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Global History and Geography - New York Regents August 2014 Exam

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Part I
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
1 Which feature is considered a natural barrier?
  (1) Great Rift Valley
  (2) Aswan Dam
  (3) Panama Canal
  (4) Great Wall of China
Answer: 1

2.
2 A library’s holdings include the following title: A
  Forgotten Kingdom, Being a Record of the results
  obtained from the excavation of two mounds,
  Atchana and Al Mina, in the Turkish Hatay.
  Which field of study would have been most
  responsible for conducting the excavation?
  (1) economics              (3) archaeology
  (2) sociology              (4) political science
Answer: 3

3.
3 Which practice is closely associated with most
  ancient river valley civilizations?
  (1) recording events in cave paintings
  (2) using irrigation systems
  (3) developing democratic traditions
  (4) spreading monotheistic religious customs
Answer: 2


4.
4 Which achievement played an important role in
  pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations?
  (1) use of gunpowder
  (2) production of corn
  (3) domestication of horses
  (4) development of sugar plantations
Answer: 2

5.
5 One way in which filial piety in Confucian China
  and citizenship in ancient Athens are similar is
  that both
  (1) emphasized duties and responsibilities in
      society
  (2) encouraged the development of advanced
      technology
  (3) promoted respect for the physical
      environment
  (4) required that legalist principles be followed
Answer: 1

6.
    Base your answers to questions 6 and 7 on the
passage below and on your knowledge of social
studies.
   … It was during the Arab period, particularly
   under the Umayyads (756–1031), that Qurtubah
   [Cordova] enjoyed its prime and grandeur and
   took its place as the most civilized city in Western
   Europe. None of the other Spanish historic
   cities — Toledo, Seville, and Granada —
   approached it in material prosperity and
   intellectual attainments. When Christendom was
   deep in its Dark Ages, Moslem Cordova was
   rearing men, evolving ideas, writing books,
   erecting buildings, and producing works of art
   that constituted a unique civilization. In the West
   it had one peer in Constantinople and in the East
   another, Baghdad. At no time before or after did
   any Spanish city enjoy such distinction.…
              — Philip K. Hitti, Capital Cities of Arab Islam
 6 Based on this passage, what is a major criterion
   used to measure the distinctive civilization found
   in Cordova?
   (1) unique religious beliefs
   (2) distance from Baghdad
   (3) intellectual achievements
   (4) depth of the Dark Ages
Answer: 3

7.
7 Which term is best illustrated using this passage?
  (1) golden age
  (2) divine right
  (3) spheres of influence
  (4) global interdependence
Answer: 1

8.
8 Which group used the stirrup, skilled
  horsemanship, and siege warfare techniques to
  conquer much of Asia and part of Europe in the
  12th and 13th centuries?
  (1) Japanese             (3) Persians
  (2) Vikings              (4) Mongols
Answer: 4

9.
Base your answer to question 9 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
9 Which conclusion can best be inferred from the information on this map?
  (1) The peoples of Europe and Southwest Asia were influenced by Eurasian nomads.
  (2) Significant amounts of trade took place between Asia and Europe.
  (3) African culture was shaped by Asian migration.
  (4) The peoples of Southeast Asia migrated to South Asia.
Answer: 1

10.
Base your answer to question 10 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
10 Based on the information on this map, which statement is a valid conclusion?
   (1) Indian Ocean trade existed before the European Age of Exploration.
   (2) African cities were isolated from overseas trade.
   (3) The Indian Ocean trade network ended in A.D. 1000.
   (4) These trade routes united the Western Hemisphere.
Answer: 1

11.
11 Which statement concerning the influence of
   geography on Japan is most accurate?
   (1) Widespread mineral deposits led Japan to
       industrialize before England.
   (2) The lack of natural barriers made it easy to
       conquer Japan.
   (3) Large tracts of arable land made Japan a
       leading agricultural exporter.
   (4) Japan’s location allowed selective borrowing
       from China.
Answer: 4

12.
12 Mansa Musa’s pilgrimage to Mecca demonstrates
   that he practiced
   (1) animism              (3) Islam
   (2) Sikhism              (4) Buddhism
Answer: 3

13.
13 Which geographic region made up much of the
   Ottoman Empire?
   (1) Scandinavia
   (2) Iberian Peninsula
   (3) Indian Subcontinent
   (4) eastern Mediterranean Basin
Answer: 4

14.
14 During the rise of capitalism in Europe,
   merchants and bankers began to establish
   (1) systems based on bartering
   (2) rules that forbid loans to the wealthy
   (3) quotas to control production
   (4) insurance companies and joint stock
       companies
Answer: 4

15.
15 • Johannes Gutenberg
   • King Henry VIII
   • John Calvin
   Which event in European history was most
   directly influenced by these individuals?
   (1) Reconquista
   (2) Glorious Revolution
   (3) Protestant Reformation
   (4) trans-Atlantic slave trade
Answer: 3

16.
16 Which situation came first?
   (1) Spain introduced the encomienda system.
   (2) Portugal claimed Brazil.
   (3) Spain and Portugal competed for colonies in
       the Americas.
   (4) Columbus arrived in the Caribbean region.
Answer: 4

17.
17 The term mercantilism is best described as
   (1) an economic policy in which a colonial power
       controls trade
   (2) an international policy of laissez-faire
       economics
   (3) a network linking industrialized nations
   (4) an exchange of land between nobles
Answer: 1

18.
18 Which characteristic is associated with the rule of
   both Akbar the Great and Suleiman the
   Magnificent?
   (1) promoting equal rights for women
   (2) expanding the role of legislative bodies
   (3) forcing the conversion of citizens to
       Christianity
   (4) practicing religious tolerance toward
       members of society
Answer: 4

19.
19 Historians frequently portray Louis XIV’s
   construction of the palace of Versailles and Peter
   the Great’s building of the city of Saint
   Petersburg as
   (1) shrines to religious beliefs
   (2) monuments to personal rule
   (3) examples of colonial architectural influences
   (4) efforts to isolate and protect the ruler
Answer: 2

20.
20 One way in which the Scientific Revolution and
   the Enlightenment are similar is that both
   (1) led to increased power for royal families in
       Europe
   (2) sought to reconcile Christian beliefs and
       science
   (3) questioned traditional values and past
       practices
   (4) promoted nationalistic revolutions in eastern
       Europe
Answer: 3


21.
    Base your answer to question 21 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
21 Based on this passage, what did the Third Estate
   want?
   (1) independence from France
   (2) more influence in the political system
   (3) removal of the monarchy
   (4) freedom of religion in France
Answer: 2

22.
22 Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations stressed the
   importance of
   (1) tradition
   (2) supply and demand
   (3) large corporations
   (4) government ownership
Answer: 2

23.
23 Which social change occurred during the
   Industrial Revolution?
   (1) growth of the working class
   (2) development of the extended family
   (3) expansion of privileges for the landed nobility
   (4) increased status for religious leaders
Answer: 1

24.
24 During the 180os, many Latin American
   countries were characterized by a
   (1) reliance on cash crops
   (2) transition to command economies
   (3) redistribution of land to the peasants
   (4) withdrawal from the world market
Answer: 1

25.
    Base your answer to question 25 on the poem
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
               Colonizer’s Logic
        These natives are unintelligent —
       We can’t understand their language.
                              Chinweizu (Nigeria)
                — Voices from Twentieth-Century Africa:
                                 Griots and Towncriers
25 The “logic” of the colonizers described in this
   Nigerian poem reflects their
   (1) utopian plan
   (2) educational goals
   (3) militaristic behavior
   (4) ethnocentric attitude
Answer: 4

26.
26 Which description of trade patterns best
   represents the relationship between Africa and
   Europe during the late 19th century?
   (1) Trans-Saharan trade caravans led by
       Europeans were the most profitable.
   (2) South Africa was of no interest to European
       traders.
   (3) Raw materials were shipped from Africa to
       European industries.
   (4) Rivers were the key highways connecting
       Europeans to much of the African interior.
Answer: 3

27.
    Base your answer to question 27 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
27 This cartoon suggests that political power is often
   acquired through
   (1) the inheritance of land
   (2) market demands
   (3) religious conversion
   (4) the use of technology
Answer: 4

28.
28 One way in which the government under Czar
   Nicholas II of Russia and the government under
   Benito Mussolini of Italy are similar is that both
   governments
   (1) liberated the serfs and industrial workers
   (2) reformed the executive branch by
       incorporating theocratic principles
   (3) established policies of censorship and
       repression
   (4) used televised propaganda to rally the masses
Answer: 3

29.
29 The movement to establish a Jewish homeland in
   Palestine is best known as
   (1) Zionism                (3) Marxism
   (2) multi-culturalism      (4) militarism
Answer: 1

30.
    Base your answer to question 30 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
30 This 1912 cartoon depicts
   (1) efforts to contain the Boxer Rebellion
   (2) tensions in pre–World War I Europe
   (3) reactions to the Bolshevik Revolution
   (4) responses to the rise of the Weimar Republic
Answer: 2

31.
31 A primary objective of the New Economic Policy
   (NEP) in the Soviet Union was to
   (1) promote private ownership of heavy industry
   (2) organize support for educational reforms to
       improve literacy
   (3) coordinate efforts to end World War I
   (4) gain stability by increasing production
Answer: 4

32.
32 Ho Chi Minh and Jomo Kenyatta were leaders of
   movements that were attempting to achieve
   (1) nuclear disarmament (3) pan-Africanism
   (2) self-determination  (4) collective security
Answer: 2

33.
    Base your answer to question 33 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   … Whatever we may wish or hope, and whatever
   course of action we may decide, whatever be the
   views held as to the legality, or the humanity, or
   the military wisdom and expediency [advisability]
   of such operations, there is not the slightest
   doubt that in the next war both sides will send
   their aircraft out without scruple [hesitation] to
   bomb those objectives which they consider the
   most suitable.…
      — H. Trenchard, Marshal of the Royal Air Force, 1928
33 This passage implies that the author is
   (1) grateful for the availability of new weapons
   (2) aware that new weapons have broadened the
       theater of war
   (3) certain that there will be no future wars
   (4) anxious about the legality of future military
       operations
Answer: 2

34.
    Base your answer to question 34 on the excerpt
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   … We have already said that there are only three
   ways left to Japan to escape from the pressure of
   surplus population. We are like a great crowd of
   people packed into a small and narrow room, and
   there are only three doors through which we
   might escape, namely, emigration, advance into
   world markets, and expansion of territory. The
   first door, emigration, has been barred to us by
   the anti-Japanese immigration policies of other
   countries. The second door, advance into world
   markets, is being pushed shut by tariff barriers
   and the abrogation [cancellation] of commercial
   treaties. What should Japan do when two of the
   three doors have been closed against her? It is
   quite natural that Japan should rush upon the last
   remaining door.…
                    — Hashimoto Kingoro
                                      ¯ , 1939 Speech
34 The author of this excerpt is presenting an
   argument for Japan to follow a policy of
   (1) self-restraint
   (2) isolation
   (3) urbanization
   (4) economic imperialism
Answer: 4

35.
Base your answers to questions 35 and 36 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
35 The main purpose of this 1961 cartoon is to
   (1) criticize Chinese government policy (3) reinforce Chinese government propaganda
   (2) praise Chinese government leaders (4) question Chinese government spending
Answer: 1


36.
36 The Chinese communes referred to in this 1961 cartoon are most closely associated
   with the
   (1) Hundred Flowers Campaign         (3) Cultural Revolution
   (2) Great Leap Forward               (4) Four Modernizations
Answer: 2

37.
37 Which event was the primary reason the United
   Nations called for a Convention on the
   Prevention and Punishment of Genocide in
   1948?
   (1) Bosnian massacres
   (2) killing fields in Cambodia
   (3) Holocaust
   (4) Hutu-Tutsi conflict
Answer: 3

38.
38 In the post–World War II period, which issue is
   most closely associated with the boundaries
   created for newly independent African countries?
   (1) expansion of urban centers
   (2) ethnic tensions
   (3) spread of AIDS
   (4) drought-related famine
Answer: 2

39.
    Base your answer to question 39 on the
photograph below and on your knowledge of social
studies.
39 Which policy is represented in this photograph?
   (1) perestroika           (3) détente
   (2) apartheid             (4) extraterritoriality
Answer: 2

40.
40 Geopolitics play an important role in the Middle
   East today because of its
   (1) fertile soil and favorable climate for cash crops
   (2) navigable rivers and diamond mines
   (3) effective natural barriers and high altitude
   (4) strategic location and oil resources
Answer: 4

41.
41 • Over farming and overgrazing on marginal lands
   • Extended droughts in the Sahel region
   • Wind erosion of topsoil
   These situations have all contributed to
   (1) population growth in Southwest Asia
   (2) deforestation in South America
   (3) desertification in sub-Saharan Africa
   (4) increased reliance on fossil fuels in Asia
Answer: 3

42.
42 “Indira Gandhi Becomes Prime Minister of India”
   (1966)
   “Corazon Aquino Becomes First Elected Leader of
   Philippines” (1986)
   “Benazir Bhutto Becomes Prime Minister of
   Pakistan” (1988)
   These headlines indicate that women as leaders
   (1) have gained some political power in
       traditionally patriarchal societies
   (2) have attained key positions in a wide variety
       of industries
   (3) were banned from political roles during the
       2oth century
   (4) were limited to one term in office
Answer: 1

43.
43 Which description best fits the Neolithic
   Revolution?
   (1) moving from urban centers to rural centers
   (2) using petrochemical fertilizers and pesticides
       to increase production
   (3) replacing human laborers with machines
   (4) shifting from hunting and gathering to
       farming as a way of life
Answer: 4

44.
44 What was an important strategy used by both the
   Romans and the Incas to unify their empires?
   (1) building a large network of roads and bridges
   (2) using powerful navies to protect sea trade
       routes
   (3) supporting free-market economies by
       minting silver coins
   (4) granting citizenship and voting rights to
       conquered peoples
Answer: 1

45.
Base your answer to question 45 on the graphic organizer below and on your knowledge of social studies.
45 What is the best title for this graphic organizer?
   (1) Features of Hellenistic Culture         (3) Developments in Czarist Russia
   (2) Achievements in Medieval Europe (4) Characteristics of Maya Civilization
Answer: 4

46.
46 A study of the Gupta Empire would include
   information about
   (1) Egyptian conquests
   (2) Muslim architectural influences
   (3) medical and mathematical achievements
   (4) the British East India Company’s trading posts
Answer: 3

47.
47 • Zheng He’s seven voyages are sponsored by the
     government.
   • Corn and peanuts are introduced into the people’s
     diet.
   • The Forbidden City is built in Beijing.
   Which time period is associated with these
   statements?
   (1) Ming dynasty
   (2) Tokugawa shogunate
   (3) rule of Kublai Khan
   (4) Japanese annexation of Korea
Answer: 1

48.
48 The 1453 conquest of Constantinople is an
   important turning point in global history because it
   (1) ushered in Pax Romana
   (2) began the Middle Ages
   (3) contributed to the rise of the Ottoman
       Empire
   (4) signified the end of the Napoleonic Wars
Answer: 3

49.
49 One way in which Karl Marx, Vladimir Lenin,
   and Fidel Castro are similar is that each believed
   in
   (1) supporting a capitalist system
   (2) preserving a rigid social system
   (3) spreading the teachings of Christianity
   (4) achieving change through revolution
Answer: 4

50.
Base your answer to question 50 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
50 What do the dark-gray areas on this map represent?
   (1) the British Empire
   (2) countries attending the Congress of Vienna
   (3) newly independent French colonies
   (4) members of the Hanseatic League
Answer: 1


51.
                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Change—Political Leaders
                 Political leaders have come to power under a variety of circumstances. Once in
                 power, these leaders implemented policies and practices that have affected
                 people, societies, and regions in different ways.
        Task:
                 Select two political leaders and for each
                 • Describe the historical circumstances that brought this political leader to power
                 • Explain one policy or practice that was put into effect under this leader
                 • Discuss how this policy or practice affected a specific group of people or society
                   or region
           You may use any political leader from your study of global history and geography. Some
        suggestions you may wish to consider include Shi Huangdi in China, William and Mary in
        England, Napoleon Bonaparte in France, Emperor Meiji in Japan, Vladimir Lenin in Russia,
        Jawaharlal Nehru in India, Fidel Castro in Cuba, Ayatollah Khomeini in Iran, and Nelson
        Mandela in South Africa.
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
                  Do not use political leaders from the United States in your answer.
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


52.
                                               Part III
                                 DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document. Keep in mind that the
language used in a document may reflect the historical context of the time in which it was written.
       Historical Context:
              Armed conflict, disease, and child labor have affected children throughout the
              world. Governments, groups, and individuals have attempted to reduce the effects
              of these global issues on children.
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of global history,
             answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to the
             questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
                Select two global issues mentioned in the historical context and for each
                • Describe the effects of the global issue on children
                • Discuss how governments, groups, and/or individuals have attempted to reduce
                  the effects of this global issue on children
                      Do not make the United States the focus of your essay.
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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53.
Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
1 Based on the information in this chart, state one way a child’s life may be changed as a result of armed
  conflicts. [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


54.
Document 2
                                                 Child Soldiers
            To commemorate our 25th anniversary, The Advocates for Human Rights would like to
        dedicate this issue of Rights Sites News to the abolition of one of the worst forms of child
        labor, child soldiers. When armed conflict exists, children will almost inevitably become
        involved as soldiers. In over twenty countries around the world, children are direct
        participants in war. Denied a childhood and often subjected to horrific violence, an estimated
        200,000 to 300,000 children are serving as soldiers for both rebel groups and government
        forces in current armed conflicts. These young combatants participate in all aspects of
        contemporary warfare. They wield AK-47s and M-16s on the front lines of combat, serve as
        human mine detectors, participate in suicide missions, carry supplies, and act as spies,
        messengers or lookouts.
            Physically vulnerable and easily intimidated, children typically make obedient soldiers.
        Many are abducted or recruited by force, and often compelled to follow orders under threat
        of death. Others join armed groups out of desperation. As society breaks down during conflict,
        leaving children no access to school, driving them from their homes, or separating them from
        family members, many children perceive armed groups as their best chance for survival.
        Others seek escape from poverty or join military forces to avenge family members who have
        been killed.…
            Despite progress achieved over the last decade in the global campaign to end the
        recruitment and use of child soldiers, large numbers of children continue to be exploited in
        war and placed in the line of fire. The international treaty on child soldiers, the Optional
        Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed
        conflict, entered into force on February 12, 2002. With over 100 countries signed on, this
        treaty is a milestone in the campaign, strengthening the legal protection of children and
        helping to prevent their use in armed conflict.…
                   Source: “Child Soldiers Edition,” Rights Sites News, The Advocates for Human Rights, Spring 2008
2a According to the Advocates for Human Rights, what is one problem faced by child soldiers? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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55.
b According to the Advocates for Human Rights, what is one effort that has been made to keep children, or
  former child soldiers, from being used in armed conflict? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


56.
Document 3
        NEW YORK, 4 April 2006 — Ridding the world of landmines and other explosive remnants
        of war could be accomplished in years instead of decades, saving thousands of children from
        devastating injuries and death, UNICEF said today on the first International Day for Mine
        Awareness and Assistance in Mine Action.…
           Landmines are designed to disable, immobilize or kill people travelling by foot or in motor
        vehicles. Other explosive remnants of war include unexploded ordnance — weapons such as
        grenades and cluster bombs that did not explode on impact but can still detonate — and
        weapons that are discarded in civilian areas by combatants, known as abandoned ordnance.
        These munitions outlast the conflicts during which they were planted and become hazards for
        innocent civilians, particularly for unsuspecting children who often make the fatal mistake of
        playing with the unfamiliar objects.…
           Children suffer debilitating physical injuries from mine explosions, often losing fingers,
        toes and limbs. Some are left blind or deaf. An estimated 85 per cent of child victims die
        before they can get medical attention. Many disabled victims lose opportunities to go to
        school, and often cannot afford rehabilitative care. The persisting threat of mines takes its toll
        on entire societies, perpetuating poverty and underdevelopment.…
           More than three-quarters of the world’s nations have ratified the Mine Ban Treaty since it
        came into force in 1999, outlawing the production, stockpiling and use of antipersonnel
        landmines. According to the International Campaign to Ban Landmines, the number of
        countries thought to be producing, stockpiling and using landmines has dropped significantly
        over the last decade.…
           UNICEF supports and implements mine action activities in over 30 countries, and believes
        that mine-risk education is key to preventing the death and disabling of children. Through
        programmes brought to their schools and communities, children are taught how to live safely
        in areas contaminated with landmines and other explosive remnants of war.…
                       Source: “Saving Children from the Tragedy of Landmines,” UNICEF Press Release, April 4, 2006
3a What is one problem land mines or unexploded ordnance cause for children, according to UNICEF? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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57.
b What is one effort being made to reduce the effects of land mines or unexploded ordnance, according to
  UNICEF? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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58.
4 As shown in this World Health Organization chart of children who died under the age of five, identify one
  health issue that caused more than 15% of the deaths. [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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59.
Document 5
        … Millions of children in developing nations die from diseases like pneumonia, measles and
        diarrhea that claim twice as many lives each year as AIDS. Vaccines prevent these basic
        illnesses. Bill Gates pledges billions of dollars to vaccinate the world’s children. Problem
        solved. But it’s not that easy.
             Money alone won’t rid dirty water of parasites that can blind and cripple. It won’t fix bad
        roads that keep people from getting care. It won’t end the political corruption and violent
        unrest that erase health advances. It won’t stop a population explosion that contributes to poor
        health. It can’t even prevent a rat from gnawing through the power cord of a refrigerator used
        to store vaccines in a remote West African clinic.…
            In late 1998, Gates donated $100 million to create a program dedicated to getting new and
        underused vaccines to children in the poorest countries. A year later, he gave a stunning $750
        million to help launch a new superstructure for improving childhood vaccinations, the Global
        Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI)—a coalition of international public health
        agencies, philanthropists and the pharmaceutical industry.…
            Gates knows that vaccines can’t do it all, not when a regional hospital in Nigeria draws its
        water from an open pit in the ground. Or where a 6-year-old Ivory Coast boy with a leg twisted
        by polio faces a life of begging because his mother couldn’t afford a trip to a clinic for vaccines.
        Or where a broken board on a bridge can halt the shipment of medicine for days.…
                                        Source: Tom Paulson, “Bill Gates’ war on disease, poverty is an uphill battle,”
                                                                           Seattle Post-Intelligencer, March 21, 2001
5a According to Tom Paulson, what is one situation that makes it difficult to reduce childhood diseases in
   developing nations? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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60.
b According to Tom Paulson, what is one way money donated by Bill Gates has been used to help reduce
  childhood diseases in developing nations? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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61.
Document 6
       …Doctors Without Borders/Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) [a non-profit medical
       organization] has witnessed firsthand how a lack of medicine for treatable infectious disease
       destroys many lives in the developing world. In response, MSF has launched the Access to
       Essential Medicines Campaign. Introduced in November 1999, the MSF campaign has been
       working worldwide to find long-lasting solutions to this crisis. The campaign has four main
       goals: to increase access to certain medicines; to support high quality local manufacture and
       import of less expensive medicines; to implement and apply international trade rules
       regarding medicines; and to bring together governments, the pharmaceutical industry, and
       organizations to focus on investment in, research on, and development of essential medicines
       for neglected disease.…
                                            Source: Catherine Gevert, “A Lack of Medicine,” Faces, March, 2005
6 What is one way Doctors Without Borders/MSF hopes to reduce the occurrence of infectious diseases in
  the developing world, according to Catherine Gevert? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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62.
Document 7
      … “Tens of thousands of refugees have fled to urban areas in Pakistan since September 11,
      [2001], but almost all international assistance and protection efforts are focused on refugees
      in camps, and the situation for young Afghans in the cities is deteriorating seriously,” said Jane
      Lowicki, Senior Coordinator, Children and Adolescents Project, who visited Pakistan in
      January. “Many of these refugees and the communities that are struggling to support them are
      wondering why help promised by the U.S. and other countries has not reached them.”
         With few alternatives for earning a livelihood, many Afghan refugee parents in urban areas
      are forcing their children to work in high-risk industries to support the household. “Thousands
      are carpet weavers, others are street children working as garbage pickers, beggars, brick
      makers, house servants and, in some cases, drug sellers,” Lowicki said. “These young workers
      are the poorest and most desperate among the Afghan community. Their work exposes them
      to disease, physical and sexual abuse, and few have access to health services, education or
      recreation. Their situation has become even more difficult since Sept. 11 because many new
      young refugees have entered the competition for work, and resources are scarce.”
         Afghan refugee adolescents and children, some as young as five years old, are working
      harder than ever for less money. The formerly lucrative carpet weaving industry, for example,
      which relies heavily on cheap Afghan child labor, bottomed out after Sept. 11; young refugees
      are now being paid less than half of what they were making to weave carpets for markets
      around the world.
         In many cases, children and adolescents are the primary wage earners for their families,
      and all of the young Afghan refugees interviewed for the report said they urgently need food,
      shelter and medical care. They are also eager for a chance to go to school and to learn skills
      and trades to support themselves through less hazardous work.…
     Source: “Afghan Refugee Children and Adolescents in Pakistan’s Cities Receive Minimal International Assistance,”
                               Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children Press Release, May 30, 2002
7 According to the Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children, what is one problem Afghan
  refugee children face in Pakistan? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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63.
Document 8a
   This is an excerpt from a Web-only interview conducted as part of Enterprising Ideas, a project of NOW on
PBS.
                                              RugMark USA
        Ten years ago [in 1994], RugMark USA was established to eradicate child labor in the
        handwoven rug industry. Using a unique “certification” method, RugMark USA has created a
        model that generates income to finance its programs for children and raises awareness among
        consumers about the prevalence of child labor. Nina Smith, RugMark USA’s executive
        director, believes the RugMark model could be applied to other industries, including Brazil’s
        shoe industry, India’s silk weaving and embroidery sectors and the cocoa industry in West
        Africa. We talked with Smith about why the RugMark model works and what big challenges
        the organization is facing.…
        NOW [host]: Describe RugMark’s strategy to change the use of child labor in the industry.
        Smith: Our goal is to change the market dynamics so that there is no longer a demand for
        child labor. If we can educate the marketplace—consumers, interior designers, architects,
        importers, retailers—about what they can do then ultimately the message is sent to the
        manufacturers that child labor won’t be tolerated—in essence eliminating the demand.
        The idea has three components: First, you have to raise awareness and educate people about
        the problem of child labor and to look for our independently certified child-labor-free rugs.
        On the ground in South Asia we have an inspection and monitoring system. Companies whose
        rugs receive the RugMark label agree to random, surprise inspections at their factories or
        village-based looms.…
                                         Source: “RugMark USA,” NOW on PBS: Enterprising Ideas, July 26, 2007
8a According to Nina Smith, what is one way RugMark USA is attempting to end the use of and eliminate the
   demand for child labor? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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64.
Document 8b
    This is an advertisement RugMark used in its campaign to raise awareness about carpets and rugs made with
child labor.
8b According to this advertisement, what is one action RugMark has taken to improve the lives of children? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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65.
Document 9
                                  Give a “Red Card* to Child Labour”
                      in celebration of the World Day Against Child Labour 2006!
       … The day, which is observed worldwide on the 12th of June, is intended to serve as a catalyst
       for the growing worldwide movement against child labour, as reflected in the 160 ratifications
       of Convention No. 182 on the worst forms of child labour and the 144 ratifications of
       Convention No. 138 on the minimum age for employment. The event on 12 June will be
       celebrated with the presence of football [soccer] stars that will “kick the ball” against child
       labour, in a match with girls from the Geneva International School and the Signal de Bernex
       Football Club. The idea behind the game is that girls and boys should be given the time to
       study and play, and that child labour and its worst forms symbolically get a “red card”. This
       action is linked to the “Red card to child labour” campaign which since its inception in 2002
       has reached thousands of people in all continents. The idea is that the values in football, such
       as, team spirit, youth empowerment, solidarity among countries, non-discrimination
       regarding religion, gender and race, are also shared by the ILO [International Labour
       Organization]. Using the symbol of the Red Card at International football competitions offers
       the opportunity to spread one simple, universal message over time and benefits from media
       coverage. Building this kind of strategic alliance is a very good way to reinforce the global
       movement against child labour.
                      Source: “Celebration of the World Day Against Child Labour,” The International Programme on the
                                        Elimination of Child Labour of the International Labour Organization, June 2006
  * A red card is issued to remove a player from a game for committing a serious violation.
9 Based on this excerpt from a brochure, what are two actions that have been taken to aid in the elimination
  of child labor? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


66.
Part B
Essay
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least four documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                Armed conflict, disease, and child labor have affected children throughout the
                world. Governments, groups, and individuals have attempted to reduce the effects
                of these global issues on children.
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of global history,
               write an essay in which you
                  Select two global issues mentioned in the historical context and for each
                  • Describe the effects of the global issue on children
                  • Discuss how governments, groups, and/or individuals have attempted to reduce
                    the effects of this global issue on children
                        Do not make the United States the focus of your essay.
         Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least four documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site



  Try the Quiz :     Global History and Geography - New York Regents August 2014 Exam


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