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Global History and Geography - New York Regents August 2017 Exam

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1.
                                                  Part I
                                    Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
   Base your answer to question 1 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
1   Which group of people is represented by this migration pattern?
    (1) Phoenicians                         (3) Hebrews
    (2) Bantu                               (4) Persians
Answer: 2

2.
2 Which statement best describes the benefit of
  studying past events from multiple points of
  view?
  (1) Using primary sources allows historians access
      to official records.
  (2) Viewing history chronologically shows how eras
      overlap from one time period to the next.
  (3) Examining different perspectives gives a more
      complete picture of historical circumstances.
  (4) Evaluating the roles of specific individuals in
      history helps determine personal contributions.
Answer: 3

3.
3 The knowledge and skills of a geographer would
  best be suited for
  (1) identifying a set of bones discovered at an
      archaeological site
  (2) providing a cost analysis for production data
      received by a manufacturer
  (3) generating environmental impact reports for
      an energy company
  (4) developing a national party platform for an
      independent party
Answer: 3


4.
4 • What is the purpose of government?
  • How is citizenship defined?
  • Who holds power?
  Which area of study focuses on the way societies
  answer these questions?
  (1) cartography
  (2) political science
  (3) physical anthropology
  (4) economics
Answer: 2

5.
5 Both the Han and the Roman empires declined
  as a result of
  (1) undisciplined armies and limited access to
      trade
  (2) overexpansion and foreign invasions by
      nomadic peoples
  (3) inefficient theocratic rulers and few govern-
      ment regulations
  (4) harsh climates and high taxes
Answer: 2

6.
6 The Ten Commandments are to Judaism as the
  Five Pillars are to
  (1) Buddhism        (3) Hinduism
  (2) Shinto          (4) Islam
Answer: 4

7.
7 Construction of stupas, writings by Kalidasa, and
  the development of the concept of zero are most
  closely associated with the
  (1) Gupta Empire            (3) Mongol Empire
  (2) Tang dynasty            (4) Abbasid dynasty
Answer: 1

8.
8 From the perspective of many Arab Muslims
  at the time of the Crusades, the European
  Crusaders were considered
  (1) refugees            (3) invaders
  (2) liberators          (4) allies
Answer: 3

9.
9 The cities of Constantinople and Kiev grew
  primarily as a result of the development of
  (1) trade routes
  (2) urban planning
  (3) rigid social systems
  (4) religious pilgrimages
Answer: 1

10.
10 What was a primary motive behind the
   implementation of Sharia in Islamic empires
   beginning in the 8th century?
   (1) promoting a mechanism for technological
       change
   (2) uniting the people under common laws and
       practices
   (3) distributing wealth equally among citizens
   (4) guaranteeing a representative government
Answer: 2

11.
   Base your answer to question 11 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   . . . The town was a centre of attraction and
   diffusion, but above all it was a centre of
   production. The town was a crossroads and a
   terminus [last stop]: through contacts, meetings
   and exchanges it could play a major creative
   role. . . .
    — Jacques Le Goff, in The Fontana Economic History of
                                 Europe: The Middle Ages
11 Which statement would this passage best
   support?
   (1) Towns were important in an emerging
       international economy.
   (2) Economic self-sufficiency was reinforced by
       the revival of towns.
   (3) Crossroad locations limit the functions of
       towns.
   (4) The culture of towns discouraged new ideas.
Answer: 1

12.
12 Which title best completes the partial outline
   below?
    I.
         A. Archipelago
         B. Limited arable land
         C. Rugged mountains
         D. Earthquakes
   (1)   Physical Features of Korea
   (2)   Geographic Factors of Japan
   (3)   Natural Resources of Cambodia
   (4)   Environmental Conditions in Russia
Answer: 2

13.
13 Which situation led to the other three?
   (1) Mongol skills and weapons diffusing into
       China
   (2) Confucian scholars losing status and
       government positions
   (3) Mongols conquering China and establishing
       the Yuan dynasty
   (4) Marco Polo writing about traveling to the
       palace of Kublai Khan
Answer: 3

14.
14 Which two major commodities were traded on the
   trans-Saharan routes by West African kingdoms?
   (1) timber and wheat
   (2) silk and cotton
   (3) gold and salt
   (4) petroleum and spices
Answer: 3

15.
15 In the 1340s, the Black Death spread to Europe
   as a result of
   (1) trade with Asia
   (2) the expansion of Christianity
   (3) development of guilds in Italy
   (4) the explorations of Vasco da Gama
Answer: 1

16.
16 What is one reason the Ming emperors did not
   expand China’s economic influence across the
   Indian Ocean after the voyages of Zheng He?
   (1) Resources were needed to combat Japanese
       invaders.
   (2) Developing trade networks with Russia was
       more profitable.
   (3) Conquering European territories drained
       China’s treasury.
   (4) Foreign goods were considered inferior to
       those produced in China.
Answer: 4

17.
17 One way in which Akbar the Great and Suleiman
   the Magnificent are similar is that both leaders
   (1) centralized governmental power
   (2) imposed a polytheistic religion
   (3) implemented new systems of writing
   (4) provoked ethnic tensions
Answer: 1

18.
   Base your answer to question 18 on the illustration
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
18 Based on this illustration, which statement about
   the Inca Empire is accurate?
   (1) Inca women sold the agricultural products of
       the empire.
   (2) Hunting and gathering was the main source
       of food for the Inca.
   (3) The Inca used hand-written documents to
       record each harvest.
   (4) The Inca developed technology to adapt their
       surroundings.
Answer: 4

19.
Base your answer to question 19 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
19 Based on this map, in which city did Hernán Cortés first encounter the Aztecs?
   (1) Santiago de Cuba                    (3) Trujillo
   (2) Tenochtitlán                        (4) Veracruz
Answer: 4

20.
20 The term divine right is best defined as a
   (1) revolution to gain political rights and freedoms
   (2) philosophy that encourages religious toleration
   (3) belief that a ruler’s authority comes from God
   (4) system in which a monarch has limited power
Answer: 3


21.
21 The scientific theories developed by Copernicus,
   Galileo, and Newton resulted in
   (1) challenges to the traditional teachings of the
       Catholic Church
   (2) support for the Earth-centered theory of the
       universe
   (3) confirmation of Darwin’s theory of evolution
   (4) a renewed interest in the writings of
       Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Answer: 1

22.
22 The French Revolution was a reaction to the
   (1) defeat in and humiliation of the
       Franco-Prussian War
   (2) influence of and privileges granted to the
       First and Second Estates
   (3) increasing confrontations between Catholics
       and Protestants
   (4) conflict between competing branches of the
       French royal family
Answer: 2

23.
23 Toussaint L’Ouverture, Simón Bolívar, and José
   de San Martín led independence movements in
   (1) the Middle East      (3) South Asia
   (2) western Africa       (4) Latin America
Answer: 4

24.
24 At the Congress of Vienna, one of the main goals
   was to
   (1) prevent the spread of socialism
   (2) reward Napoleon for his victories in Europe
   (3) divide lands in the Americas between Spain
       and Portugal
   (4) restore monarchs to pre-Napoleonic status
Answer: 4

25.
25 During the late 19th century, Russia’s settlement
   and development of Siberia was made possible by
   the invention of the
   (1) lateen sail           (3) steam locomotive
   (2) rudder                (4) airplane
Answer: 3

26.
26 • Indian National Congress
   • Young Italy
   • Young Turks
   One way in which these organizations are similar
   is that they all
   (1) supported the creation of colonies
   (2) encouraged nationalist sentiments
   (3) battled against religious separatists
   (4) opposed the use of civil disobedience
Answer: 2

27.
27 Which 19th-century British group would most
   likely object to the government regulation of
   businesses?
   (1) clergy
   (2) socialists
   (3) labor unions
   (4) laissez-faire capitalists
Answer: 4

28.
28 Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and Karl Marx
   are best known for their
   (1) religious reforms
   (2) economic theories
   (3) peacekeeping efforts
   (4) military leadership
Answer: 2

29.
29 Which goals are most closely associated with the
   Russian Revolution of 1917?
   (1) peace, land, and bread
   (2) liberty, equality, and fraternity
   (3) science, technology, and agriculture
   (4) nationalism, democracy, and livelihood
Answer: 1

30.
30 Which type of government is characterized by
   extreme nationalism, censorship, militarism, and
   dictatorship?
   (1) fascist state
   (2) direct democracy
   (3) constitutional confederation
   (4) parliamentary democracy
Answer: 1

31.
31 During both World War I and World War II, the
   economic policies of many governments were
   designed to
   (1) eliminate tariffs on imports
   (2) rebuild destroyed housing
   (3) collectivize agriculture
   (4) limit consumption by rationing goods
Answer: 4

32.
32 What was one major reason given by Adolf Hitler
   to justify his demand for additional territory
   between 1936 and 1939?
   (1) All ethnic Germans needed to be united into
       one German nation.
   (2) Germany needed to reestablish its overseas
       empire.
   (3) The German navy needed access to
       Mediterranean seaports.
   (4) Germany needed a buffer zone to protect it
       from foreign invasion.
Answer: 1

33.
Base your answer to question 33 on the time line below and on your knowledge of social studies.
33 Which title best completes this time line?
   (1) Communist Takeover of China           (3) Chinese Cultural Revolution
   (2) Annexation of Korea                   (4) Japanese Militarism
Answer: 4

34.
34 Which areas were separated by the Iron
   Curtain?
   (1) Europe from Asia
   (2) Eastern Europe from Western Europe
   (3) Iberian Peninsula from Northern Europe
   (4) Europe from the Middle East
Answer: 2

35.
35 Which individual is correctly paired with the
   historical event he helped influence?
   (1) Kwame Nkrumah — independence of Ghana
   (2) Ho Chi Minh — destruction of Buddhist
       shrines in Afghanistan
   (3) Lech Walesa — creation of the Organization
       of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
   (4) Anwar Sadat — establishment of a secular
       republic in Turkey
Answer: 1


36.
36 A study of Rwanda and of Kashmir in the 1990s
   would lead to the conclusion that
   (1) industrialization results in democratic systems
   (2) economic cooperation evolves over time
   (3) natural disasters have had negative impacts
   (4) ethnic and religious tensions often lead to
       violence
Answer: 4

37.
    Base your answer to question 37 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   . . . There is no fundamental contradiction between
   socialism and a market economy. The problem
   is how to develop the productive forces more
   effectively. We used to have a planned economy,
   but our experience over the years has proved that
   having a totally planned economy hampers the
   development of the productive forces to a certain
   extent. If we combine a planned economy with a
   market economy, we shall be in a better position
   to liberate the productive forces and speed up
   economic growth. . . .
                                      — Deng Xiaoping
37 According to Deng Xiaoping, what should be
   done to improve China’s economy?
   (1) restrict imports from competitive market
       economies
   (2) incorporate economic principles of a market
       economy into a command economy
   (3) become a Marxist socialist state
   (4) implement the economic reforms of Mao
       Zedong
Answer: 2

38.
Base your answers to questions 38 and 39 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
38 Which statement best expresses the point of view shown in this cartoon?
   (1) Cuba has made steady industrial progress in recent years.
   (2) The leader of Cuba favors violence to obtain results.
   (3) The revolution in Cuba has failed to help the economy.
   (4) The Cuban government is encouraging an increase in automobile sales.
Answer: 3

39.
39 Who is the leader shown in this cartoon?
   (1) Augusto Pinochet                     (3) Juan Perón
   (2) Ché Guevara                          (4) Fidel Castro
Answer: 4

40.
40 Which region of the world has been influenced by
   political leaders Pol Pot and Aung San Suu Kyi?
   (1) Southeast Asia          (3) Central Asia
   (2) Southwest Asia          (4) East Asia
Answer: 1

41.
41 The introduction of the Green Revolution in
   India was intended to
   (1) increase crop yields
   (2) preserve the rain forest
   (3) stop desertification
   (4) protect endangered species
Answer: 1

42.
42 “Turkish Plan to Build Hydroelectric Dam on
    Euphrates Fuels Tensions With Syria”
   “Hunger Persists as African Drought Deepens”
   “India’s Population Growth Strains Water Supply”
   Which conclusion can best be drawn from this set
   of headlines?
   (1) Hydroelectric dams provide a solution to
       growing power demands.
   (2) Unchecked population growth strains
       worldwide food resources.
   (3) Famine-related deaths require further study.
   (4) Water scarcity is a major problem that needs
       to be solved.
Answer: 4

43.
43 Since 1990, many countries have expressed grave
   concerns about North Korea and Pakistan because
   these two countries have
   (1) developed nuclear programs
   (2) withdrawn from the United Nations
   (3) experienced large increases in the number of
       AIDS-related deaths
   (4) adopted a communist system of government
Answer: 1

44.
44 To increase the supply of food, some Neolithic
   communities living in arid regions of the world
   developed
   (1) three-field systems
   (2) petrochemical fertilizers
   (3) irrigation systems
   (4) slash-and-burn methods
Answer: 3

45.
45 • Colonies are required to provide raw materials.
   • Development of manufacturing in the colonies
     is discouraged.
   Which European policy is being described by
   these statements?
   (1) appeasement       (3) regionalism
   (2) mercantilism      (4) neutrality
Answer: 2

46.
46 The rule of Kemal Atatürk and the rule of Shah
   Reza Pahlavi are similar because both leaders
   (1) promoted westernization and modernization
   (2) increased the power of the clergy
   (3) established communist policies
   (4) banned foreign investors
Answer: 1

47.
47 “Bataan Death March Kills Thousands of Allied
    Prisoners”
   “Red Army Drives Germans out of Stalingrad”
   “Dresden Is Fire-Bombed”
   Which conflict in history is directly associated
   with these headlines?
   (1) Russo-Japanese War (3) World War II
   (2) World War I          (4) Cold War
Answer: 3

48.
    Base your answers to questions 48 through 50 on the interviews below and on your knowledge of social
studies.
           1833 English Coal Mines
• Have you [Thomas Gibson and George Bryan]
  worked from a boy in a coal mine?
— (Both) Yes. . . .
• For how many hours a day did you work?
— Nearly nine hours regularly; sometimes
  twelve; I have worked above thirteen. . . .
• You said that your labour sometimes
  continued nine hours without intermission?
— Yes, and more than that with nothing
  except a sup of cold water.
• Was your work in the dark?
— By candle-light.
• Were there many children in the same way?
— Yes, about 100 in our mine. . . .
                      — Mr. Tuffnell, Inquiry, June 1833
   in Leonard Horner, On The Employment of Children in
       Factories and Other Works in the United Kingdom
                         and in Some Foreign Countries
        2002 Pakistani Carpet Weaving
Question: “When did you start working today?”
Answers: “About 5AM,” one says. “About 7AM,”
  replies another.
Question: “When will you finish?”
Answers: “8PM,” the first says. “When it gets
  dark,” the other says.
Question: “How long have you been doing this
  work?”
Answers: “Three years,” a ten-year-old replies.
  “I started three months ago, since the war in
  Afghanistan. I’m 13,” another says. “Since
  she was four,” a mother says of her weaving
  daughter. “She is now 18.”. . .
       — Fending for Themselves: Afghan Refugee Children
              and Adolescents Working in Urban Pakistan,
           Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and
              Children, Mission to Pakistan, January 2002
48 These interviews provide evidence of how
   (1) theories of history have changed over time
   (2) concepts of justice and values differed in different eras
   (3) human experience has been similar across time and place
   (4) global partnerships have had an impact on past and present employment practices
Answer: 3

49.
49 What is the most likely motive for gathering and publishing the evidence contained in
   these interviews?
   (1) defending existing policies          (3) expanding interdependence
   (2) gaining public sympathy              (4) promoting industrial development
Answer: 2

50.
50 Which action is often taken by reformers reacting to situations like those presented in
   these interviews?
   (1) demanding young workers receive schooling
   (2) campaigning to eliminate labor unions
   (3) seeking universal suffrage for those sixteen and older
   (4) rejecting claims about working conditions
Answer: 1


51.
           Answers to the essay questions are to be written in the separate essay booklet.
In developing your answer to Part II, be sure to keep these general definitions in mind:
        (a) explain means “to make plain or understandable; to give reasons for or causes of;
            to show the logical development or relationships of”
        (b) describe means “to illustrate something in words or tell about it”
        (c) discuss means “to make observations about something using facts, reasoning, and
            argument; to present in some detail”
                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Intellectual life — Individuals
                 Often in history, individuals, who were not leaders of government, had ideas that
                 influenced change in their society or in other societies and regions.
        Task:
                 Select two individuals, who were not government leaders, and for each
                 • Explain an idea the individual had that influenced change
                 • Describe the historical circumstances surrounding the idea of this individual
                 • Discuss how this idea influenced change in a society or region
              You may use any individual, who was not the leader of a government, from your
        study of global history and geography. Some suggestions you might wish to consider include
        Confucius, Buddha, Plato, Jesus, Muhammad, Martin Luther, Galileo Galilei, John Locke,
        Mary Wollstonecraft, Karl Marx, Charles Darwin, Mohandas Gandhi, and Mother Teresa.
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
                       Do not make the United States the focus of your answer.
        Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to
                 • Develop all aspects of the task
                 • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                 • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                   are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


52.
                                                Part III
                                 DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the purposes
of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each document and
any point of view that may be presented in the document. Keep in mind that the language used in a
document may reflect the historical context of the time in which it was written.
       Historical Context:
              Throughout history, people have migrated for a variety of reasons. Some examples
              include the forced migration of Africans (1500–1800), the forced migration of
              Spanish Jews (1492–1598), and the emigration of the Irish (1845–1853).
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of global history and
             geography, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers
             to the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
                Select two migrations mentioned in the historical context and for each
                • Describe the historical circumstances that led to the migration
                • Discuss how the migration has affected regions and/or societies
In developing your answers to Part III, be sure to keep these general definitions in mind:
       (a) describe means “to illustrate something in words or tell about it”
       (b) discuss means “to make observations about something using facts, reasoning, and
           argument; to present in some detail”
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


53.
Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1
                    The Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade on the New World
            Whatever the effect of slavery on Africa, there can be no doubt that black slaves [enslaved
        Africans] played a crucial part in the economic development of the New World, above all by
        making up for shortages of labour. The arrival of Europeans in the Americas had brought
        diseases that decimated [destroyed] local populations, which reduced the potential for securing
        labour from that source; and often too few Europeans chose to migrate to the Americas to
        meet the demand for labour. This was particularly true in Brazil and the Caribbean, where
        people of African origin became by far the largest section of the population; it was also the
        case in parts of North America, although here white people outnumbered black people.
            Black slaves were especially important as a labour supply for the “plantation” agriculture
        that developed in the New World, first in Brazil, and later in the Caribbean and the southern
        parts of North America. The plantation system had begun in medieval times on Mediterranean
        islands such as Crete and Cyprus – it was an unusually sophisticated form of agricultural
        operation for its day, producing sugar for the international market at a time when most of
        European agriculture concentrated on the basics of local subsistence. But from its inception
        [beginning], it used slaves; and when plantations were set up in the Americas, black slaves
        became the backbone of the workforce. . . .
                                                               Source: Will Hardy, “The Slavery Business,” BBC
 1 According to Will Hardy, what was one reason enslaved Africans were forcibly brought to the
   Americas? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


54.
 Document 2a
        . . . Sugarcane was introduced into Hispaniola and then Brazil in the sixteenth century, thereby
        jumping the Atlantic as part of an exchange of food crops and commodities that increased
        demand for tropical goods and therefore the need for labor. In all these activities, enslaved
        Africans were used as a principal source of labor, and sometimes for military employment,
        too. The transfer of sugarcane was the most important development and would lead to the
        enslavement of millions of Africans, but many other crops, including indigo, rice, tobacco,
        coffee, cocoa, and cotton, were introduced, with varying degrees of success but always with
        the input of enslaved African labor. However, before the middle of the seventeenth century,
        the total number of enslaved Africans that were taken away from western Africa was relatively
        small, especially in comparison with the great expansion in slavery thereafter. Even in this
        early period, however, the number of enslaved Africans being forced to cross the Atlantic was
        greater by far than the number of Europeans voluntarily doing so. . . .
                     Source: Paul E. Lovejoy, “International Slave Trade: Causes and Consequences,” York University
2a According to Paul E. Lovejoy, what was one development that led to the increased demand for labor and
   the expansion of slavery in Hispaniola and Brazil? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


55.
Document 2b
                                               Cultures Survive
        . . . Despite attempts to suppress or even eradicate African culture, slaves and their descendants
        carried skills and traditions to their destination countries.
              African literary traditions—particularly oral storytelling featuring the tortoise, hare,
        and spider—spread throughout the Caribbean, Latin America, the United States and
        Europe. . . .
                  Source: Tom Housden, “Focus on the Slave Trade,” BBC News Online, September 3, 2001 (adapted)
2b According to Tom Housden of BBC News Online, what was one aspect of African culture that spread to the
   Americas and Europe? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


56.
Document 3
            . . . consequences of the trade for Africa can therefore be arrived at. These are, that the
       slave trade:
       i) undermined African economic potential and derailed development;
       ii) destroyed and distorted systems of government;
       iii) generated high levels of fear, warfare and distrust, and undermined moral and
            civic practices in community life and culture;
       iv) constituted a massive drain of accumulated skills and abilities, and depleted the
            pool of human resources needed for sustainable development; . . .
     Source: Hilary McDonald Beckles, Slave Voyages: The Transatlantic Trade in Enslaved Africans, UNESCO (adapted)
3 According to Hilary McDonald Beckles, what was one economic effect the trans-Atlantic slave trade had on
  Africa? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


57.
Document 4
       In the spring of 1492, shortly after the Moors were driven out of Granada, Ferdinand and
       Isabella of Spain expelled all the Jews from their lands and thus, by a stroke of the pen, put
       an end to the largest and most distinguished Jewish settlement in Europe. The expulsion
       of this intelligent, cultured, and industrious [hardworking] class was prompted only in part
       by the greed of the king and the intensified nationalism of the people who had just brought
       the crusade [campaign] against the Moslem Moors to a glorious close. The real motive was
       the religious zeal of the Church, the Queen, and the masses. The official reason given for
       driving out the Jews was that they [Jews] encouraged the Marranos [Jews who converted to
       Christianity to escape persecution] to persist in their Jewishness and thus would not allow
       them to become good Christians. . . .
                Source: Jacob R. Marcus, The Jew in the Medieval World: A Source Book, 315–1791, The Sinai Press
4 According to Jacob R. Marcus, what were two reasons Ferdinand and Isabella expelled the Jews from Spain
  in 1492? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


58.
Document 5
Queen Isabella issued this edict after the order expelling the Jews.
        . . . That when according to my edict the Jews who lived in my kingdoms departed, I ordered
        that those Jews might not sell the synagogues and cemeteries that they owned, and that
        these were to serve the needs of the [Spanish Christian] cities, the towns, and the localities
        where they [Jews] lived, in order to make them into [Christian] churches or hospitals and
        other institutions for the service of God and the benefit and honour of the cities, towns, and
        localities. . . .
                                                    Source: Haim Beinart, The Expulsion of the Jews From Spain,
                                                              The Littman Library of Jewish Civilization (adapted)
5 What was one reason Queen Isabella ordered the Jews not to sell their synagogues and cemeteries? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


59.
Document 6
This excerpt is from an article explaining why many Spanish emigrants settled in the New World.
       . . . Another factor explaining why this region [Spain] should send over more emigrants than
       any other area might be summed up under the heading, “Economic Distress.” It is a well-
       known fact that Spain gradually declined economically during the sixteenth century. One
       reason for this was the expulsion of the stable and industrious [hardworking] Jews. Industry
       became more decadent [declined], consequently, and thousands were thrown out of work.
       The methods used in agriculture by the Jews and the Moslems were also soon forgotten, a
       factor which left many at the mercy of a dry climate and a poor soil, especially in the south.
       Escape to the [West] Indies seemed to be the only alternative. . . .
                                   Source: V. Aubrey Neasham, “Spain’s Emigrants to the New World 1492–1592,”
                                                                        The Hispanic American Historical Review
6 According to V. Aubrey Neasham, what was one way the economy of Spain was affected by the expulsion of
  the Jews? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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60.
Document 7a
 This passage describes circumstances in Ireland in the mid-1840s.
        . . . The population’s over-reliance on the potato compounded the crisis. A New World crop,
        potatoes were introduced to Ireland during the late 16th and early 17th centuries by English
        colonists. At first, they were considered an upper-class delicacy. By 1800, a fleshy, knobby
        variety known as the “lumper” potato—ideally suited to Ireland’s cool, wet climate—had
        replaced oatmeal as a dietary staple among the poor and working class. Cheap, high-yielding
        and nutritious, lumper potatoes, when mixed with a little milk or buttermilk, provided enough
        carbohydrates, protein and minerals to sustain life, presuming enough were eaten. Thus, the
        average Irish male ate 45 potatoes a day; an average woman, about 36; and an average child,
        15. Deeply entrenched in Ireland’s economy and lifestyle, the potato was, in the words of a
        traditional Gaelic folk song, adoringly praised as Grá mo chroí (“Love of my heart”).
             Despite the loss of this beloved and critical resource, Ireland was by no means bereft
        of [lacking] food. Indeed, its farms and pastures abounded with pigs, cattle and sheep, as
        well as wheat, barley, oats and vegetables; its streams, rivers, lakes and coastline teemed
        with fish. The cruel irony was that most of this bounty was off-limits to the starving
        populace. . . .
                                       Source: Tom Verde, “An Irish Tale of Hunger and the Sultan,” AramcoWorld
7a Based on this excerpt from the article “An Irish Tale of Hunger and the Sultan,” what was one reason the
   potato was an important food resource for the Irish? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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61.
Document 7b
7b Based on this document, what was one environmental factor that led to the destruction of the potato
   crop? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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62.
Document 8
8 What does this cartoonist suggest starving Irish families do to improve their lives? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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63.
 Document 9a
        . . . The new wave of emigration affected nearly every village and town, as large tracts of land
        were deserted. Without customers, shopkeepers and merchants closed their doors. City shops
        were shuttered up and broken windows stuffed with paper. Public houses closed. Notices
        and handbills were pasted over doors and walls. All over Ireland, the butter, bacon, and
        cattle trades foundered [failed]. Once-busy warehouses stood idle and empty on the quays
        [docks] . . . .
                   Source: Susan Campbell Bartoletti, Black Potatoes: The Story of the Great Irish Famine, 1845–1850,
                                                                                           Houghton Mifflin Company
9a According to Susan Campbell Bartoletti, what was one effect of the migration on Ireland? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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64.
 Document 9b
        . . . In spite of discrimination, the hard work and bravery of Irish Americans shaped the United
        States in the 1800s. Between 1861 and 1865, for example, many thousands of Irish Americans
        fought in the Civil War. The construction of the Transcontinental Railroad, completed in
        1869, would not have been possible without thousands of Irish Americans. They and other
        immigrants blasted tunnels through mountains, built bridges over gorges and rivers, and laid
        track across barren lands. The completion of the railroad had a huge impact on the growth of
        the country as settlers began to travel west in ever increasing numbers. . . .
                                               Source: Michael V. Uschan, Irish Americans, World Almanac Library
9b According to Michael V. Uschan, what was one effect of Irish migration on the United States? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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65.
Part B
Essay
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least four documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                Throughout history, people have migrated for a variety of reasons. Some examples
                include the forced migration of Africans (1500–1800), the forced migration of
                Spanish Jews (1492–1598), and the emigration of the Irish (1845–1853).
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of global history and
               geography, write an essay in which you
                  Select two migrations mentioned in the historical context and for each
                  • Describe the historical circumstances that led to the migration
                  • Discuss how the migration has affected regions and/or societies
         Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least four documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site



  Try the Quiz :     Global History and Geography - New York Regents August 2017 Exam


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