than the speed of light          (4) moves due to particle collisions
Answer: 1

43.
43 The current temperature indicated by the cosmic microwave background radiation is
   (1) higher than the temperature at which water boils
   (2) between the temperature at which water boils and room temperature
   (3) between room temperature and the temperature at which water freezes
   (4) lower than the temperature at which water freezes
Answer: 4

44.
   Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the topographic map below and on your knowledge of
Earth science. Points A, B, C, and D represent locations on the surface of Earth. Elevations are measured in feet.
44 In which general direction does Red Creek flow?
   (1) northeast                                   (3) southwest
   (2) southeast                                   (4) northwest
Answer: 3

45.
45 What is the approximate gradient from point A to point B on the map?
   (1) 25 feet per mile                             (3) 75 feet per mile
   (2) 50 feet per mile                             (4) 100 feet per mile
Answer: 1

46.
46 What is a possible elevation for the surface of Darry Lin Lake?
   (1) 228 feet                                        (3) 255 feet
   (2) 242 feet                                        (4) 268 feet
Answer: 2

47.
47 Which cross section represents an accurate profile of the landscape between points C and D?

Answer: 1

48.
    Base your answers to questions 48 through 50 on the geologic cross section and photograph below and on
your knowledge of Earth science. The cross section represents the Palisades sill in southern New York State and
the surrounding bedrock. Potassium-40 analysis determined the sill to be approximately 200,000,000 years old.
The photograph shows a mastodont tooth found in glacial sediments nearby. Carbon-14 analysis determined this
tooth to be approximately 11,400 years old.
48 Which metamorphic rock was most likely produced in the contact zone between the Palisades sill and the
   sedimentary rock?
   (1) schist                                    (3) gneiss
   (2) slate                                     (4) quartzite
Answer: 4

49.
49 Potassium-40 is useful for radioactive dating of the Palisades sill because the half-life of potassium-40
   (1) decreased as the amounts of 4oAr and 4oCa in the sill increased
   (2) remained constant during the radioactive decay process
   (3) increased as pressure from the overlying sedimentary rock increased
   (4) was shortened by the high temperature of the magma that formed the sill
Answer: 2

50.
50 The mastodont tooth and the entire Palisades sill represented above are similar in that both
   (1) can be found in deposits left by the last continental ice sheet in New York State
   (2) are fossils of animals that once lived in New York State
   (3) can be used as time markers to date nearby geologic events
   (4) are Mesozoic in age
Answer: 3


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (51–65): Record your answers in the spaces provided in your answer booklet. Some questions
may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science.

51.
    Base your answers to questions 51 through 54 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The diagram represents a portion of a stream and its surrounding bedrock. The arrows represent the
movement of water molecules by the processes of the water cycle. The water table is indicated by a dashed line.
Letter A represents a water cycle process occurring at a specific location. Letter d represents the distance
between the water table and the land surface.
51 Identify water cycle process A, which produces cloud droplets. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for condensation.


52.
52 Describe the soil permeability and the land surface slope that allow the most infiltration of rainwater and
   the least runoff. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit if both the soil permeability and the land surface slope are correct. Acceptable
       responses include, but are not limited to:
        Soil permeability:
            — high
            — The soil is unsaturated.
            — a soil that allows water to easily or rapidly seep through
            — The surface of the soil is not frozen.
            — a very permeable soil
            — loosely packed large particles
        Land surface slope:
            — a gentle slope
            — a slope that is not steep
            — a level slope
            — flat/a flat plain


53.
53 Slightly acidic groundwater has been seeping through cracks and openings in the limestone bedrock of this
   area, producing caves. State whether the type of weathering that produces these caves is mainly chemical
   or physical, and identify one characteristic of limestone that allows this type of weathering to occur. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for chemical weathering and an acceptable characteristic of limestone. Acceptable
       characteristics include, but are not limited to:
            — Acid dissolves limestone.
            — The calcite in the limestone chemically reacts with acid.
            — Limestone is composed of calcite.


54.
54 Explain why the distance, d, from the water table to the land surface would decrease after several days of
   heavy rainfall. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The heavy rainfall will infiltrate the ground, causing the water table to rise closer to the
              surface.
            — Infiltration will occur.
            — The ground becomes more saturated.
            — The saturated zone will increase.
            — The water table will rise.
            — erosion of the land surface
        Note: Do not allow credit for the process of weathering acting alone.


55.
    Base your answers to questions 55 through 59 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The diagram represents the Moon at eight numbered positions in its orbit around Earth. The nighttime
sides of the Moon and Earth are shaded.
55 The photograph below shows a phase of the Moon as observed from New York State.
State the numbered position at which the Moon was located when the photograph was taken. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for position number 1.


56.
56 State the number of days the Moon takes to go through one complete cycle of Moon phases from full Moon
   to full Moon as viewed from Earth. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for any value from 29 d to 30 d.


57.
57 State the numbered position of the Moon that could result in a lunar eclipse. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for position number 3.


58.
58 Explain why the Moon’s orbital velocity is slowest when the Moon is farthest from Earth. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The gravitational attraction between the Moon and Earth is least when they are farthest
              apart.
            — The force of gravity is less.
            — Gravitational attraction is greater when the Moon is closer to Earth.


59.
59 Explain how the Moon’s rotation and revolution cause the same side of the Moon to always face Earth. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The Moon’s period of rotation and period of revolution are equal.
            — The Moon rotates only once per revolution.
            — The Moon rotates and revolves once in 27.3 days.
            — The Moon rotates and revolves at the same rate.


60.
    Base your answers to questions 60 and 61 on the partial geologic map in your answer booklet and on your
knowledge of Earth science. The map shows the geographical distribution of most of the Devonian-age
surface bedrock in New York State.
 60 On the map in your answer booklet, place an X at a location where the gastropod fossil Platyceras might be
    found in the surface bedrock. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit if the center of the X is within the Middle Devonian zone or the Early and Middle
       Devonian zone located northwest of New York City.


61.
61 State the name of the New York State landscape region that includes most of the Devonian-age surface
   bedrock shown on the map. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Allegheny Plateau
            — Appalachian Plateau
            — Appalachian Uplands


62.
   Base your answers to questions 62 through 65 on the map below and on your knowledge of Earth science.
The map shows the location of Sandy Creek, west of Rochester, New York. X and Y represent points on the
banks of the stream.
62 In your answer booklet, draw a line to represent the shape of the stream bottom from point X to point Y. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a streambed that is deeper near the X.
    Example of a 1-credit response:


63.
63 Explain why sediments are deposited when Sandy Creek enters Lake Ontario. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        — Water velocity decreases, causing some sediment to be dropped.
        — The stream slows down as it enters the lake.


64.
64 The symbols representing four sediment particles are shown in the key in your answer booklet. These
   particles are being transported by Sandy Creek into Lake Ontario. On the cross section in your answer
   booklet, draw the symbols on the bottom of Lake Ontario to show the relative position where each
   sediment particle is most likely deposited. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the relative positions of the symbols or particle names are in the order shown.
    Example of a 1-credit response:


65.
65 Record the minimum velocity this stream needs to transport a 2.0-cm-diameter particle. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for any value from 80 cm/s to 100 cm/s.



Part C
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (66–85): Record your answers in the spaces provided in your answer booklet. Some questions
may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science.

66.
   Base your answers to questions 66 through 68 on the table and photograph below and on your knowledge
of Earth science. The table shows the approximate mineral percent composition of an igneous rock. The
photograph shows the true-scale crystal sizes in this igneous rock.
66 Identify two elements that are commonly found in all three minerals in the data table. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for two of the three correct responses below.
            — silicon or Si
            — oxygen or O
            — aluminum or Al


67.
67 Identify this igneous rock. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for diorite.


68.
68 Identify two processes that formed this rock. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for two correct responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — melting
            — cooling
            — solidification/crystallization/hardening
            — heating


69.
    Base your answers to questions 69 through 73 on the map below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The map shows the major islands in the Galapagos Island chain. These islands were formed by volcanic
eruptions as the tectonic plate passed over the Galapagos Hot Spot. The age of the volcanic bedrock on certain
islands is shown in millions of years (my).
69 During what geologic epoch did the bedrock on the island of San Cristóbal form? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for Pliocene Epoch.


70.
70 Based on the age of the bedrock of the Galapagos Islands, in which direction does the tectonic plate
   containing the islands appear to be moving away from the Galapagos Hot Spot? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — southeastward
            — south
            — ESE
            — east
            — SSE
            — to the right


71.
71 The Galapagos Hot Spot is located closest to what type of tectonic plate boundary? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — divergent
            — transform
            — mid-ocean ridge


72.
72 Describe what caused a vesicular texture in some of the volcanic rocks that formed when lava cooled on
   these islands. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Dissolved gases are released from lava as a result of a decrease in pressure.
            — gas/air bubbles trapped in rapidly cooling lava
            — There was an explosive eruption of a volcano.


73.
73 Some of the magma at the Galapagos Hot Spot is believed to originate 1000 kilometers below Earth’s
   surface. What is the approximate temperature of Earth’s interior at that depth? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for any value from 3100°C to 3300°C.


74.
   Base your answers to questions 74 through 76 on the data table below and on your knowledge of Earth science.
The table shows the area, in million square kilometers, of the Arctic Ocean covered by ice from June through
November. The average area covered by ice from 1979 to 2000 from June to November is compared to the area
covered by ice in 2005 for the same time period.
74 Use the information in the data table to construct a line graph. On the grid in your answer booklet, plot the
   data for the area covered by ice in 2005 for each month shown on the data table and connect the plots with
   a line. The average area covered by ice for 1979–2000 has been plotted and labeled on the grid. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the centers of all six plots are within the circles shown and are correctly connected
    with a line that passes within each circle.
    Note: It is recommended that an overlay of the same scale as the student answer booklet be used
          to ensure reliability in rating.


75.
75 Scientists have noted that since 2002, the area of the Arctic Ocean covered by ice during these warmer
   months has shown an overall decrease from the long-term average (1979–2000). State one way in which this
   ice coverage since 2002 and the ice coverage shown in the 2005 data above provide evidence of global
   warming, when compared to this long-term average. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        — The area covered by ice in 2005 was less than the average area covered by ice from 1979 to 2000.
        — The area covered by ice was less, showing evidence of global warming.
        — More ice melted in 2005 than the average that melted from 1979 to 2000.
        — The ice caps were melting, causing less surface ice in 2005.
        — There was less ice in 2005.


76.
76 Identify one greenhouse gas that is believed to cause global warming. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        — carbon dioxide or CO2
        — methane or CH4
        — water vapor or H2O gas
        — nitrous oxide or N2O
        — ozone or O3
        — chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs


77.
    Base your answers to questions 77 through 79 on the topographic map of Hawaii in your answer booklet and
on your knowledge of Earth science. Points A and B represent surface locations on the island. Land elevations
and Pacific Ocean depths are shown in meters.
 77 On the map in your answer booklet, draw the -1000-meter ocean-depth isoline. Extend the isoline to the
    edge of the map. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the -1000 isoline is correctly drawn to the edge of the map. If additional isolines
    are drawn, all isolines must be correct to receive credit.


78.
78 The average annual air temperature at location A is approximately 77°F, while the average annual air
   temperature at location B is approximately 55°F. Explain why location B has cooler average temperatures. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        — B is higher in elevation.
        — Higher elevations have cooler temperatures.
        — B is in the mountains.


79.
79 The map below shows the locations of three volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. The arrows represent the
   direction of the planetary winds. Points X and Y represent surface locations on the island.
Explain why location X usually receives less annual precipitation than location Y. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        — Location X is located on the leeward side of a mountain.
        — Location X is located on the rain shadow side of a mountain.
        — Location Y is located on the windward side of a mountain.
        — Moist air rises over location Y, resulting in precipitation.
        — orographic effect
        — A mountain/volcano barrier separates X and Y.
        — Planetary winds bring moisture to location Y, but lack this moisture by the time they get to
          location X.
        — Location X is farther from the ocean.


80.
    Base your answers to questions 80 through 82 on the diagram in your answer booklet and on your
knowledge of Earth science. The diagram represents the Sun’s apparent path on the equinoxes and the longest
and shortest days of the year for a location in New York State. Points X, Y, and Z represent the solar noon
positions along daily Sun paths X, Y, and Z.
 80 On the diagram in your answer booklet, draw one arrow in each box on path Z to indicate the Sun’s
    apparent direction of movement along path Z. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if both arrows are correctly drawn.
    Example of a 1-credit response:


81.
81 State one possible date of the year represented by each apparent path of the Sun. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if all three responses are correct. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
    Path X:
        — Dec. 20 or Dec. 21 or Dec. 22
        — winter solstice
        — first day of winter
    Path Y:
        — March 20 or March 21 or March 22
        — Sept. 21 or Sept. 22 or Sept. 23
        — autumnal equinox or fall equinox
        — vernal equinox or spring equinox
        — an equinox
        — first day of spring or first day of fall
    Path Z:
        — June 20 or June 21 or June 22
        — summer solstice
        — first day of summer


82.
82 State the rate, in degrees per hour, that the Sun appears to travel along path X from sunrise to sunset. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for 15°/h.


83.
   Base your answers to questions 83 through 85 on the cross section in your answer booklet and on your
knowledge of Earth science. The cross section represents several geologic structures. Line AB represents a fault.
C and D represent rock units.
 83 On the cross section in your answer booklet, place an X on the unconformity. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the center of the X is placed on or near the unconformity (wavy line) within the
    region indicated in the diagram below.
    Note: Allow credit if a symbol other than an X is used.
          It is recommended that an overlay of the same scale as the student answer booklet be used
          to ensure reliability in rating.


84.
84 On the cross section in your answer booklet, place two arrows, one on each side of fault AB, to show the
   relative movement of the rock units on each side of the fault. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for the correct placement of both arrows as shown below.
    Example of a 2-credit response for questions 83 and 84:


85.
85 Indicate the proper sequence of the geologic events listed in your answer booklet by writing the number 1
   after the first event, the number 2 after the second event, and the number 3 after the last event. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response as shown below:
        Deposition of rock unit C: 3
        Intrusion of rock unit D: 1
        Faulting along line AB: 2



  Try the Quiz :     Earth Science - New York Regents June 2013 Exam


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