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Global History and Geography - New York Regents August 2016 Exam

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1.
                                                 Part I
                                   Answer all questions in this part.
    Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of
the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
  Base your answers to questions 1 and 2 on the
model below and on your knowledge of social studies.
1 The activity portrayed in this model could be
  used as evidence to argue that Egyptians
  (1) lived in settled communities
  (2) relied on slash-and-burn technology
  (3) practiced hunting
  (4) engaged in foraging
Answer: 1

2.
2 An examination of this model would suggest that
  (1) peasants are excluded from political activity
  (2) this society lacks a social class system
  (3) art can provide an understanding of history
  (4) everyday life is based on religious beliefs
Answer: 3

3.
3 Which field of study primarily focuses on
  governmental powers and the rights of citizens?
  (1) economics           (3) archaeology
  (2) geography           (4) political science
Answer: 4


4.
4 One explanation for the fall of the Roman Empire
  and of the Han dynasty is that they both
  (1) refused the aid of foreign mercenaries
  (2) grew too large to govern their territories
      effectively
  (3) banned long-distance trade causing economic
      strain
  (4) required devotion to a single religion
Answer: 2

5.
    Base your answer to question 5 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
        Some several thousand years ago there once
   thrived a civilization in the Indus Valley. Located
   in what’s now Pakistan and western India, it was
   the earliest known urban culture of the Indian
   subcontinent. The Indus Valley Civilization, as it
   is called, covered an area the size of western
   Europe. It was the largest of the four ancient
   civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and
   China. However, of all these civilizations the least
   is known about the Indus Valley people. This is
   because the Indus script has not yet been
   deciphered. There are many remnants of the script
   on pottery vessels, seals, and amulets, but without
   a “Rosetta Stone” linguists and archaeologists
   have been unable to decipher it. . . .
      — Tarini J. Carr, “The Harappan Civilization” (adapted)
 5 Based on this passage, what is a valid conclusion
   about civilization in the Indus Valley?
   (1) Lack of a Rosetta stone has hindered linguists
       from deciphering Indus Valley script.
   (2) The absence of pottery vessels and seals from
       the Indus Valley indicates limited urban
       development.
   (3) The Indus Valley civilization controlled a
       territory that extended from western Europe
       to China.
   (4) Artifacts suggest the Indus Valley civilization
       is older than the civilizations in Egypt and
       Mesopotamia.
Answer: 1

6.
6 The Bantu migration is most closely associated
  with the spread of
  (1) bureaucratic governments
  (2) agricultural skills
  (3) the diamond trade
  (4) the principles of Sharia
Answer: 2

7.
Base your answers to questions 7 and 8 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
7 Which aspect of geography is the primary focus of this map?
  (1) latitude and longitude
  (2) climate and culture
  (3) humans interacting on Earth
  (4) humans adapting their environment
Answer: 3

8.
8 Based on this map, which statement is true of trade routes around A.D. 600?
  (1) Most trade was occurring across the Pacific Ocean.
  (2) Trade began in Ghana and spread down the Niger River.
  (3) Northern Africa was isolated from trade with Asia.
  (4) Trade took place over a network of land and sea routes.
Answer: 4

9.
9 Which statement about the Gupta Empire is a fact
  rather than an opinion?
  (1) India’s strongest leaders came from the
      Gupta Empire.
  (2) The Gupta Empire developed advancements
      in the areas of mathematics and science.
  (3) The achievements of the Gupta Empire
      surpassed those of the Tang dynasty in China.
  (4) Gupta paintings found on the walls of the
      Ajanta caves were superior to the art
      produced during the Mauryan Empire.
Answer: 2

10.
10 What was a major contribution of the Byzantine
   Empire?
   (1) adoption of democratic ideas from Russia
   (2) spread of humanism and secularism across
       Europe
   (3) reunification of eastern and western
       Christendom
   (4) preservation of Greek and Roman culture
Answer: 4

11.
11 Which technological innovation was essential to
   stimulate the expansion of the gold-salt trade in
   West Africa?
   (1) lateen sail           (3) camel caravans
   (2) iron cannons          (4) moveable type
Answer: 3

12.
12 Which geographic factor of Korea most directly
   influenced the spread of Chinese culture to Japan?
   (1) rivers                 (3) climate
   (2) mountains              (4) location
Answer: 4

13.
    Base your answer to question 13 on the excerpt
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
     1. Japanese ships are strictly forbidden to
        leave for foreign countries.
     2. No Japanese is permitted to go abroad. If
        there is anyone who attempts to do so
        secretly, he must be executed. The ship
        so involved must be impounded and its
        owner arrested, and the matter must be
        reported to the higher authority.
     3. If any Japanese returns from overseas
        after residing there, he must be put to
        death. . . .
                      — The Edict of 1635 Addressed to
                           the Joint Bugyo– of Nagasaki
13 These rules were made by the Japanese in an
   attempt to
   (1) further cultural diffusion and strengthen
       interdependence
   (2) limit the influence of foreigners in their
       country
   (3) regulate prisoner exchanges with overseas
       neighbors
   (4) reduce the power of the shogun and the
       emperor
Answer: 2

14.
14 A major reason the Renaissance began in the
   Italian city-states was their
   (1) military success against the Seljuk Turks
   (2) access to goods from the Americas
   (3) location on the Mediterranean Sea
   (4) dependence on the teachings of the Catholic
        Church
Answer: 3

15.
15 What was a consequence of the Protestant
   Reformation?
   (1) Secular rulers became more powerful.
   (2) Judaism dominated southern Europe.
   (3) The Holy Roman Empire became a republic.
   (4) Religious differences were peacefully settled.
Answer: 1

16.
16 What was one reason China ended overseas
   exploration after the death of Zheng He in 1433?
   (1) China’s fleet of ships was destroyed by
       European navies.
   (2) Tribute payments to the Japanese shogunate
       drained the Ming treasury.
   (3) The Ming dynasty ended the authority of
       Confucian scholars.
   (4) The Chinese government decided to focus its
       efforts on internal affairs.
Answer: 4

17.
17 • Use of cannons, foot soldiers, and muskets
   • Capture of Constantinople in 1453
   • Formation of the janissaries as an effective
     fighting force
   Which empire is associated with         these
   characteristics?
   (1) Austro-Hungarian (3) Spanish
   (2) Ottoman          (4) Mughal
Answer: 2

18.
18 Inca farmers adapted their environment by
   growing food in
   (1) flooded rice paddies
   (2) terraced fields
   (3) clear-cut rain forests
   (4) expansive plantations
Answer: 2

19.
19 The policy of mercantilism was intended to
   (1) enrich European governments
   (2) end slavery in the Americas
   (3) promote the isolation of Asia
   (4) establish religious freedom in New Spain
Answer: 1

20.
Base your answer to question 20 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
20 This map would be most useful in the study of the
   (1) spread of Islam                     (3) routes of the Middle Passage
   (2) pilgrimage of Mansa Musa            (4) commercial connections in East Africa
Answer: 3


21.
21 Which statement would Louis XIV, Philip II, and
   Peter the Great most likely support?
   (1) “The king is entitled to unquestioning
       obedience.”
   (2) “Parliament should represent the best interests
       of the people.”
   (3) “People have the right to revolt against an
       unjust government.”
   (4) “Government should be administered by
       people of all beliefs.”
Answer: 1

22.
22 The heliocentric model of the universe developed
   by Copernicus and Galileo was considered heresy
   during their lives because it
   (1) linked astronomy to the teachings of
       Muhammad
   (2) supported the world view of the ancient Greeks
   (3) challenged the secular power of absolute
       monarchs
   (4) conflicted with the official doctrine of the
       Roman Catholic Church
Answer: 4

23.
23 Which statement about the French and Latin
   American revolutions is accurate?
   (1) People in both regions were fighting for
       freedom from England.
   (2) Strong French monarchs led revolutions in
       Latin America.
   (3) Revolutions in both regions were based on
       the idea of natural rights.
   (4) The French Revolution was modeled after
       revolutions in Latin America.
Answer: 3

24.
24 • Bismarck uses “blood and iron” to unify Germany
     (1864–1870).
   • Theodor Herzl organizes Zionist efforts (1897).
   Which concept is most closely associated with
   these movements?
   (1) assimilation       (3) conservatism
   (2) modernization      (4) nationalism
Answer: 4

25.
25 During the Industrial Revolution, locating factories
   near concentrations of natural resources and
   transportation routes most directly promoted
   (1) annexations and unequal treaties
   (2) migration and urbanization
   (3) legislative reforms and formation of unions
   (4) communal fields and the domestic system
Answer: 2

26.
    Base your answer to question 26 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   . . .The bourgeoisie, during its rule of scarcely one
   hundred years, has created more massive
   and more colossal productive forces than have all
   preceding generations together. Subjection [control]
   of Nature’s forces to man, machinery, application
   of chemistry to industry and agriculture, steam-
   navigation, railways, electric telegraphs, clearing of
   whole continents for cultivation, canalization
   [channeling] of rivers, whole populations conjured
   [brought up] out of the ground—what earlier
   century had even a presentiment [previous notion]
   that such productive forces slumbered in the lap
   of social labor? . . .
                        — Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels,
                               The Communist Manifesto
26 In this passage, Marx and Engels state that the
   bourgeoisie
   (1) implemented policies of ethnocentrism
   (2) expanded the manufacturing capacity
   (3) was controlled by natural forces
   (4) replaced railways with canals
Answer: 2

27.
27 During the 19th century, the economies in most
   Latin American countries relied primarily on the
   export of
   (1) cash crops
   (2) service jobs
   (3) hydroelectric power
   (4) factory-made goods
Answer: 1

28.
28 The poem “White Man’s Burden” is most directly
   associated with the concept of
   (1) neutrality            (3) reparations
   (2) appeasement           (4) imperialism
Answer: 4

29.
29 Why was the outcome of the Russo-Japanese War
   a concern for European governments?
   (1) Japan was able to defeat a western power.
   (2) Russia had surrendered without a fight.
   (3) Japan had developed a superior air force.
   (4) The Russian monarch had been assassinated.
Answer: 1

30.
    Base your answer to question 30 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   . . .The dispute about whether it [Armenian
   Massacre] was genocide centres on the question
   of premeditation—the degree to which the killings
   were orchestrated.
   Many historians, governments and the Armenian
   people believe that they were; but a number of
   scholars question this.
   Turkish officials accept that atrocities were
   committed but argue that there was no systematic
   attempt to destroy the Christian Armenian
   people. Turkey says many innocent Muslim Turks
   also died in the turmoil of war. . . .
                                         — BBC News
30 This BBC News article suggests that scholars
   often have
   (1) differing historical perspectives of the same
       events
   (2) difficulty knowing the order in which events
       have occurred
   (3) serious obstacles in bringing those responsible
       for atrocities to trial
   (4) trouble determining the role religion plays in
       events
Answer: 1

31.
31 In the 1930s and 1940s, Japan expanded its
   empire to include parts of
   (1) eastern Europe and southwest Asia
   (2) China and southeast Asia
   (3) Turkey and the Soviet Union
   (4) Australia and Latin America
Answer: 2

32.
    Base your answers to questions 32 and 33 on the
passage below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   . . .Gas travels quickly, so you must not lose any
   time; you generally have about eighteen or
   twenty seconds in which to adjust your gas
   helmet. . . .
        For a minute, pandemonium [chaos] reigned
   in our trench,—Tommies adjusting their helmets,
   bombers running here and there, and men
   turning out of the dugouts with fixed bayonets, to
   man the fire step. . . .
        Our gun’s crew were busy mounting the
   machine gun on the parapet and bringing up
   extra ammunition from the dugout. . . .
                      — Arthur G. Empey, “Over The Top,”
                                    G. P. Putnam’s Sons
32 Which aspect of warfare is emphasized in this
   passage about World War I?
   (1) importance of civilian support
   (2) impact of government propaganda
   (3) shortage of manpower on the battlefield
   (4) role of military technology
Answer: 4

33.
33 Which type of source does this passage best
   represent?
   (1) census study
   (2) government decree
   (3) first person account
   (4) encyclopedia article
Answer: 3

34.
34 Which description best fits the Salt March
   conducted by Mohandas Gandhi?
   (1) an act of civil disobedience against the British
   (2) a statement of support for dividing India
   (3) a protest against the Sepoy Mutiny
   (4) a rally for the British during World War II
Answer: 1

35.
35 During its climb to power in the 1930s and 1940s,
   the Chinese Communist Party under Mao Zedong
   developed a strategy that focused on
   (1) taking over cities
   (2) building peasant support
   (3) sponsoring nonviolent protests
   (4) strengthening traditional Confucian values
Answer: 2


36.
Base your answer to question 36 on the posters below and on your knowledge of social studies.
36 Which aspects of World War II home-front culture do these 1940s posters reflect?
   (1) national pride and employment opportunities
   (2) mobilization and draft
   (3) military expenditures and regulations
   (4) conserving resources and sacrificing
Answer: 4

37.
37 After World War II, a key reason the Soviet Union
   established satellite nations in Eastern Europe
   was to
   (1) ease tensions with the Chinese government
   (2) expand trade opportunities with Western
       Europe
   (3) protect its western border from attack
   (4) maintain freedom of the seas
Answer: 3

38.
38 Which factor was a major consideration at the
   time India was being partitioned?
   (1) creation of uniform land areas
   (2) equal distribution of natural resources
   (3) tensions between Hindus and Muslims
   (4) territorial disputes between Britain and
       France
Answer: 3

39.
    Base your answer to question 39 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
39 The artist uses this cartoon as a way to express
   (1) skepticism about the success of Castro’s
       revolution
   (2) support for a revolution in Brazil
   (3) admiration for Castro’s bold plan
   (4) confusion about Brazil’s economic needs
Answer: 1

40.
40 One way in which Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev
   and Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping are similar is
   that both
   (1) granted autonomy to satellite countries
   (2) promoted a multiparty political system
   (3) encouraged religious dissenters to seek
       freedom
   (4) incorporated capitalist ideas into communist
       societies
Answer: 4

41.
    Base your answer to question 41 on the picture
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
41 The primary purpose of these floating gardens
   is to
   (1) increase regional food supplies
   (2) provide more goods for export
   (3) serve as an island bridge to the mainland
   (4) expand recreational areas for children
Answer: 1

42.
42 Nelson Mandela and Aung San Suu Kyi are closely
   associated with movements to
   (1) establish theocratic rule
   (2) guarantee rights and liberties
   (3) introduce socialistic economic principles
   (4) support military juntas
Answer: 2

43.
Base your answer to question 43 on the cartoons below and on your knowledge of social studies.
43 These cartoons suggest that the government of Egypt reacted to the situation by
   (1) discouraging technological advances
   (2) suppressing dissenting points of view
   (3) eliminating most acts of terrorism
   (4) rejecting the use of foreign military aid
Answer: 2

44.
44 One way in which the withdrawal of Belgian
   control in Rwanda and the fall of communism in
   Yugoslavia are similar is that they both led
   directly to
   (1) ethnic conflict
   (2) open multiparty elections
   (3) membership in the EU (European Union)
   (4) intervention by NATO (North Atlantic Treaty
       Organization)
Answer: 1

45.
45 “OPEC Meets To Discuss Production Restrictions”
   “European Union Threatens Sanctions Against
    Nonmembers”
   “China Granted Most Favored Nation Status by
    United States”
   These headlines illustrate the economic concept of
   (1) interdependence         (3) communism
   (2) imperialism             (4) self-sufficiency
Answer: 1

46.
46 Pax Romana, the Golden Age of Islam, and the
   Renaissance were all periods of
   (1) cultural isolationism
   (2) censorship and regulation
   (3) advancements in arts and in knowledge
   (4) decreasing influence of religion on cultural
       practices
Answer: 3

47.
47 Portugal’s attempt to participate directly in the
   global spice trade was a factor leading to the
   (1) Age of Exploration
   (2) formation of the Hanseatic League
   (3) Berlin Conference
   (4) creation of the Council of Trent
Answer: 1

48.
Base your answer to question 48 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
48 What is the main idea of this cartoon?
   (1) Fences were built to prevent the spread of illness and suffering.
   (2) The world continues to ignore human rights violations.
   (3) The people of Darfur are reaching out to those suffering in Europe.
   (4) Poverty affects both the people of Darfur and of Europe.
Answer: 2

49.
49 The fall of the Aztec Empire, the encomienda
   system, and the missionary work of the Roman
   Catholic Church are all associated with
   (1) ethnic tensions in the Balkans
   (2) oil politics in the Middle East
   (3) colonialism in Latin America
   (4) migration in sub-Saharan Africa
Answer: 3

50.
50 Which event in the history of Russia and the Soviet
   Union occurred first?
   (1) establishment of Joseph Stalin as dictator
   (2) end of the Cold War
   (3) introduction of Lenin’s New Economic Policy
   (4) crowning of Czar Nicholas II
Answer: 4


51.
           Answers to the essay questions are to be written in the separate essay booklet.
In developing your answer to Part II, be sure to keep these general definitions in mind:
        (a) describe means “to illustrate something in words or tell about it”
        (b) discuss means “to make observations about something using facts, reasoning, and
            argument; to present in some detail”
                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Belief Systems
                 Throughout history, belief systems and their practices have influenced societies
                 and regions.
        Task:
                 Select two belief systems and for each
                 • Describe the beliefs and/or practices of this belief system
                 • Discuss how this belief system influenced a society or region in which it was
                   practiced
           You may use any belief system from your study of global history and geography. Some
        suggestions you might wish to consider include Buddhism, Christianity, communism,
        Confucianism, humanism, Islam, Judaism, legalism, and Shinto.
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
          Do not use the United States as the society or region influenced in your answer.
        Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


52.
NAME _______           SCHOOL _______
                                                Part III
                                 DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document. Keep in mind that the
language used in a document may reflect the historical context of the time in which it was written.
       Historical Context:
              Throughout history, humans have created waste and pollution. Urbanization and
              industrialization have contributed to the pollution of the land, water, and air. As
              urbanization and industrialization have increased, humans have attempted to
              address the problems of waste and pollution through different means with varying
              degrees of success.
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of global history
             and geography, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your
             answers to the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be
             asked to
                • Describe problems that humans face because of pollution caused by
                  urbanization and industrialization
                • Discuss attempts to address problems related to pollution and whether or not
                  these attempts have been successful
       In developing your answers to Part III, be sure to keep these general definitions in mind:
       (a) describe means “to illustrate something in words or tell about it”
       (b) discuss means “to make observations about something using facts, reasoning, and
           argument; to present in some detail”
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


53.
Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in
            the space provided.
Document 1
         . . .It was the threat of disease, finally, that made garbage removal at least partially a public
         responsibility in Europe and the United States. One obstacle these days to a calm and
         measured approach to garbage problems is a collective memory restricted to the human
         lifespan of about seventy-five years. It is difficult for anyone alive now to appreciate how
         appalling, as recently as a century ago, were the conditions of daily life in all of the cities of
         the Western world, even in the wealthier parts of town. “For thousands of years,” Lewis
         Mumford wrote in The City in History, “city dwellers put up with defective, often quite vile,
         sanitary arrangements, wallowing in rubbish and filth they certainly had the power to
         remove.” The stupefying level of wrack [rubbish] and rejectamenta [refuse] in one’s
         immediate vicinity that was accepted as normal from prehistory through the Enlightenment
         was raised horribly by the Industrial Revolution, which drew millions of people into already
         congested cities and at the same time increased the volume of consumer goods—future
         throwaways—by many orders of magnitude. . . .
                     Source: Rathje and Murphy, Rubbish! The Archaeology of Garbage, HarperCollins Publishers, 1992
1a According to Rathje and Murphy, which problem influenced cities to take responsibility for waste removal? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


54.
b According to Rathje and Murphy, what is one factor that has accelerated the production of garbage
  in cities? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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55.
Document 2
                                     Description of Ancient Athens
       . . .The Streets and House Fronts of Athens. — Progress is slower near the Market Place
       because of the extreme narrowness of the streets. They are only fifteen feet wide or even
       less, — intolerable alleys a later age would call them, — and dirty to boot. Sometimes they are
       muddy, more often extremely dusty. Worse still, they are contaminated by great accumulations
       of filth; for the city is without an efficient sewer system or regular scavengers. Even as
       the crowd elbows along, a house door will frequently open, an ill-favored slave boy show his
       head, and with the yell, “Out of the way!” slap a bucket of dirty water into the street. There
       are many things to offend the nose as well as the eyes of men of a later race. It is fortunate
       indeed that the Athenians are otherwise a healthy folk, or they would seem liable to perpetual
       pestilence [disease]; even so, great plagues have in past years harried [attacked] the city. . . .
                                     Source: William Stearns Davis, A Day in Old Athens, Allyn and Bacon (adapted)
2 As a result of poor sanitation, what was one problem faced by the city of ancient Athens according to William
  Stearns Davis? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


56.
3a According to this excerpt from What Life Was Like in the Age of Chivalry, what was one cause of unsanitary
   conditions in European medieval cities? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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57.
b According to this excerpt from What Life Was Like in the Age of Chivalry, what was one attempt made to
  address the issue of municipal waste? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


58.
4a According to this 1849 illustrated poem, what was one reason London’s drinking water was polluted? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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59.
Document 4b
        . . . When cholera* returned to Europe in 1865, it found some cities less hospitable than in
        previous visits. London, in particular, had moved forward. England’s largest city had worked
        at improving sewer systems, cleaning up drinking water supplies, and collecting and disposing
        of refuse.
              The efforts paid off. When cholera reached the city’s shores, a few months after striking
        western Europe, it no longer leaked from the Thames into wells and other water supplies. The
        Thames itself was looking and smelling cleaner than it had for generations. Although the
        epidemic still killed several thousand people during its stay in London, its spread was limited
        once sources of contamination were discovered. . . .
                 Source: Stephanie True Peters, Epidemic! Cholera: Curse of the Nineteenth Century, Benchmark Books
     *cholera: a disease spread through contaminated water
4b According to Stephanie True Peters, what was one action taken in London to reduce the number of people
   being affected by cholera? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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60.
Document 5
            Winding 1,560 miles across northern India, from the Himalaya Mountains to the Indian
        Ocean, the Ganges River is not a sacred place: it is a sacred entity [thing]. Known as
        Ganga Ma—Mother Ganges—the river is revered as a goddess whose purity cleanses the sins
        of the faithful and aids the dead on their path toward heaven. But while her spiritual purity
        has remained unchallenged for millennia, her physical purity has deteriorated as India’s
        booming population imposes an ever-growing burden upon her. The river is now sick [2004]
        with the pollution of human and industrial waste, and water-borne illness is a terrible factor
        of Indian life. But the threat posed by this pollution isn’t just a matter of health—it’s a matter
        of faith. Veer Bhadra Mishra, a Hindu priest and civil engineer who has worked for decades
        to combat pollution in the Ganges, describes the importance of protecting this sacred river:
        “There is a saying that the Ganges grants us salvation. This culture will end if the people stop
        going to the river, and if the culture dies the tradition dies, and the faith dies.”. . .
            In 1985, the government of India launched the Ganga Action Plan, which was devised to
        clean up the river in selected areas by installing sewage treatment plants and threatening fines
        and litigation [legal action] against industries that pollute. Almost 20 years later, the plan has
        been largely unsuccessful. The Western-style treatment plants simply did not meet the needs
        of the region. Such treatment facilities are designed for use in countries where the supply of
        electricity is stable, there’s no season of overwhelming monsoon rains, and the population
        doesn’t drink directly from the water source. Many Indians blame the plan’s failure on
        mismanagement, corruption and technological mistakes. A key criticism is that local
        communities, those most invested in the health of the river, were not included in the planning
        process. . . .
                          Source: Amberly Polidor, “Ganges River,” Sacred Land Film Project online, February 1, 2004
5a According to Amberly Polidor, what is one problem pollution has created in the Ganges River region? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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61.
b According to Amberly Polidor, what is one reason attempts made by the government of India to address
  the problems of pollution in the Ganges River region have been unsuccessful? [1]
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62.
Document 6
       . . .Venezuela’s oil industry has crisscrossed Lake Maracaibo with about 15,000 miles of
       pipelines. “We say that the lake’s practically a plate of spaghetti with the quantity of pipes there,”
       says local historian Pedro Estrada. Unfortunately, many of the pipes are old, rusty, and leaking.
       In 2010, the leaky pipes released oil that washed up on Lake Maracaibo’s shores, harming fish
       and birds.
           Other sources of pollution are damaging the lake as well. About 500 companies dump waste
       into the lake’s tributaries, and the area’s inhabitants produce tons of sewage. Chemical runoff
       from farms also flows into the lake. Only about 20 percent of this waste, runoff, and sewage
       is treated before it enters the lake. . . .
                                           Source: Andrew J. Milson, “Rescuing Lake Maracaibo,” Water Resources,
                                                                               National Geographic Learning, 2014
6 According to Andrew J. Milson, what is one indication that treatment of pollution in Lake Maracaibo,
  Venezuela is lacking or is not effective? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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63.
7a Based on this document, what is a major cause of pollution in Mexico City? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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64.
b Based on this document, what is one action taken by the government in an attempt to address the issue of
  pollution in Mexico City? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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65.
Document 8
        . . . As in most countries, coal, another nonrenewable energy source, is the chief source of
        China’s domestic energy production. Coal has traditionally been China’s main source of energy,
        and even in 2006, it accounted for about 70 percent of China’s energy. China is the world’s
        largest producer and consumer of coal. It is abundant in China and is cheap compared with
        other sources of energy. Unfortunately, coal is also the “dirtiest” energy source, as it produces
        carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and methane—gases that
        contribute to global warming, air pollution, and acid rain. Indeed, China’s abundance of coal
        has contributed to its notorious air pollution: 16 of the world’s 20 most polluted cities are in
        China. Coal mines are also dangerous places for workers, especially in China, where more coal
        miners die each year than anywhere else in the world.
             The Chinese government has recognized the need to shift to renewable energy sources to
        sustain its energy growth and to minimize the environmental and health problems caused by
        relying on nonrenewable energy sources. Its Renewable Energy Law, which took effect on
        1 January 2006, aims to ensure that 15 percent of China’s energy comes from renewable
        sources by 2020. Renewable energy comes from dams that harness water flow, windmills that
        channel energy, and solar panels that store energy from the sun. Unfortunately, wind power
        and solar power are still in the initial stages of development. They cost a lot to install, and they
        supply only a small fraction of China’s energy needs. Still, China has one of the world’s greatest
        wind energy potentials, a fact that the government acknowledged as it set an ambitious target
        of increasing wind power capacity to more than 23 times its 2005 level by the year 2020. . . .
                         Source: Rylan Sekiguchi, “10,000 Shovels: China’s Urbanization and Economic Development,”
                                 Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, Stanford University, 2006 (adapted)
8a According to Rylan Sekiguchi, what is one environmental problem China faces as a result of burning
   coal? [1]
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66.
b According to Rylan Sekiguchi, what is one challenge China faces as it attempts to shift to renewable sources
  of energy? [1]
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67.
Part B
Essay
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least five documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                Throughout history, humans have created waste and pollution. Urbanization and
                industrialization have contributed to the pollution of the land, water, and air. As
                urbanization and industrialization have increased, humans have attempted to
                address the problems of waste and pollution through different means with varying
                degrees of success.
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of global history
               and geography, write an essay in which you
                  • Describe problems that humans face because of pollution caused by
                    urbanization and industrialization
                  • Discuss attempts to address problems related to pollution and whether or not
                    these attempts have been successful
         Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least five documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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  Try the Quiz :     Global History and Geography - New York Regents August 2016 Exam


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