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Global History and Geography - New York Regents June 2017 Exam

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1.
                                                  Part I
                                    Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
    Base your answers to questions 1 and 2 on the
passage below and on your knowledge of social
studies.
   . . . And with regard to my factual reporting of the
   events of the war I have made it a principle not
   to write down the first story that came my way,
   and not even to be guided by my own general
   impressions; either I was present myself at the
   events which I have described or else I heard of
   them from eye-witnesses whose reports I have
   checked with as much thoroughness as possible.
   Not that even so the truth was easy to discover:
   different eye-witnesses give different accounts of
   the same events, speaking out of partiality [favor]
   for one side or the other or else from imperfect
   memories. And it may well be that my history will
   seem less easy to read because of the absence in
   it of a romantic element. It will be enough for
   me, however, if these words of mine are judged
   useful by those who want to understand clearly
   the events which happened in the past and which
   (human nature being what it is) will, at some time
   or other and in much the same ways, be repeated
   in the future. My work is not a piece of writing
   designed to meet the taste of an immediate
   public, but was done to last for ever. . . .
                                           —Thucydides:
                        History of the Peloponnesian War
 1 In this passage, Thucydides emphasizes his use of
   what kind of source?
   (1) principled            (3) primary
   (2) foreign               (4) secondary
Answer: 3

2.
2 According to Thucydides, what makes his job as a
  historian more difficult?
  (1) his failing memory
  (2) biases of eyewitness observers
  (3) lack of romantic elements
  (4) his desire to please the immediate public
Answer: 2

3.
 3 Patterns of high population density have most
   often been associated with
   (1) elevations above 10,000 feet
   (2) regions with dense tropical vegetation
   (3) areas receiving less than 10 inches of rainfall
       per year
   (4) access to waterways and transportation
       systems
   Base your answer to question 4 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   . . . A separate consequence of a settled existence
   is that it permits one to store food surpluses, since
   storage would be pointless if one didn’t remain
   nearby to guard the stored food. While some
   nomadic hunter-gatherers may occasionally bag
   more food than they can consume in a few days,
   such a bonanza is of little use to them because
   they cannot protect it. But stored food is essential
   for feeding non-food-producing specialists, and
   certainly for supporting whole towns of them.
   Hence nomadic hunter-gatherer societies have
   few or no such full-time specialists, who instead
   first appear in sedentary [settled] societies. . . .
                — Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel
Answer: 4


4.
4 Which major change in history is most closely
  associated with the information presented in this
  passage?
  (1) adoption of Neolithic Revolution innovations
  (2) loss of the Mandate of Heaven by the ruling
      government
  (3) development of stone tools
  (4) ability to control fire
Answer: 1

5.
5 Which geographic factor influenced the
  development of independent city-states in ancient
  Greece?
  (1) monsoon cycle
  (2) tropical location
  (3) smooth coastline
  (4) mountainous topography
Answer: 4

6.
Base your answer to question 6 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
6    Based on the information on this map, which location represents the easternmost
    spread of Buddhism from its starting point of expansion?
    (1) Korea                                (3) Yun-gang
    (2) Japan                                (4) Chang’an
Answer: 2

7.
7 Which trade route linked the Byzantine Empire
  and Kievan Russia to China?
  (1) Silk Road            (3) Pacific Ocean
  (2) Baltic Sea           (4) Yellow Sea
Answer: 1

8.
8 Which trait is a characteristic of serfdom?
  (1) limited economic options
  (2) upward social mobility
  (3) extensive political influence
  (4) service as a warrior
Answer: 1

9.
9 The Crusades are considered a turning point in
  history because they
  (1) created a permanent Jewish state
  (2) led to a decline in European trade with Asia
  (3) contributed to the transition from the Middle
      Ages to the Renaissance
  (4) resulted in the reuniting of the western and
      eastern Roman empires
Answer: 3

10.
10 During Japan’s Tokugawa feudal period, some
   forms of cultural expression such as haiku, flower
   arranging, and rock gardening reflected the
   growing influence of
   (1) Zen Buddhism           (3) Daoism
   (2) Hinduism               (4) Christianity
Answer: 1

11.
11 Most of which continent came under Mongol
   influence and rule?
   (1) Africa            (3) Asia
   (2) Europe            (4) South America
Answer: 3

12.
12 In the 13th century, the cities of Venice, Nanjing,
   and Calicut served as important centers of
   (1) gold mining           (3) democracy
   (2) religious pilgrimages (4) trade
Answer: 4

13.
13 The decision to end Zheng He’s voyages is
   considered a turning point in the history of Ming
   China because this action
   (1) marked a shift to a more traditional inward
       focus
   (2) promoted the Chinese colonization of Africa
       and South Asia
   (3) forced the emperor to abdicate
   (4) caused the dynasty to reject Confucianism
Answer: 1

14.
14 Which technology, first developed by the Chinese,
   enabled the Ottoman Empire to expand into
   western Asia, Europe, and northern Africa?
   (1) gunpowder              (3) wheelbarrow
   (2) woodblock printing (4) magnetic compass
Answer: 1

15.
15 Which geographic feature had the greatest
   influence on the pre-Columbian development of
   the Inca Empire?
   (1) Yucatan Peninsula    (3) Atlantic Ocean
   (2) Caribbean Sea        (4) Andes Mountains
Answer: 4

16.
16 What was a major result of the European policy
   of mercantilism in Latin America?
   (1) increased status of indigenous peoples
   (2) exploitation of labor and natural resources by
       Europeans
   (3) decrease in the power of European
       monarchs
   (4) reinvestment of profits to benefit the local
       colonial economy
Answer: 2

17.
17 In the early 18th century, Peter the Great
   conquered Swedish coastal territory because he
   wanted to
   (1) obtain a port with ready access to western
       Europe
   (2) eliminate feudalism from the European
       continent
   (3) spread the teachings of the Russian Orthodox
       Church
   (4) increase Russia’s control of Siberia
Answer: 1

18.
   Base your answer to question 18 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   Diligent reader, in this work, which has just been
   created and published, you have the motions
   of the fixed stars and planets, as these motions
   have been reconstituted [reconstructed] on the
   basis of ancient as well as recent observations,
   and have moreover been embellished by new
   and marvelous hypotheses. You also have most
   convenient tables, from which you will be able
   to compute those motions with the utmost ease
   for any time whatever. Therefore buy, read, and
   enjoy [this work].
     Let no one untrained in geometry enter here.
                          — Nicholas Copernicus of Toruń,
      Six Books on the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
18 In this passage, Copernicus states that he
   accomplished his work by
   (1) excluding the teachings of ancient societies
   (2) combining old and new observations
   (3) questioning the principles of the scientific
       method
   (4) denying the importance of geometry
Answer: 2

19.
19 Which issue is raised in a study of Robespierre’s
   Reign of Terror within France and King Leopold’s
   rule of the Congo?
   (1) urbanization
   (2) environmental degradation
   (3) human rights
   (4) colonial resistance
Answer: 3

20.
20 During the 19th century in Latin America, the
   Catholic Church and the military generally
   supported the interests of
   (1) wealthy landowners
   (2) landless peasants
   (3) democratic reformers
   (4) indigenous peoples
Answer: 1


21.
    Base your answers to questions 21 and 22 on the
speakers’ statements below and on your knowledge
of social studies.
Speaker A: The British East India Company does
           not respect my beliefs. I cannot follow
           dharma and remain their soldier. I will
           return to my family in a Tamil village.
           We all will move to Ceylon, to work on
           tea plantations.
Speaker B: My rebellious countrymen cannot accept
           my new religion and so they hate me
           and my “foreign devil” friends. The
           missionaries leave Beijing tomorrow for
           England. I must join them before the
           church compound is surrounded.
Speaker C: The Czar’s soldiers came again today,
           looted our village, drove off our livestock,
           and trampled anyone in their way. They
           even burned our place of worship. Our
           way of life is gone. It is time to emigrate
           to Palestine.
Speaker D: The Ottoman Turks will not grant us
           freedom. Russia confiscated our lands
           after the war. We die fighting for our land,
           our church, and our way of life. I have
           booked passage to America where my
           family will welcome the new century.
21 Which problem is the theme of the speakers’
   discussion?
   (1) civil war
   (2) urban poverty
   (3) religious persecution
   (4) scarcity of resources
Answer: 3

22.
22 Which speaker is most likely reacting to the Boxer
   Rebellion?
   (1) A                      (3) C
   (2) B                     (4) D
Answer: 2

23.
23 “Hague Peace Conference Fails to Bring About
   Arms Reduction” — 1907
   “German Gunboat Threatens French Holdings in
   Morocco” — 1911
   “German and British Naval Buildup Increases
   Tension” — 1912
   Which cause of World War I can best be supported
   using all of these headlines as evidence?
   (1) militarism             (3) terrorism
   (2) alliances              (4) ultimatums
Answer: 1

24.
24 The rise of fascism in Europe during the 1930s is
   directly linked to the
   (1) failure to punish those responsible for “crimes
       against humanity”
   (2) increased global trade after World War I
   (3) development of authoritarian governments in
       Latin America
   (4) instability caused by the worldwide
       depression
Answer: 4

25.
    Base your answer to question 25 on the legal
excerpts below and on your knowledge of social
studies.
   Article 1
   The owner of a Jewish industrial enterprise (Third
   Regulation under the Reich Citizenship Law of
   14 June 1938, RGBI I 627) may be ordered to sell
   or liquidate the enterprise within a definite time.
   Certain conditions may be stipulated [specified]
   in the order. . . .
   Article 7
   1. Jews cannot legally acquire real estate and
   mortgages. . . .
25 These laws indicate a government policy of
   (1) censorship            (3) discrimination
   (2) extraterritoriality   (4) laissez-faire
Answer: 3

26.
   Base your answer to question 26 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
26 What is the main idea of this cartoon?
   (1) Natural forces can disrupt human planning.
   (2) Seasonal differences can be safely ignored.
   (3) Warm-water ports are necessary for survival.
   (4) Faulty maps can have negative consequences.
Answer: 1

27.
27 Which factor most influenced Japan’s expansion
   efforts in the 1930s and 1940s?
   (1) competition with Russia for territory
   (2) limited amount of industrial resources on
       Japan’s home islands
   (3) revenge for the bombings of Tokyo
   (4) a desire to reclaim territory that historically
       had been Japanese
Answer: 2

28.
28 Nations such as Hungary, that were dominated by
   the Soviet Union after World War II, were most
   often referred to as
   (1) districts             (3) mandates
   (2) satellites            (4) cartels
Answer: 2

29.
29 The Panama Canal and the Suez Canal are
   strategic bodies of water because they serve as
   (1) sources of hydroelectric power
   (2) barriers against imperialism
   (3) gateways to other places
   (4) reservoirs for irrigation
Answer: 3

30.
30 A comparison of the five-year plans of Joseph
   Stalin and of the Great Leap Forward of Mao
   Zedong would show that both leaders
   (1) encouraged individual rights and freedoms
   (2) implemented some aspects of capitalism
   (3) supported the involvement of wealthy
       entrepreneurs in the economy
   (4) focused on increasing industrial and
       agricultural output
Answer: 4

31.
   Base your answer to question 31 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   . . . While the Green Revolution of the 1960s and
   1970s boosted production enormously and made
   India self-reliant in food grains, the environmental
   and social costs were also staggering. In Punjab,
   where the Green Revolution was most successful,
   a glut of water brought by large-scale irrigation
   schemes coupled with high concentrations of
   nitrates from synthetic fertilizer run-off have
   impoverished the soil and polluted the water.
   Production of grains is now falling. Pesticide use
   in India is also very high, resulting in high levels
   of pesticide residues present throughout the food
   chain. . . .
                  — Mira Kamdar, “India’s Agrarian Crisis:
                An Urgent Opportunity,” December 8, 2006
31 This passage suggests that the gains of the Green
   Revolution are lessened by the impact of
   (1) environmental damage
   (2) transportation investments
   (3) population growth
   (4) offshore outsourcing
Answer: 1

32.
Base your answer to question 32 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
32 Which policy was eliminated in South Africa as a result of the actions shown in this
   cartoon?
   (1) nonalignment                      (3) multiculturalism
   (2) apartheid                         (4) militarism
Answer: 2

33.
33 Which statement about 20th-century Latin
   America is an opinion rather than a fact?
   (1) A revolution led by Fidel Castro established a
       communist government in Cuba.
   (2) The United States aided Nicaragua’s Contras
       in their war with the Sandinistas.
   (3) The rule of military dictatorships improved
       the stability of nations in Latin America.
   (4) Thousands of Argentine political dissidents
       disappeared in the 1970s.
Answer: 3

34.
34 Nigeria’s economy has relied on its oil industry to
   create jobs. When world oil prices dropped, their
   economy collapsed. This is a problem primarily
   caused by
   (1) global interdependence
   (2) self-sufficiency
   (3) overpopulation
   (4) political instability
Answer: 1

35.
Base your answer to question 35 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
35 What is the main idea of this cartoon?
   (1) Nuclear proliferation continues to threaten the world.
   (2) Different people have varying perspectives on artistic values.
   (3) Most nations have forgotten the impact of Hiroshima.
   (4) Members of the International Atomic Energy Agency support a strategic
       defense initiative.
Answer: 1


36.
36 One way in which Emperor Meiji, Kemal Atatürk,
   and Shah Reza Pahlavi are similar is that each
   supported a policy of
   (1) appeasement        (3) universal suffrage
   (2) détente            (4) westernization
Answer: 4

37.
37 Which economic system is characterized by
   supply and demand, investment capital, and
   competition?
   (1) barter            (3) manorialism
   (2) command           (4) free enterprise
Answer: 4

38.
38 Spanish is the dominant language in much of
   Central and South America, and French is a
   dominant language in West Africa. What caused
   these languages to be spoken in those areas?
   (1) regional specialization
   (2) colonial rule
   (3) modernization
   (4) ethnic divisions
Answer: 2

39.
Base your answer to question 39 on the chart below and on your knowledge of social studies.
39 Which effort would most likely accelerate the pace of the overall trend shown in this
   chart?
   (1) increasing the birth rate           (3) improving education for females
   (2) expanding agricultural output       (4) lowering the age at which women marry
Answer: 3

40.
40 • A caravan travels across the desert.
   • The value of gold drops in Cairo.
   • The emperor worships in Mecca.
   Which event in African history is most closely
   associated with these statements?
   (1) Alexander’s conquest of Egypt
   (2) Mansa Musa’s hajj
   (3) European establishment of the Atlantic
       triangular trade
   (4) Zulu resistance to British colonization
Answer: 2

41.
41 During the Renaissance, the role of the individual
   as well as the study of Latin and Greek classics,
   moral philosophy, and history were closely
   associated with
   (1) national self-determination
   (2) predestination
   (3) monasticism
   (4) humanism
Answer: 4

42.
42 • Five Relationships
   • Code of Chivalry
   • Bushido
   One similarity between these terms is that they
   all
   (1) represent key ideas of economic philosophies
   (2) provide for the transfer of goods and services
   (3) convey rules of acceptable behavior within a
       society
   (4) promote social mobility
Answer: 3

43.
43 One way in which Christopher Columbus, Galileo
   Galilei, and Charles Darwin are similar is that
   each
   (1) questioned European imperialism
   (2) supported the Reconquista
   (3) challenged peoples’ world views
   (4) developed new sailing technologies
Answer: 3

44.
     Base your answers to questions 44 and 45 on the
illustration below and on your knowledge of social
studies.
44 Which type of government is best represented by
   this illustration?
   (1) absolute monarchy
   (2) parliamentary monarchy
   (3) military junta
   (4) communist dictatorship
Answer: 1

45.
45 Which ruler would most likely be associated with
   this illustration?
   (1) Mikhail Gorbachev
   (2) Benito Mussolini
   (3) Louis XIV
   (4) Neville Chamberlain
Answer: 3

46.
    Base your answers to questions 46 and 47 on the
treaty articles below and on your knowledge of social
studies.
   . . .ARTICLE VII
   It is agreed that ships of the United States
   resorting to the ports open to them, shall be
   permitted to exchange gold and silver coin and
   articles of goods for other articles of goods
   under such regulations as shall be temporarily
   established by the Japanese government for that
   purpose. It is stipulated [specified], however that
   the ships of the United States shall be permitted
   to carry away whatever articles they are unwilling
   to exchange. . . .
   ARTICLE IX
   It is agreed, that if, at any future day, the
   government of Japan shall grant to any other
   nation or nations privileges and advantages which
   are not herein granted to the United States and
   the citizens thereof, that these same privileges
   and advantages shall be granted likewise to the
   United States and to the citizens thereof without
   any consultation or delay. . . .
                    — Treaty of Kanagawa, March 31, 1854
46 These treaty articles most clearly reflect the intent
   of the United States to
   (1) destroy Japanese culture
   (2) promote Japanese agriculture
   (3) strengthen Japanese nationalism
   (4) influence Japanese trade relations
Answer: 4

47.
47 Which event in Japanese history is a direct result
   of the Japanese government signing this treaty?
   (1) fall of the Tokugawa shogunate
   (2) involvement in the Russo-Japanese War
   (3) annexation of Korea
   (4) establishment of Manchukuo
Answer: 1

48.
Base your answers to questions 48 and 49 on the maps below and on your knowledge of social studies.
48 Between 1800 and 1900, which two regions saw the largest increase in the number of
   cities with 100,000 people or more?
   (1) Russia and France                 (3) Italy and Spain
   (2) Great Britain and Germany         (4) Portugal and Denmark
Answer: 2

49.
49 Which historical event directly influenced the change shown on these maps of
   Europe?
   (1) Puritan Revolution                 (3) Fall of the Ottoman Empire
   (2) Congress of Vienna                 (4) Industrial Revolution
Answer: 4

50.
50 “Protestors Demand Peace, Land, and Bread”
   “Bolsheviks Suppress Resistance”
   “Lenin Promotes New Economic Policy”
   Which event is most closely associated with these
   headlines?
   (1) Cold War
   (2) Russian pogroms
   (3) Ukrainian Famine
   (4) Russian Revolution
Answer: 4


51.
           Answers to the essay questions are to be written in the separate essay booklet.
In developing your answer to Part II, be sure to keep these general definitions in mind:
        (a) describe means “to illustrate something in words or tell about it”
        (b) discuss means “to make observations about something using facts, reasoning, and
            argument; to present in some detail”
                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Nationalism—Individuals
                 Throughout history, individuals have taken actions in an effort to promote
                 nationalism. Nationalism has caused some individuals to take pride in their
                 people’s culture and it has caused others to seek freedom from foreign rule. Their
                 efforts have met with varying degrees of success.
        Task:
                 Select two individuals who engaged in nationalist efforts and for each
                 • Describe the historical circumstances that caused this individual to lead a
                   nationalist effort
                 • Discuss how this individual attempted to promote nationalism
                 • Discuss the extent to which this individual’s effort to promote nationalism was
                   successful
              You may use any individual from your study of global history and geography. Some
        suggestions you might wish to consider include Elizabeth I, Toussaint L’Ouverture, Simón
        Bolívar, Camillo Cavour, Otto von Bismarck, Sun Yat-Sen (Sun Yixian), Mohandas Gandhi,
        Kwame Nkrumah, Ho Chi Minh, and Ayatollah Khomeini.
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
                  Do not use an individual from the United States in your response.
        Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to
                 • Develop all aspects of the task
                 • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                 • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                   are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


52.
                                                Part III
                                 DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the purposes
of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each document and
any point of view that may be presented in the document. Keep in mind that the language used in a
document may reflect the historical context of the time in which it was written.
       Historical Context:
              Written works often express ideas in reaction to problems in a society. The
              Ninety-five Theses, the Sadler Report, and the United Nations Universal
              Declaration of Human Rights were published to draw attention to societal
              problems and to influence change. Some of these written works have influenced
              long-term change while others have led to limited change.
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of global history and
             geography, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers
             to the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
                Select two written works mentioned in the historical context and for each
                • Describe the historical circumstances that led to this written work
                • Explain a specific goal of this written work
                • Discuss the extent to which this written work was successful in influencing
                  change
In developing your answers to Part III, be sure to keep these general definitions in mind:
       (a) describe means “to illustrate something in words or tell about it”
       (b) explain means “to make plain or understandable; to give reasons for or causes
           of; to show the logical development or relationships of”
       (c) discuss means “to make observations about something using facts, reasoning,
           and argument; to present in some detail”
Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1
            By the beginning of the 16th century, the medieval Church and all that it represented,
        entered a period of profound crisis. By this time, the Church was nearly fifteen centuries
        old. Throughout its history the Church always had to confront problems both within its
        organization and from without. But by 1500, these problems rose to the surface and the
        Church would shake at its very foundation. . . .
            A second problem of the period concerned the merchants, bankers and artisans of
        Europe’s largest cities and towns who resented the fact that local bishops of the Church
        controlled all of their commercial and economic activities. Although capitalism as a form of
        economic organization had not yet infiltrated Europe, these producers and money-makers
        knew that more money and power was theirs if only their lives were less regulated by the
        Church. Again, I think what we are witnessing here is the development of a secular concept
        of work and acquisition. Yet another problem facing the Church was that in the 16th century
        there were numerous reformers who were openly criticizing the Church for its numerous
        offenses. Priests married and then took mistresses, holy offices were bought and sold for the
        highest price, incompetence among the clergy became the rule, the congregation of more and
        more people in towns and cities perhaps exposed the amorality and immorality of the clergy.
        In a word, the problem was corruption. . . .
        Source: Steven Kreis, The History Guide, “Lectures on Early Modern European History,” Revised August 4, 2009
 1 According to Steven Kreis, what were two reasons the Roman Catholic Church was criticized at the
   beginning of the 16th century? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


53.
Document 2
This is an excerpt from the Ninety-five Theses.
                 Disputation [argument] of Doctor Martin Luther on the Power and
                        Efficacy [effectiveness] of Indulgences, October 31, 1517
       . . .21. Therefore those preachers of indulgences are in error, who say that by the pope’s
            indulgences a man is freed from every penalty, and saved; …
            27. They preach man [human doctrine] who say that so soon as the penny jingles into the
            money-box, the soul flies out [of purgatory]. …
            36. Every truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even
            without letters of pardon.
            37. Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has part in all the blessings of Christ
            and the Church; and this is granted him by God, even without letters of pardon. . . .
                              Source: Martin Luther, Works of Martin Luther with Introductions and Notes, Volume I,
                                                                            A.J. Holman Company, 1915 (adapted)
2 What was Martin Luther hoping to achieve with his Ninety-five Theses? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


54.
 Document 3
        . . . The most significant result of the Reformation era was its contribution to the ongoing
        secularization of European politics, culture, and thought. In the short run, the emergence of
        Protestantism intensified religious feeling and thrust religion into the forefront of European
        life. Largely as a result of its struggles with Protestantism, the Catholic Church itself
        regained much of its spiritual focus and vitality. In the long run, however, the proliferation of
        competing faiths divided and weakened Europe’s churches, and the interminable [endless]
        years of religious intolerance and warfare discredited religion in the eyes of many. The gradual
        acceptance of religious diversity within individual states and Europe as a whole was a sign
        that religion was being taken less seriously. Paradoxically [contradictorily], the very intensity
        of the era’s religious passions helped undermine the role of religion in European life and
        thought. . . .
                  Source: Andrea and Overfield, The Human Record: Sources of Global History, Volume II: Since 1500,
                                                                                           Houghton Mifflin, 2001
3a According to Andrea and Overfield, what was one short-term change that occurred in Europe as a result of
   the Protestant Reformation? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


55.
                                                                                            Score
b According to Andrea and Overfield, what was one long-term change that occurred in Europe as a result of
  the Protestant Reformation? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


56.
Document 4
Dr. Charles Turner Thackrah and Richard Oastler were leading supporters of British factory reform.
       . . . Thenceforth, Thackrah and his book [on occupational diseases] were enlisted in the
       continuing campaign to improve working conditions in factories. As the movement for factory
       reform developed, it became evident that the work of the children was inextricably bound
       up with that of the adults. Consequently, the establishment of a reasonable working day for
       children involved also the regulation of adult labour. In April, 1831, Oastler issued a manifesto
       To the Working Classes of the West Riding in which he formulated the clear-cut objective of
       the 10-hour day, and set in motion a movement which was to have incalculable [enormous]
       consequences for British social politics. . . .
                              Source: George Rosen, “Charles Turner Thackrah in the Agitation for Factory Reform,”
                                                                             British Journal of Industrial Medicine
4 According to George Rosen, what was one British factory reform fought for by Charles Turner Thackrah and
  Richard Oastler in the 1830s? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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57.
Document 5
Excerpt from the Sadler Report: Thomas Bennett, a parent of child laborers, testified before Michael Sadler
and his House of Commons Committee on May 18, 1832.
       Sadler: Were your children working under you then?
       Bennett: Yes, two of them.
       Sadler: State the effect upon your children.
       Bennett: Of a morning when they had to get up, they have been so fast asleep that I have
       had to go up stairs and lift them out of bed, and have heard their crying with the feelings of
       a parent; I have been much affected by it.
       Sadler: Were not they much fatigued at the termination of such a day’s labour as that?
       Bennett: Yes; many a time I have seen their hands moving while they have been nodding,
       almost asleep; they have been doing their business almost mechanically.
       Sadler: While they have been almost asleep, they have attempted to work?
       Bennett: Yes; and they have missed the carding and spoiled the thread, when we have had
       to beat them for it.
       Sadler: Could they have done their work towards the termination of such a long day’s
       labour, if they had not been chastised [punished] to it?
       Bennett: No.
       Sadler: You do not think that they could have kept awake or up to their work till the
       seventeenth hour, without being chastised?
       Bennett: No.
       Sadler: Will you state what effect it had upon your children at the end of their day’s work?
       Bennett: At the end of their day’s work, when they have come home, instead of taking their
       victuals [food], they have dropped asleep with the victuals in their hands; and sometimes
       when we have sent them to bed with a little bread or something to eat in their hand, I have
       found it in their bed the next morning. . . .
       Source: The Sadler Report: Report from the Committee on the “Bill to Regulate the Labour of Children in the Mills
             and “Factories of the United Kingdom:” with the Minutes of Evidence, House of Commons, 1832 (adapted)
5 Based on the evidence in this excerpt from the Sadler Report, what was the House of Commons seeking to
  learn from the testimony of men such as Thomas Bennett? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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58.
Document 6
In the period following the publication of the Sadler Report in 1833, Parliament passed a number of
reform acts.
                            A Timeline of Parliamentary Reform Acts
       1833—Factory Act. Passed by the Whig government, this Act was an attempt to regulate the
            working hours of women and children. It left much to be desired but was a step
            towards government regulation of working conditions. . . .
       1844—This Factory Act legislated only for textile factories and was the successor to the
            1833 Factory Act. It said that women and young persons (13–18) were to work no
            more than 12 hours per day; children under 13 were to work no more than 6 1/2 hours
            per day and no child under 8 was to be employed. . . .
       1847—Factory Act. Yet another piece of compromise legislation by the Whig government,
            this so-called ‘10-Hour Act’ said that women and children between the ages of 13
            and 18 could work a maximum of ten hours a day or 58 hours a week. The precise
            times of work were not set down and the ‘relay’ or shift system survived. Working
            hours for men were left untouched. . . .
                        Source: Marjie Bloy, The Victorian Web: literature, history, and culture in the age of Victoria
6 Based on this document, what was one way the Factory Acts passed by Parliament attempted to address
  issues related to women and children laborers in factories? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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59.
Document 7
       . . .The idea of human rights emerged stronger after World War II. The extermination by Nazi
       Germany of over six million Jews, Sinti and Romani (gypsies), homosexuals, and persons with
       disabilities horrified the world. Trials were held in Nuremberg and Tokyo after World War II,
       and officials from the defeated countries were punished for committing war crimes, “crimes
       against peace,” and “crimes against humanity.”
             Governments then committed themselves to establishing the United Nations, with the
       primary goal of bolstering international peace and preventing conflict. People wanted to
       ensure that never again would anyone be unjustly denied life, freedom, food, shelter, and
       nationality. The essence of these emerging human rights principles was captured in President
       Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s 1941 State of the Union Address when he spoke of a world
       founded on four essential freedoms: freedom of speech and religion and freedom from want
       and fear. The calls came from across the globe for human rights standards to protect citizens
       from abuses by their governments, standards against which nations could be held accountable
       for the treatment of those living within their borders. These voices played a critical role in the
       San Francisco meeting that drafted the United Nations Charter in 1945. . . .
                                                  Source: Nancy Flowers, ed., “A Short History of Human Rights,”
                 Human Rights Here and Now: Celebrating the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1999 (adapted)
7 Based on this excerpt from “A Short History of Human Rights,” state one human rights injustice that led to
  the establishment of the United Nations. [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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60.
Document 8
       PREAMBLE
           Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all
       members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
           Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which
       have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings
       shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed
       as the highest aspiration of the common people, . . .
           Now, therefore The General Assembly proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human
       Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that
       every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind,
       shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and
       by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective
       recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and
       among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction. . . .
                               Source: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, United Nations online (adapted)
8 Based on this excerpt from the Preamble, what does the United Nations General Assembly hope to achieve
  through the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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61.
Document 9
9 Based on these New York Times excerpts, what were two actions the international community took to
  address human rights violations? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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62.
Part B
Essay
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least four documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                Written works often express ideas in reaction to problems in a society. The
                Ninety-five Theses, the Sadler Report, and the United Nations Universal
                Declaration of Human Rights were published to draw attention to societal
                problems and to influence change. Some of these written works have influenced
                long-term change while others have led to limited change.
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of global history and
               geography, write an essay in which you
                  Select two written works mentioned in the historical context and for each
                  • Describe the historical circumstances that led to this written work
                  • Explain a specific goal of this written work
                  • Discuss the extent to which this written work was successful in influencing
                    change
         Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least four documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site



  Try the Quiz :     Global History and Geography - New York Regents June 2017 Exam


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