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Global History and Geography - New York Regents August 2012 Exam

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Part I
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
1 What does a topographic map show?
  (1) climate regions      (3) patterns of trade
  (2) ethnic distributions (4) physical features
Answer: 4

2.
2 Which social scientist is most concerned with
  analyzing the relationship between the supply of
  and the demand for goods and services?
  (1) an anthropologist      (3) a sociologist
  (2) an economist           (4) a political scientist
Answer: 2

3.
3 Which geographic feature did the earliest
  civilizations in Egypt, India, and China have in
  common?
  (1) mountains that provided protection from
       invasion
  (2) rivers that increased the fertility of the land
       by flooding
  (3) vast forests that supplied lumber for building
  (4) tropical climates that included monsoons
Answer: 2


4.
    Base your answer to question 4 on the quotation
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   …We give our obedience to those whom we put
   in positions of authority, and we obey the laws
   themselves, especially those which are for the
   protection of the oppressed, and those unwritten
   laws which it is an acknowledged shame to
   break.…
                      — Pericles, quoted in History of the
                                      Peloponnesian War
 4 In this quotation, Pericles is praising Athenian
   (1) civic values
   (2) artistic creativity
   (3) military strengths
   (4) commercial success
Answer: 1

5.
5 The ancient Sumerians modified their
  environment to increase food production by
  (1) building terraces
  (2) removing rain forests
  (3) digging irrigation canals
  (4) developing chinampas
Answer: 3

6.
6 Believers of Hinduism are expected to
  (1) fulfill their dharma for a favorable
      reincarnation
  (2) complete a pilgrimage to Mecca
  (3) obey the Ten Commandments
  (4) follow the Eightfold Path to achieve
      enlightenment
Answer: 1

7.
    Base your answer to question 7 on the outline
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
         Golden Age of
            I. Mathematical innovation
               A. Decimal system
               B. Concept of zero
           II. Astronomy
          III. Medicine
               A. Vaccination
               B. Plastic surgery
               C. Hospital system
          IV. Literature
               A. Sanskrit poetry & fables
           V. Art & Architecture
               A. Stupas
               B. Capital at Pataliputra
               C. Ajanta Caves
 7 Which civilization best completes the title of this
   outline?
   (1) Ghana                 (3) Song
   (2) Khmer                 (4) Gupta
Answer: 4

8.
Base your answer to question 8 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
8 Which concept does this map best illustrate?
  (1) balance of power                     (3) cultural diffusion
  (2) ethnocentrism                        (4) self-sufficiency
Answer: 3

9.
9 • Islamic scholars made significant contributions
    to astronomy.
  • Muslim architects excelled in design.
  • Schools and libraries were built in Islamic
    urban centers.
  Which conclusion about Islamic society during its
  Golden Age can best be supported by these
  statements?
  (1) Social status of Muslims was determined at
      birth.
  (2) Achievements relied on a knowledge of math
      and science.
  (3) People of diverse faiths were required to
      convert to Islam.
  (4) Cities developed self-sufficient economies.
Answer: 2

10.
    Base your answer to question 10 on the chart
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
10 What is the best title for this chart?
   (1) Role of the Church
   (2) Feudal Obligations
   (3) Knights’ Code of Chivalry
   (4) Rules for Guild Membership
Answer: 2

11.
11 Which region had the greatest influence on the
   historical and cultural development of the
   Byzantine Empire?
   (1) Mesoamerica         (3) Rome
   (2) India               (4) Egypt
Answer: 3

12.
12 Muslims’ reference to Christians and Jews as
   “People of the Book” demonstrates they all
   shared a belief in
   (1) the pope               (3) monotheism
   (2) the five relationships (4) dharma
Answer: 3

13.
13 During the Renaissance, humanist philosophers
   emphasized the importance of
   (1) individualism
   (2) absolutism
   (3) religious salvation
   (4) technological advancements
Answer: 1

14.
14 Which statement about the Protestant
   Reformation is an opinion rather than a fact?
   (1) German princes revolted against the Holy
       Roman Emperor.
   (2) Membership in the Catholic Church declined
       in northern Europe.
   (3) European religious unity was disrupted by
       the newly established religions.
   (4) Henry VIII led a stronger religious reform
       movement than Martin Luther did.
Answer: 4

15.
15 The location of the Ottoman Empire had an
   impact on the
   (1) trade between Europe and Asia
   (2) conquest of Spain by the Muslims
   (3) spread of Buddhism into Southeast Asia
   (4) decline in the Atlantic slave trade
Answer: 1

16.
16 The rule of Akbar the Great is important
   because he
   (1) admired legalism and emphasized oppression
   (2) recognized natural laws and supported
       democracy
   (3) accepted diversity and practiced religious
       toleration
   (4) supported equality and outlawed the caste
       system
Answer: 3

17.
    Base your answer to question 17 on the chart
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
17 This chart of the Columbian exchange shows the
   (1) benefits of the exploration of Asia by
       Europeans
   (2) effects of the Middle Passage on the
       Americas
   (3) introduction of South American products into
       North America
   (4) interaction of cultures between the Western
       and Eastern hemispheres
Answer: 4

18.
18 Europeans considered mercantilism a successful
   policy because it
   (1) encouraged self-sufficiency in less developed
       nations
   (2) led to alliances with Asian countries
   (3) protected traditional social practices
   (4) created wealth for the colonial powers
Answer: 4

19.
19 One similarity between the Magna Carta and the
   English Bill of Rights is that both documents
   (1) set up a two-party political system
   (2) placed limits on the power of the monarch
   (3) established the right to inherit the throne
   (4) guaranteed equal rights for all citizens
Answer: 2

20.
20 Which statement represents a key idea directly
   associated with John Locke’s Two Treatises of
   Government?
   (1) Freedom of speech should be denied.
   (2) The king’s power on Earth comes from God.
   (3) All people are born with the right to life,
       liberty, and property.
   (4) Individuals acting in their own self-interest
       will achieve economic success.
Answer: 3


21.
    Base your answer to question 21 on the partial
outline below and on your knowledge of social
studies.
      I. _______
         A. Ideas from the American Revolution
            spread.
         B. Enslaved persons burned sugar fields
            and rebelled against French slave
            owners.
         C. Toussaint L’Ouverture organized
            rebels.
21 Which title best completes this partial outline?
   (1) Causes for Bismarck’s Rise to Power
   (2) Factors of the Haitian Revolution
   (3) Results of the Munich Pact
   (4) Situations Contributing to the Zionist
       Movement
Answer: 2

22.
22 Belief in the ideas of the Enlightenment and
   discontent within the Third Estate were causes of
   the
   (1) French Revolution
   (2) Counter Reformation
   (3) Industrial Revolution
   (4) Spanish Reconquista
Answer: 1

23.
23 In the early 18th century, the Agricultural
   Revolution in Great Britain resulted in
   urbanization because
   (1) enslaved persons replaced free laborers on
       farms
   (2) factory work strengthened extended families
   (3) displaced rural workers migrated to find jobs
   (4) the middle class decreased in size
Answer: 3

24.
    Base your answer to question 24 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   … Since the beginning of China as a nation, we
   Chinese have governed our own country despite
   occasional interruptions. When China was
   occasionally occupied by a foreign race, our
   ancestors could always in the end drive these
   foreigners out, restore the fatherland, and
   preserve China for future generations of Chinese.
   Today when we raise the righteous standard of
   revolt in order to expel an alien race [the
   Manchus] that has been occupying China, we are
   doing no more than our ancestors have done or
   expected us to do. Justice is so much on our side
   that all Chinese, once familiarizing themselves
   with our stand, will have no doubt about the
   righteousness of our cause.…
                        — “A Public Declaration,” 1906
24 Which conclusion can be drawn from this
   passage?
   (1) China can no longer remain isolated from its
       neighbors.
   (2) The Chinese people are happy with the rule
       of the Manchu.
   (3) The Chinese people wanted to end foreign
       occupation.
   (4) China has prospered under the rule of
       foreign powers.
Answer: 3

25.
    Base your answer to question 25 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
25 Which statement best reflects the main idea of
   this cartoon?
   (1) The League of Nations is stopping world
       boycotts.
   (2) The League of Nations hopes to use boycotts
       to end war.
   (3) Belligerent nations wish to be included in the
       League of Nations.
   (4) War is likely if the League of Nations acts.
Answer: 2

26.
26 A key idea in the Communist Manifesto by Karl
   Marx and Friedrich Engels is that workers should
   support the
   (1) overthrow of the capitalist system
   (2) establishment of labor unions
   (3) legislative regulation of wages and working
       conditions
   (4) technological changes in production methods
Answer: 1

27.
27 Which change is associated with Meiji Japan?
   (1) expansion of feudal political and social values
   (2) modernization of the economy and government
   (3) adoption of isolationist policies
   (4) abandoning plans for an overseas empire
Answer: 2

28.
28 Which action contributed to the success of
   Lenin’s communist revolution in Russia?
   (1) Peasants were promised land reform.
   (2) Businessmen were encouraged to form
       monopolies.
   (3) Landowners were offered tax relief.
   (4) Factory workers were required to start small
       businesses.
Answer: 1

29.
29 • Treaty of Nanjing gives control of Hong Kong
     to Great Britain.
   • French government sets up a protectorate in
     Cambodia.
   • Italian forces occupy Ethiopia.
   Which policy is most closely associated with these
   statements?
   (1) détente                (3) nonalignment
   (2) appeasement            (4) imperialism
Answer: 4

30.
30 What was a major cause of the famines in Ukraine
   between 1929 and 1935?
   (1) war with Chechnya and Armenia
   (2) forced collectivization by the government
   (3) lack of arable land in the region
   (4) movement of workers to Siberia
Answer: 2

31.
31 The British reliance on India as a market for its
   manufactured goods caused Mohandas Gandhi to
   (1) run for a seat in the British Parliament
   (2) lead the Sepoy Rebellion
   (3) support traditional caste divisions
   (4) refuse to buy British textiles
Answer: 4

32.
32 Which headline is most closely associated with
   the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
   (1) “Japan Signs Treaty of Kanagawa”
   (2) “Nuclear Bombs Dropped on Japan”
   (3) “Japan Invades Korea”
   (4) “Japan Hosts Discussion on Greenhouse
        Gases”
Answer: 2

33.
Base your answer to question 33 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
33 The leaders in this 1936 cartoon are depicted as “spineless” because they
   (1) signed the Treaty of Versailles
   (2) wanted to avoid global conflict at any cost
   (3) depended on economic measures to stop aggression
   (4) recognized the communist government in the Soviet Union
Answer: 2

34.
34 The purpose of both the Truman Doctrine and
   the Marshall Plan was to
   (1) support the construction of the Iron Curtain
   (2) increase membership in the United Nations
   (3) prevent the spread of communism
   (4) attempt to solve world hunger
Answer: 3

35.
35 Which change occurred immediately after the
   region of British India gained its independence in
   1947?
   (1) India became an ally of the Soviet Union.
   (2) India adopted Islam as the official state religion.
   (3) The region was partitioned into two separate
       states.
   (4) A military dictatorship took control of the
       entire region.
Answer: 3


36.
36 In the struggle to gain independence for their
   countries, both Kwame Nkrumah and Ho Chi
   Minh relied on
   (1) nationalist sentiments
   (2) trench warfare
   (3) collective security agreements
   (4) nonviolent resistance
Answer: 1

37.
37 The Organization of Petroleum Exporting
   Countries (OPEC) was formed with the intent of
   (1) stabilizing the supply of oil to Japan
   (2) cutting off the supply of oil to the United
       States and its allies
   (3) increasing the supply of oil available for use
       within Middle Eastern countries
   (4) controlling the supply of oil to raise prices
Answer: 4

38.
Base your answer to question 38 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
38 What is the key idea of this cartoon?
   (1) Genocide in Cambodia, Rwanda, Bosnia, and Darfur has been stopped.
   (2) Human rights issues are best dealt with by the United Nations.
   (3) The United Nations has not been effective in ending genocide.
   (4) Fear of war crimes trials has brought peace to troubled regions.
Answer: 3

39.
39 Both the division of Germany and the division of
   Korea following World War II led to
   (1) uneven economic development between the
       divided portions
   (2) democratic governments for all citizens
   (3) open warfare between the divided parts
   (4) space exploration agreements with the
       superpowers
Answer: 1

40.
40 Changes in the political borders of Eastern
   European countries during the 199os were a
   result of the
   (1) failure of communism
   (2) expansion of the Warsaw Pact
   (3) end of free trade
   (4) decline of the North Atlantic Treaty
       Organization (NATO)
Answer: 1

41.
41 The Code of Hammurabi, the Twelve Tables, and
   the Justinian Code are examples of
   (1) religious edicts
   (2) written laws
   (3) epic poems
   (4) democratic constitutions
Answer: 2

42.
42 Which statement about the bubonic plague in
   Europe, Asia, and Africa is accurate?
   (1) It followed trade routes.
   (2) It increased agricultural production.
   (3) It was restricted to rural areas.
   (4) It encouraged nationalism.
Answer: 1

43.
Base your answer to question 43 on the chart below and on your knowledge of social studies.
43 What is a valid conclusion based on the information shown in this chart?
   (1) The primary cause of soil degradation throughout the world is bio-industrial.
   (2) Deforestation causes soil degradation to more hectares of land in South America
       than in Asia.
   (3) The largest number of hectares affected by soil degradation due to overgrazing
       is located in Africa.
   (4) The fewest number of hectares affected by soil degradation due to arable
       farming is located in North America.
Answer: 3

44.
44 Which factor contributed to the fall of the Han
   dynasty, the fall of the Roman Empire, and the
   fall of the Abbasid Empire?
   (1) invasions by nomadic peoples from Central
        Asia
   (2) demands for religious freedom by Christians
   (3) long periods of drought that led to isolation
   (4) dependence on slaves to produce manufactured goods
Answer: 1

45.
45 Which empires gained wealth by controlling the
   trade of gold, ivory, and salt across the Sahara
   Desert?
   (1) Maya and Aztec
   (2) Greek and Roman
   (3) Mali and Songhai
   (4) Mauryan and Mughal
Answer: 3

46.
Base your answer to question 46 on the time line below and on your knowledge of social studies.
46 Which historical period is most closely associated with these achievements?
   (1) Pax Romana                             (3) European Middle Ages
   (2) Age of Alexander the Great             (4) Scientific Revolution
Answer: 4

47.
47 The encomienda system, the latifundia form of
   land ownership, and the office of viceroy are all
   closely associated with
   (1) Spanish rule in Latin America
   (2) pre-Columbian practices of Native Americans
   (3) attempts to halt the drug trade in South
       America
   (4) reduction of trade barriers in the Western
       Hemisphere
Answer: 1

48.
48 One way in which the Bantu people of West
   Africa (500 B.C.–A.D. 1500) and the people of
   Ireland (184os) are similar is that both groups
   (1) carried out successful conquests
   (2) supported nationalist movements
   (3) experienced large migrations
   (4) represented early civilizations
Answer: 3

49.
49 What was one factor that caused Napoleon’s
   invasion of Russia and Hitler’s invasion of Russia
   to be unsuccessful?
   (1) poorly trained military forces
   (2) a lack of alliances
   (3) harsh winter climate
   (4) mountainous terrain
Answer: 3

50.
50 One similarity in the actions of Benito Mussolini
   and Saddam Hussein is that both
   (1) established a democratic form of government
   (2) denied individual rights
   (3) expanded the power of labor unions
   (4) sought a classless society
Answer: 2


51.
                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Technology
                 Throughout history, existing technology has been modified or replaced by new
                 technological innovations. These new technological innovations have had various
                 effects on societies and the world.
        Task:
                 Select two technological innovations and for each
                 • Describe the existing technology that was replaced by this new technological
                   innovation and how this new innovation changed the existing technology
                 • Discuss the effects this new technological innovation has had on a society or
                   the world
            You may use any technological innovation from your study of global history and geography.
        Some suggestions you might wish to consider include aqueducts, gunpowder, printing press,
        caravel, steam engine, factory system, nuclear power, and internet communications.
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site: Part 1, Part 2


52.
                                               Part III
                                DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document.
       Historical Context:
              Throughout history, protest movements have formed in response to government
              policies and actions. Some examples of protest movements are the woman’s rights
              movement in Great Britain, the prodemocracy movement in China, and the
              anti-apartheid movement in South Africa. These protest movements have
              resulted in different government responses.
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of global history,
             answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to the
             questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
               Choose two protest movements mentioned in the historical context and for each
               • Describe the historical circumstances surrounding this protest movement
               • Discuss an action taken by the protesters
               • Discuss a government response to this protest movement
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site: Part 1, Part 2


53.
Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1
                    SOME REASONS FOR SUPPORTING WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE
       • Because it is the foundation of all political liberty that those who obey the Law should be able
         to have a voice in choosing those who make the Law.…
       • Because Parliament cannot fully reflect the wishes of the people, when the wishes of women
         are without any direct representation.…
       • Because the Laws which affect women especially are now passed without consulting those
         persons whom they are intended to benefit.…
       • Because to deprive women of the vote is to lower their position in common estimation.…
                                                   Source: “Fourteen Reasons for Supporting Women’s Suffrage,”
                                                                   National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies,
                                                                                   British Library online (adapted)
 1 According to the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies, what is one issue faced by women as a
   result of being denied the right to vote? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site: Part 1, Part 2


54.
Document 2
2   Based on this document, state one action taken by women in Great Britain to obtain rights. [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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55.
Document 3
   This is an excerpt from a speech given by British suffragist Emmeline Pankhurst in 1913.
        … “Put them [women] in prison,” they [men] said; “that will stop it.” But it didn’t stop it.
        They put women in prison for long terms of imprisonment, for making a nuisance of
        themselves — that was the expression when they took petitions in their hands to the door of
        the House of Commons; and they thought that by sending them to prison, giving them a day’s
        imprisonment, would cause them to all settle down again and there would be no further
        trouble. But it didn’t happen so at all: instead of the women giving it up, more women did it,
        and more and more and more women did it until there were three hundred women at a time,
        who had not broken a single law, only “made a nuisance of themselves” as the politicians say.…
                            Source: Candace Gregory, ed., Documents of Western Civilization, Volume II: Since 1500,
                                                                                              Thomson Wadsworth
3a According to Emmeline Pankhurst, what was one action British women used to draw attention to their
   issues? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site: Part 1, Part 2


56.
b According to Emmeline Pankhurst, what was one way the British government responded to these actions?
  [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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57.
Document 4
                                                    Tiananmen Square 1989
                 April 17
     Student demonstrators come
     [to Tiananmen Square]
     to mourn the death of
     Hu Yaobang, former General                   April 28 – May 3
     Secretary of the Communist          Party leaders are aware of the
     Party, and a symbol to them         growing foreign press coverage
     of anti-corruption and political    of the demonstrations, but remain                                      June 2
     reform. Students call for           split over how to stop the protests                         The Party elders approve
     freedom of press and other          and get the students to return to                           the decision to put down the
     reforms.                            classes.                                                    “counterrevolutionary riot.”
                            April 22                                        May 13
                More than 100,000 university                  Anticipating Soviet Party Secretary
                students assemble outside the                 Mikhail Gorbachev’s visit, about 160
                Great Hall of the People [in                  students begin a hunger strike in
                Tiananmen Square], where                      Tiananmen Square, citing the
                Hu’s memorial service is being                government’s failure to respond to
                held. Over the next days, the                 their requests for dialogue. Their
                students boycott classes and                  hunger strike draws broad public
                organize into unofficial student              support; many intellectuals pledge
                unions – an illegal act in China.             their help.
                                        Source: Adapted from “The Tankman: The Memory of Tiananmen 1989,” Frontline, PBS
4a Based on the information in this time line, state one reason the students gathered in Tiananmen Square. [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site: Part 1, Part 2


58.
b Based on the information in this time line, state one action taken by the students that gathered in
  Tiananmen Square. [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site: Part 1, Part 2


59.
Document 5
        … The manifesto that follows was typical of the many melodramatic last wills and testaments
        produced by the [student] hunger strikers. Circulated prior to the hunger strike, it was
        apparently a committee document prepared by the “Hunger Strike Volunteers of Peking’s
        Institutions of Higher Education.” The hunger strike upped the political ante [political stakes]
        in the prodemocracy movement for now the students were also demanding, in addition to
        democracy and freedom of speech, concrete changes including the resignations of Li Peng
        and Deng Xiaoping. Both leaders were seen by the demonstrators as the spiritual (if not
        actual) authors of the People’s Daily editorial of April 26 and the most important opponents
        of democratic change.…
                                “Open Declaration of a Hunger Strike”
        In this May of glowing sunshine, we are starting our hunger strike. In this moment of beautiful
        youth, we must resolutely put behind us the beauty of life. But how unwilling we are, how
        unreconciled!
        But our nation has come to a critical juncture: inflation is sky-rocketing, government
        corruption is rampant, power is in the hands of few high-ranking officials, bureaucrats are
        corrupt, a large number of patriots have fled into exile, and social order grows daily more
        chaotic. Fellow-countrymen, all fellow-countrymen of conscience, at this crucial moment for
        the survival of the nation, please hear our voice:
            The country is our country!
            The people are our people!
            The government is our government!
            If we do not dare to cry out, who will?
            If we do not dare to act, who will?…
                                                 Source: Pei-Kai Cheng et al., eds., The Search for Modern China,
                                                                                W.W. Norton & Company (adapted)
5a According to this document, what is one reform the Chinese students were trying to achieve? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site: Part 1, Part 2


60.
b According to this document, what is one problem facing China? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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61.
Document 6
        Several hundred civilians have been shot dead by the Chinese army during a bloody military
        operation to crush a democratic protest in Peking’s (Beijing) Tiananmen Square.
        Tanks rumbled through the capital’s streets late on 3 June as the army moved into the square
        from several directions, randomly firing on unarmed protesters.
        The injured were rushed to hospital on bicycle rickshaws by frantic residents shocked by the
        army’s sudden and extreme response to the peaceful mass protest.…
                                             Source: “1989: Massacre in Tiananmen Square,” BBC, June 4, 1989
6   Based on this news report from the BBC, state an action taken by the Chinese government in response to
    the protest movement in Tiananmen Square. [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site: Part 1, Part 2


62.
Document 7
    This is an excerpt from a pamphlet on the racial situation in the Union of South Africa. It sets out the general
principles of apartheid established by the National Party in 1948.
         … The party [National Party] therefore undertakes to protect the White race properly and
         effectively against any policy, doctrine or attack which might undermine or threaten its
         continued existence. At the same time the party rejects any policy of oppression and
         exploitation of the non-Europeans by the Europeans as being in conflict with the Christian
         basis of our national life and irreconcilable with our policy.
             The party believes that a definite policy of separation (apartheid) between the White races
         and the non-White racial groups, and the application of the policy of separation also in the
         case of the non-White racial groups, is the only basis on which the character and future of
         each race can be protected and safeguarded and on which each race can be guided so as to
         develop his own national character, aptitude and calling.…
                                         Source: National Party, “The National Party’s Colour Policy,” March 29, 1948
7   According to this excerpt from this National Party pamphlet, what was one way the National Party justified
    its racial policy? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site: Part 1, Part 2


63.
Document 8
                           1952 Campaign for the Defiance of Unjust Laws
        … When the ANC [African National Congress] launched its Campaign for the Defiance of
        Unjust Laws in 1952, Mandela was elected National Volunteer-in-Chief. The Defiance
        Campaign was conceived as a mass civil disobedience campaign that would snowball from a
        core of selected volunteers to involve more and more ordinary people, culminating in mass
        defiance. Fulfilling his responsibility as Volunteer-in-Chief, Mandela travelled the country
        organising resistance to discriminatory legislation. Charged and brought to trial for his role in
        the campaign, the court found that Mandela and his co-accused had consistently advised their
        followers to adopt a peaceful course of action and to avoid all violence.
        For his part in the [1952] Defiance Campaign, Mandela was convicted of contravening
        [disobeying] the Suppression of Communism Act and given a suspended prison sentence.
        Shortly after the campaign ended, he was also prohibited from attending gatherings and
        confined to Johannesburg for six months.…
                                     Source: Nelson Mandela, Biographical Details, African National Congress online
8a What is one action the African National Congress and Nelson Mandela suggested black South Africans take
   against the white nationalist government? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site: Part 1, Part 2


64.
b According to this biography on the African National Congress website, what is one consequence Nelson
  Mandela faced as a result of his actions? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site: Part 1, Part 2


65.
Document 9
   This excerpt is taken from a 2006 National Public Radio program in which Nthato Motlana and Bongi
Mkhabela were interviewed. Nthato Motlana played a critical role in the aftermath of the Soweto uprisings and
Bongi Mkhabela was responsible for planning the student march in Soweto.
        Thirty years ago, the uprising of a group of schoolchildren changed South Africa forever.…
            But on June 16, 1976, students in Soweto township outside Johannesburg decided to hold
        a protest against a government policy mandating that all classes be taught in Afrikaans, the
        language of South African whites.
            What started as a student demonstration exploded across South Africa, helping to change
        the course of the nation’s history by galvanizing the struggle to dismantle apartheid.…
            Newscast: At 8:15 in the morning, and precisely according to plan, students
        simultaneously marched out of five schools in Soweto, intending to protest the Afrikaans issue
        in a mass meeting at the Orlando Football Stadium.…
            Nthato Motlana: Then it became really a torrent, a sea of young, black faces. Masses of
        students, I mean, we’d never seen such a demonstration in many, many years. And at that
        point, the police tried to stop the march from going on to Orlando Stadium.
            Bongi Mkhabela: I’ve never seen that many police. And you didn’t only have police at
        that time, you had the Defense Force. So you actually had the Army.
            Nthato Motlana: They intervened by, first of all, setting dogs. And I saw these police
        dogs set onto these kids, man, and I saw moments of real courage, especially from the girls.
            Bongi Mkhabela: I mean, this is a group of kids, kids with shining black shoes and little
        white socks and teeny little tunics. And they are singing freedom songs, holding one another.
        We actually looked cute. It’s unbelievable to think that anyone could have stood firm on their
        feet and actually shot into that crowd.…
                                                                Source: “Soweto 1976: An Audio History,” NPR
9   According to this National Public Radio program, what was one action taken by the South African
    government to end the student protests in Soweto? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site: Part 1, Part 2


66.
Part B
Essay
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least four documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                Throughout history, protest movements have formed in response to government
                policies and actions. Some examples of protest movements are the woman’s rights
                movement in Great Britain, the prodemocracy movement in China, and the
                anti-apartheid movement in South Africa. These protest movements have
                resulted in different government responses.
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of global history,
               write an essay in which you
                  Choose two protest movements mentioned in the historical context and for each
                  • Describe the historical circumstances surrounding this protest movement
                  • Discuss an action taken by the protesters
                  • Discuss a government response to this protest movement
         Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least four documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site: Part 1, Part 2



  Try the Quiz :     Global History and Geography - New York Regents August 2012 Exam


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