Syvum Home Page

Home > Examinations > NYSED Regents Exams > Living Environment - High School > Print Preview

Living Environment - New York Regents August 2015 Exam

Formats View Examination Paper with Answers Solve Examination Paper Questions Review

Hide all answers   View all answers   Print   Try the Quiz

1.
                                                  Part A
                                Answer all questions in this part.     [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1 Which statement describes a situation that
  would reduce the stability of a forest ecosystem?
  (1) A fierce predator is removed from the
      ecosystem.
  (2) The number of producers remains constant
      in the ecosystem.
  (3) Organisms frequently interact within the
      ecosystem.
  (4) The energy in the ecosystem flows from the
      Sun.
Answer: 1

2.
2 Although the digestive system is primarily
  responsible for the breakdown of food, this
  process can be disrupted if the circulatory
  system malfunctions. The best explanation for
  this disruption is that
  (1) human body systems interact with each
      other to perform life functions
  (2) the circulatory system is the control center of
      the body
  (3) the digestive system and the circulatory
      system have many organs in common
  (4) the circulatory system is responsible for the
      coordination of life functions, including the
      breakdown of food
Answer: 1

3.
3 When an organism reproduces asexually, it usually
  has
  (1) only one parent, and half as much DNA as
      the parent
  (2) only one parent, and the same chromosome
      number as the parent
  (3) two parents, and twice as much DNA as
      either parent
  (4) two parents, and the same chromosome
      number as each parent
Answer: 2


4.
4 The diagram below represents a food pyramid in
  an ecosystem.
The best explanation for the decrease in the
amount of energy transferred to each succeeding
level is that much of the energy is
(1) consumed by predators
(2) released as heat
(3) stored within inorganic materials
(4) used in photosynthesis
Answer: 2

5.
5 The corn we eat today is larger and has more
  kernels than the corn people first grew thousands
  of years ago. Which process is most likely
  responsible for the changes that have occurred?
  (1) mitosis               (3) direct harvesting
  (2) succession            (4) selective breeding
Answer: 4

6.
6 Which statement is correct concerning hereditary
  information?
  (1) A chromosome is composed of many genes.
  (2) A gene is composed of many chromosomes.
  (3) Each chromosome carries the same
      information.
  (4) Each gene carries the same information.
Answer: 1

7.
7 Which process is most closely associated with
  the regulation of water loss from the leaves of
  trees?
  (1) digestion of water within the cytoplasm in
      the leaf cells of the trees
  (2) synthesis of protein by the chloroplasts in the
      leaf cells of the trees
  (3) movement of water through leaf openings
      controlled by the guard cells
  (4) absorption of nitrogen through leaf openings
      controlled by the guard cells
Answer: 3

8.
8 A mutation occurring in a human can be passed
  from parent to offspring when it occurs in a
  (1) lung cell, due to exposure to a toxic gas
  (2) gamete formed in the ovary
  (3) body cell undergoing mitosis
  (4) heart cell with chromosome damage
Answer: 2

9.
9 If the concentration of sodium is greater outside
  a cell than inside the cell, which process could
  move sodium out of the cell?
  (1) diffusion
  (2) carbohydrate synthesis
  (3) active transport
  (4) digestion
Answer: 3

10.
10 The basic building blocks of a protein are
   (1) glucose molecules    (3) hormones
   (2) amino acids          (4) fats
Answer: 2

11.
11 Over time, data that support the successful
   evolution of a species would include observations
   that describe
   (1) an increase in the genetic changes occurring
       in body cells
   (2) a decrease in the genetic variety carried in
       sex cells
   (3) an increase in the proportion of offspring
       that have favorable characteristics
   (4) a decrease in the proportion of the population
       that has beneficial traits
Answer: 3

12.
12 Caffeine is a compound found in the seeds of
   many different plants, such as coffee beans, cola
   nuts, and cacao beans (the source of chocolate).
   The presence of this chemical in all three types
   of plants suggests that these plants
   (1) inherited identical mutations
   (2) share a common ancestry
   (3) were exposed to the same type of radiation in
       the past
   (4) were cloned from a caffeine plant
Answer: 2

13.
13 Male turkeys are birds that naturally strut and
   display their large tail feathers, which attracts
   female turkeys. This display is an example of
   (1) a behavioral adaptation
   (2) selective breeding
   (3) asexual reproduction
   (4) a learned behavior
Answer: 1

14.
14 A scientist at a large natural history museum has
   a collection of fossils that were found throughout
   the world. Only a few of the fossils represent
   species that are still alive on Earth today. One
   reason for this is that
   (1) most of the species that have ever lived on
       Earth are alive today
   (2) most of the species that have ever lived on
       Earth are extinct
   (3) fossils of only extinct species have been
       found
   (4) species alive today will not form any fossils
       for future discovery by scientists
Answer: 2

15.
15 Which statement concerning sexual reproduc-
   tion is correct?
   (1) It is not necessary in order for the individual
       to survive.
   (2) The offspring are identical to the parent.
   (3) It is necessary in order for the individual to
       survive.
   (4) The offspring are identical to each other.
Answer: 1


16.
16 When a paramecium, a single-celled organism, is
   living under stressful conditions, it sometimes
   switches from asexual to sexual reproduction.
   The main advantage when this switch occurs is
   that the paramecium is most likely to
   (1) produce fewer offspring
   (2) increase variation among its offspring
   (3) avoid having to find a mate
   (4) produce clones of itself
Answer: 2

17.
17 The diagram below represents some processes
   in the early development of a multicellular
   organism.
Which statement describing this diagram is
correct?
(1) The cell represented by structure 3 has the
    same genetic content as structure 2.
(2) Process A represents the process of meiosis.
(3) Each cell in structure 4 has the same genetic
    content as that in structure 3.
(4) Processes A and B both occur in the placenta.
Answer: 3

18.
18 Which statement describes a function of the
   hormone estrogen?
   (1) It regulates the secretion of digestive
       enzymes.
   (2) It promotes sperm production in males.
   (3) It influences the development of adult sex
       characteristics.
   (4) It maintains blood sugar levels.
Answer: 3

19.
19 The primary function of the human male
   reproductive system is to
   (1) provide a site for fertilization
   (2) produce and transport gametes
   (3) protect and nourish the embryo
   (4) prevent urine from leaving the body
Answer: 2

20.
20 In an embryo, the formation of many types of
   tissues and organs occurs as a result of the
   process of
   (1) fertilization
   (2) genetic sorting
   (3) differentiation
   (4) gene recombination
Answer: 3

21.
21 Which activity would be an appropriate first step
   when designing an experiment?
   (1) reporting a conclusion based on multiple
       experimental trials
   (2) researching the problem, using information
       from a variety of sources
   (3) creating a data table to organize experimental
       observations
   (4) repeating the experiment with a different
       hypothesis
Answer: 2

22.
22 Every time a child visited a cousin who has two
   cats, the child’s eyes turned red, itched, and
   began to water. Then, the child began to have
   trouble breathing. It is most likely that the child
   reacted this way because
   (1) normally harmless cat antigens stimulated
       the immune system
   (2) it is difficult for the respiratory system to
       filter cat antigens out of the inhaled air
   (3) cat antigens are a health hazard, since they
       always cause disease
   (4) cat antigens stop the immune system from
       making antibodies, so bacteria cause these
       responses
Answer: 1

23.
23 Shrimp that live in the cold waters off Alaska
   will die if introduced into warm water. One likely
   reason these shrimp do not survive is that
   enzymes in the shrimp
   (1) start to replicate
   (2) change shape
   (3) are composed of fat molecules that melt
   (4) break down into small starch molecules
Answer: 2

24.
24 A DNA segment removed from neurospora
   (a pink mold) contained the base sequence
   G-T-C-C-A-T-G-C-A. A similar segment of
   DNA removed from neurospora that had been
   exposed to radiation for several hours had the
   base sequence G-T-C-C-A-T. This change in the
   base sequence is an example of
   (1) a deletion           (3) a substitution
   (2) an insertion         (4) a replication
Answer: 1

25.
25 Farmers in India have increased the harvest
   yield of food crops like eggplant by growing
   them from seeds that have been modified to
   produce a bacterial toxin that is harmful to pest
   insects. This is an example of
   (1) selective breeding of the insects
   (2) spraying an insecticide on plants
   (3) selective breeding of the eggplant
   (4) an application of biotechnology
Answer: 4

26.
26 The graph below shows changes in human
   population numbers over time.
A consequence of these changes is
(1) an increase in the numbers and kinds of
    organisms worldwide
(2) a decrease in the availability of natural
    resources
(3) a decrease in deforestation due to technological
    improvements
(4) an increase in biosphere stability
Answer: 2

27.
27 In the fall, some farmers plow the remains of
   corn plants into the ground. This activity
   contributes most directly to the
   (1) increase in the biodiversity of their fields
   (2) depletion of nonrenewable resources
   (3) destruction of natural habitats
   (4) recycling of organic matter
Answer: 4

28.
28 A person usually experiences small variations in
   body temperature over a 24-hour period. These
   variations in temperature are an example of
   (1) an immune response
   (2) genetic differences between individuals
   (3) an adaptation to global warming
   (4) dynamic equilibrium
Answer: 4

29.
29 Fossil fuels have been used for years as a source
   of energy. Even though there are many negative
   issues associated with the use of fossil fuels, they
   continue to be used to a great extent. This is
   most likely because
   (1) they have been commercially available as an
       energy source
   (2) there are alternatives to these types of fuels
   (3) they have had a positive effect on global
       temperatures
   (4) fossil fuels can be burned to produce large
       quantities of carbon dioxide
Answer: 1

30.
30 Sometimes, a person is born with one or more
   extra chromosomes in each cell. This usually
   results in abnormalities because the affected
   person has
   (1) a reduced number of genes in cell nuclei
   (2) fewer cell mutations than a person with a
       normal chromosome number
   (3) more genes in each cell than a person with a
       normal chromosome number
   (4) less DNA in cell nuclei, but more proteins in
       cell mitochondria
Answer: 3


31.
                                                 Part B–1
                                 Answer all questions in this part. [13]
   Directions (31–43): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
    Base your answers to questions 31 through 33 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge
of biology.
            A population composed of tan snails and black snails inhabits the same sandy beach.
         A nearby volcano erupted, and black lava particles washed down to the beach. The once tan
         beach was now black. The graph below shows the population of tan snails and black snails
         before and after the volcanic eruption.
31 Which statement concerning the snails is correct?
   (1) The lava particles turned the tan snails black.   (3) The black snails had an adaptive advantage.
   (2) The tan snails will become extinct.               (4) The tan snails preyed on the black snails.
Answer: 3

32.
32 The increase in the number of black snails can best be explained by
   (1) natural selection after an environmental change
   (2) climatic change followed by ecological succession
   (3) increased stability due to a decrease in variation
   (4) an increase in mutation rate
Answer: 1

33.
33 Variation in snail color is an example of
   (1) environmental stability                 (3) equilibrium
   (2) a natural limitation                    (4) diversity
Answer: 4

34.
34 The diagram below represents relationships in a
   community. After a pathogen reduced the
   population of grasshoppers, the number of mice
   increased, while the numbers of toads and
   rabbits decreased.
These changes in the community demonstrate
that
(1) ecosystems are shaped by nonliving factors
(2) autotrophs convert solar energy into food
(3) grasshoppers are producers that are essential
    for ecosystem stability
(4) populations are linked with many others in
    the ecosystem
Answer: 4

35.
    Base your answers to questions 35 and 36 on the
diagram below, which represents a metabolic
process, and on your knowledge of biology.
35 This process best represents
   (1) the bonding of amino acids to form a starch
       molecule
   (2) the digestion of amino acids to form a starch
       molecule
   (3) the bonding of simple sugars to form a starch
       molecule
   (4) the digestion of simple sugars to form a
       starch molecule
Answer: 3

36.
36 The letter X in the process represents
   (1) an antibody           (3) a receptor
   (2) a hormone             (4) an enzyme
Answer: 4

37.
37 The evolutionary pathways of ten different
   species are represented in the diagram below.
Which statement would most likely be correct,
based on the information in the diagram?
(1) Species C had many variations and lived in a
    stable, unchanging environment.
(2) Species D, C, and J are extinct.
(3) Species F evolved from species D.
(4) Species J had little variation and lived in a
    changing environment.
Answer: 4

38.
38 Blockages caused by a condition known as Pelvic
   Inflammatory Disease (PID) are represented in
   the diagram of the female reproductive system
   below.
If blockages of this type occur, the most likely
result would be that
(1) the egg would remain in the uterus and not
    travel upward
(2) the female gamete would not be able to
    unite with the male gamete
(3) hormones could not be produced by the
    ovaries
(4) the process of asexual reproduction would
    be prevented or interrupted
Answer: 2

39.
    Base your answers to questions 39 and 40 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. The
graph below shows the growth of Paramecium aurelia in the same culture dish for 14 days.
39 If no additional materials were added to the culture dish, after day 14, the paramecium population would
   most probably
   (1) remain the same, since it has reached carrying capacity and has an unlimited food supply
   (2) begin to increase as they continue to reproduce
   (3) begin to increase, since they have not yet reached carrying capacity
   (4) begin to decrease as finite resources are used up
Answer: 4

40.
40 In another experiment, a second species of paramecium was introduced into a culture dish with
   Paramecium aurelia. Which statement describes a possible result as the populations interact over the next
   14 days?
   (1) The population numbers of Paramecium aurelia would be lower than 250, since the new species is
       competing with it for resources.
   (2) The population of Paramecium aurelia would increase above 250, since they would mate with the new species.
   (3) The population of Paramecium aurelia would increase above 250, since the two species occupy the
       same niche.
   (4) The population of Paramecium aurelia would remain at 250, since the species compete with each other
       for the same resources.
Answer: 1

41.
41 The chart below lists substances involved in the process of photosynthesis.
Which statement best describes how these substances interact in photosynthesis?
(1) A and B combine to produce C and D.                 (3) C and D combine to produce A and B.
(2) B and C combine to produce A and D.                 (4) A and C combine to produce B and D.
Answer: 3

42.
    Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The
diagram represents the current percentage of each population by age and gender (male/female) for two
countries.
42 At the present time, both populations have the same number of individuals. In which of these countries will
   the population growth over the next 20 years place the greatest strain on the environment?
   (1) Country A, since the larger percentage of young could result in rapid population growth
   (2) Country B, since the smaller percentage of young could result in rapid population growth
   (3) Country A, since the smaller percentage of people over 60 uses the most resources
   (4) Country B, since the larger percentage of people over 60 uses the fewest resources
Answer: 1

43.
43 Approximately what percent of the population of Country A is less than 10 years old?
   (1) 8%                                                 (3) 32%
   (2) 16%                                                (4) 64%
Answer: 3


44.
                                                   Part B–2
                                  Answer all questions in this part. [12]
    Directions (44– 55): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.
   Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
             An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of exposure to UV light on the
          growth of bacteria. Equal quantities of bacteria were spread on 5 petri dishes containing
          nutrient agar. Half of each petri dish was exposed to UV light for various amounts of time,
          and the other half was protected from the UV light with a UV screen. After the UV treat-
          ment, the bacteria were grown in an incubator for 24 hours, and the number of colonies was
          counted. The diagram below represents the initial set up.
    The table below contains the data collected by counting the number of bacterial colonies growing on both
the screen-covered side and the unscreened side.
                                      Growth of Bacterial Colonies
    Directions (44–46): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid below,
following the directions below.
 44 Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks in the data, on each axis. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale, without any breaks in the data, on each labeled
axis.


45.
45 Plot the data for the number of bacterial colonies on the screened side. Connect the points and surround
   each point with a small circle. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for plotting the data for the number of bacterial colonies on the screened side,
connecting the points and surrounding each point with a small circle.


46.
46 Plot the data for the number of bacterial colonies on the unscreened side. Connect the points and surround
   each point with a small triangle. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for plotting the data for the number of bacterial colonies on the unscreened side,
connecting the points and surrounding each point with a small triangle.
Example of a 3-credit response to questions 44–46:
Note: Allow credit only if circles and triangles are used.
      Do not assume that the intersection of the x- and y-axes is the origin (0,0), unless it is
      labeled. An appropriate scale only needs to include the data range in the data table.
      Do not allow credit if points are plotted that are not in the data table, e.g., (0,0); or for
      extending lines beyond the data points.


47.
47 The diagram below represents cellular growth that can occur in human skin after prolonged exposure to
   ultraviolet light.
Which statement provides a possible explanation for this growth pattern?
(1) Manipulation of genes caused the movement of embryonic skin cells.
(2) Exposure to light stimulated the development of cells containing ozone.
(3) Uncontrolled mitotic division occurred as a result of gene mutations.
(4) An immune reaction triggered the formation of excess blood cells.
Answer: 3

48.
    Base your answers to questions 48 and 49 on the information and graphs below and on your knowledge of
biology. The graphs show the relative enzymatic activity of four different enzymes in acidic (below pH 7) and
basic (above pH 7) environments.
48 Which enzyme would most likely function in the stomach? Support your answer. [1]
   Enzyme: _______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for pepsin and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not
limited to:
   — The pH of the stomach is acidic (1.5–4.0), and pepsin works best at very low pH values.


49.
49 The activity of which enzyme decreases in both acidic and basic environments?
   (1) chymotrypsin                                         (3) cholinesterase
   (2) pepsin                                               (4) papain
Answer: 1

50.
Base your answers to questions 50 and 51 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                     Head Start for Hellbenders
          The hellbenders (a species of large salamander) at the Bronx Zoo are now approximately
      seven inches in length and will grow to full size in about five years. Once they are about
      two-and-a-half years old, they will be returned to the wild in western New York State.
      Hellbender populations are declining due to several factors including over-collection for the
      pet trade, disease, pollution, and habitat destruction. Juvenile hellbenders in the wild
      currently face great difficulties in reaching adulthood, so the “head start” provided by the
      reintroduction of the 41 animals will help boost local populations.
                                                   Source: Wildlife Conservation Society, Members News
                                                                                          May/June 2011
50 Which statement best explains the hellbender population decline in western New York State?
   (1) Human activities had the unexpected consequence of decreasing the hellbender population to a
       dangerous level.
   (2) Humans have purposefully removed the hellbender from its habitat due to its aggressive behavior.
   (3) The decline of the hellbender population is due mainly to natural causes that humans cannot
       control.
   (4) The hellbender population decreased because salamanders are very resistant to climate change.
Answer: 1

51.
51 Describe one potential ecological effect, other than the loss of the hellbender from western New York State,
   of the hellbender population continuing to decline. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The population size of organisms that feed on the hellbender will decline.
   — The population size of organisms that the hellbender feeds upon will increase.
   — The biodiversity of this western New York ecosystem will decrease, causing instability.
   — disruption of the food chain/web


52.
52–54 Animals eat and digest food to obtain the energy available for life activities. Discuss energy use in
      animals. In your discussion, be sure to:
      • identify the type of protein molecules used to digest food [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Note: The student’s response to the bulleted items in question 52–54 need not appear in the
      following order.
Allow 1 credit for identifying the type of protein molecules used to digest food. Acceptable
responses include, but are not limited to:
   — enzymes
   — biological catalysts


53.
• identify the organelle where energy from nutrients is released [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for mitochondrion/mitochondria.


54.
• state one inference that can be made concerning a cell that has many of these organelles [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one inference that can be made concerning a cell that has many of these
organelles. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The cell uses a great amount of energy.
   — The cell is very active.
   — The cell requires a lot of energy.
Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s response to question 53.


55.
   Base your answer to question 55 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram
represents four types of bacteria.
55 A dichotomous key to these bacterial types is shown below. Complete the missing information for
   sections 3a. and 3b. so that the key is complete for all four types. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for correctly completing the missing information for sections 3a and 3b.
Example of a 1-credit response:



56.
                                                 Part C
                               Answer all questions in this part.       [17]
Directions (56–72): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.
Base your answers to questions 56 and 57 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          The fight-or-flight response in humans prepares the body to fight off or run away from
      a potential threat. This response results from a series of nerve and chemical signals that
      direct how cells function. This, in turn, determines the actions of organs in these situations.
          Some of the changes experienced by the individuals as part of this response include:
                                   increased pulse rate
                                   increased blood glucose levels
                                   increased breathing rate
 56 Select one of the listed changes experienced by the individual and write it on the line below.
    Explain how the change you chose allows the individual to effectively respond to a threat. [1]
    Change:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
 Change: Increased pulse rate:
   — moves blood rich in glucose/oxygen to the cells faster
   — allows the body to get rid of waste products/carbon dioxide faster
 Note: Do not accept an answer that only states that the blood moves faster without explaining
       how this helps an individual effectively respond.
 Change: Increased blood glucose levels:
   — provide cells with a ready source of energy more rapidly
 Change: Increased breathing rate:
   — eliminates carbon dioxide faster
   — allows the body to get oxygen into the blood faster


57.
57 Once the threat has passed, another series of changes returns the body to its original state. Why must
   this occur? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The fight-or-flight response includes many changes in body activity, which could result in
     damage to the body if not returned to normal.
   — The fight-or-flight response sped up activity, which must now be slowed to normal.
   — Once the danger is over, the high activity levels of cells and organs are reduced to normal
     levels, preventing damage to the body.
   — so that homeostasis can be restored


58.
Base your answers to questions 58 and 59 on the article below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                 Bats Devastated by Deadly Fungus
          The most common bat species in North America, the little brown bat, could be facing
      extinction because of a fungus. The fungus, called white-nose syndrome, grows on the
      exposed skin of bats as they hibernate in cool caves or mines. Infected bats develop lesions
      (sores) on their wings, which play important roles in water balance, circulation and heat reg-
      ulation. These lesions on a bat’s wings or on its nose cause the bat to wake up during hiber-
      nation. Waking up early forces the bat to use up the energy it has stored as fat for its long
      sleep, exhausting the animal and eventually killing it.
          In some infected caves, 90 percent to 100 percent of bats die. On average, the disease
      takes out 73 percent of the bat population at a given hibernation site. If infection continues
      at current rates, the researchers predict that the little brown bat population will drop below
      0.01 percent of its current numbers by 2026.
          The loss of the little brown bat would be harmful for humans because bats eat their
      body weight in insects each night. Many of these bugs are agricultural pests or carriers of
      human disease.
          One way to decrease the spread of the disease would be for the researchers who visit
      infected caves to decontaminate their clothes and gear with antiseptics. It has also been sug-
      gested that a small number of these bats could be placed in an artificial hibernating area
      and medicated to protect them.
 58 Describe one way that an infection with the white-nose fungus can cause death in little brown bats. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Lesions interfere with water balance.
   — makes them wake up during hibernation and use up energy
   — Lesions interfere with heat regulation/circulation.


59.
59 Describe one way that the little brown bats can be helped. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Research to find a way to stop the spread of the disease.
   — Decontaminate the clothing of researchers who are studying the caves.
   — Make artificial hibernating areas.
   — Decontaminate the caves in the fall before hibernation.
   — Don’t allow people to enter caves used as hibernation sites.
   — Medicate the bats.


60.
60 Describe how a student could use a microscope to compare the size of frog skin cells to the size of
   human skin cells. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The student could use a microscope with a known field diameter to measure the size of the
     two kinds of cells.
   — Place both cell types on the same slide and compare them.


61.
Base your answers to questions 61 through 63 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          Chickenpox vaccine is the best way to prevent chickenpox. Vaccination not only protects
      vaccinated persons, it also reduces the risk for exposure in the community for persons
      unable to be vaccinated because of illness or other conditions, including those who may be
      at greater risk for severe disease. While no vaccine is 100% effective in preventing disease,
      the chickenpox vaccine is very effective: about 8 to 9 of every 10 people who are vaccinat-
      ed are completely protected from chickenpox. In addition, the vaccine almost always pre-
      vents against severe disease. If a vaccinated person does get chickenpox, it is usually a very
      mild case lasting only a few days and involving fewer skin lesions (usually less than 50), mild
      or no fever, and few other symptoms.
                                                                                 Source: www.cdc.gov
 61 Identify the component of a vaccine that makes it effective. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — antigens
   — weakened/dead pathogen
   — inactive chickenpox virus
Note: Do not accept “a little bit of the disease” or “a small amount of the virus.”


62.
62 Describe how a vaccination prevents disease in the individual who receives a vaccination. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The vaccination activates the immune system.
   — stimulates the production of antibodies
   — stimulates the formation of memory cells


63.
63 Describe how vaccinations help to prevent the spread of disease, even in people who have not received
   the vaccination. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Not as many people get sick, so the disease does not spread to as many other people.
   — It is less likely that the disease will spread, since fewer people are going to have the disease.
   — reduces the risk for exposure in the community


64.
   Base your answer to question 64–66 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram
represents a food web typical of the Great Lakes area of New York State.
64–66 Some people have argued for the removal of cormorants from the eastern shores of Lake Ontario
      because of their negative effects on the fishing industry. Describe the consequences of this action. In
      your answer, be sure to:
      • state one reason why removing the cormorants from the food web could have a positive impact on
        the fishing industry [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Note: The student’s response to the bulleted items in question 64–66 need not appear in the
      following order.
Allow 1 credit for stating one reason why removing the cormorants from the food web could have
a positive impact on the fishing industry. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — There could be more lake trout/salmon available to be caught by fisherman.
   — There could be more fish available for fishing.
   — There would be more forage fish for the salmon/ lake trout to eat.
Note: Do not allow credit if the answer does not refer to the impact on fishing.


65.
• state one possible effect of removing the cormorants on a species other than fish and support your
  answer [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one possible effect of removing the cormorants on a species other than
fish and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The number of eagles will decrease because of fewer cormorants to eat.
   — The number of eagles will increase because there are more forage fish to eat.
   — The number of plankton will decrease because there are more forage fish eating them.
   — The number of invertebrates will decrease because there are more forage fish eating them.


66.
• describe one action, other than removing a population of organisms from the environment, that
  humans could take to preserve the fishing industry in Lake Ontario [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for describing one action, other than removing a population of organisms from
the environment, that humans could take to preserve the fishing industry in Lake Ontario.
Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Add more forage fish/food supply for the salmon/lake trout to eat.
   — Increase breeding programs for fish/Stock lakes.
   — Pass laws restricting fishing for forage fish.
   — Limit pollution by regulating industries on the Great Lakes.
   — Grow fish in fish farms.


67.
Base your answers to questions 67 through 69 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
          A field in New York State is mowed all summer long for a number of years. The field is
      sold, and the new owner decides to stop mowing. Over a number of years, the ecosystem
      begins to undergo ecological succession. After a series of different plant communities are
      present, the area eventually becomes a stable forest ecosystem.
 67 Explain why not mowing the field allowed the ecosystem to undergo ecological succession. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Not mowing allowed the natural progression of plant communities to occur.
   — Mowing was preventing the plant populations from modifying the environment, making it
     more suitable for others.
   — allowed other plants to grow


68.
68 Identify one specific human activity, other than mowing, that could alter this succession and explain
   how this activity affects biodiversity. [1]
   Human activity:
   Effect on biodiversity:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying one specific human activity, other than mowing, and describing how
this activity affects biodiversity. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   Human activity: cut down forest
   Effect on biodiversity: Different plant and animal species will be present. Many species that
      live in the forest will be lost.
   Human activity: plant trees
   Effect on biodiversity: decrease biodiversity by shading out small plants or increase
      biodiversity by adding new species.
   Human activity: building a mall
   Effect on biodiversity: removes many plants and animals from the environment
   Human activity: plant wild flowers
   Effect on biodiversity: increase biodiversity because you are adding new plants


69.
69 Describe how this forest ecosystem would respond to a natural disaster, such as a flood, that resulted
   in the destruction of the plant community. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The ecosystem would undergo succession again and eventually return to its stable state.
   — The ecosystem would gradually change back to the climax community that was there before
     the flood.
   — The ecosystem would slowly change back to what it was before the flood.
   — Succession would begin from bare soil.


70.
70 In a laboratory, spinach leaves exposed to continuous fluorescent light increased in vitamin content by
   50 to 100 percent. Spinach leaves kept in darkness for a similar period of time either lost vitamin
   content or produced no gain. Describe how these findings could influence the way in which spinach is
   displayed for sale in supermarkets. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Spinach should be displayed under fluorescent lights.
   — Spinach should be displayed in transparent packaging, under lighted conditions.
   — Spinach should not be sold in containers that block light.


71.
Base your answers to questions 71 and 72 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
          On April 20, 2010, an explosion occurred at an oil well in the Gulf of Mexico, causing
      millions of gallons of oil to escape into the water over the next few months. Large areas of
      the Gulf were covered by oil. As the oil washed ashore, many areas along the coastline that
      were breeding grounds for various bird species were contaminated. By November 2010,
      researchers along the coast and in the Gulf had collected 6104 dead birds, 609 dead turtles,
      and 100 dead mammals. Although the oil well had provided oil for energy for a large
      number of people, the oil spill had a great effect on the ecosystems in and around the Gulf
      of Mexico.
 71 Explain how the original decision to drill for oil in the Gulf of Mexico could be considered a trade-off.
    [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — People could get oil to be used for energy, but they might damage the environment while
     doing it.
   — Oil companies provide many jobs for people, but there could be a negative effect on the
     environment.


72.
72 State one possible reason why it will most likely take the bird populations more time to recover from
   this oil spill than it will mammal populations. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — More birds were killed.
   — The breeding grounds were contaminated.



73.
                                                   Part D
                                 Answer all questions in this part.      [13]
   Directions (73–85): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet the
number of the choice that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other
questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.
 73 A plant was discovered that contained a compound that was found to have potential medicinal value.
    However, the plant is rare, so it is important to see if a related plant might also produce the same
    compound. The chart shows some characteristics of the plant and four possible relatives.
Which plant in the chart would be selected as most similar to the medicinal plant?
(1) A                                                    (3) C
(2) B                                                    (4) D
Answer: 3

74.
74 A drug company has discovered an endangered plant that produces a chemical that might be used to cure
   cancer. A first step in developing this cancer cure could be to
   (1) preserve the habitat where the species is found
   (2) introduce a new plant species that will share the habitat of the plant
   (3) eliminate every species that eats this plant
   (4) harvest all of the plants of this species and use them to treat cancer patients
Answer: 1

75.
75 Students in a science class took their pulse rates before and after they ran in place for one minute. The class
   data showed that pulse rates increased with exercise. A graph of the data would look most like

Answer: 4

76.
Base your answers to questions 76 and 77 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
         Caretakers at a zoo are trying to determine which of two male tigers fathered the newest
      cub. They obtained DNA from the tiger cub, the mother tiger, and the two male tigers.
      The DNA was analyzed. The results of the analysis are shown below.
76 The technique used to separate the DNA for analysis is
   (1) genetic engineering                                  (3) chromatography
   (2) electrophoresis                                      (4) protein synthesis
Answer: 2

77.
77 Which male tiger is the father of the newborn cub? Support your answer. [1]
   Male tiger: _______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for male 1 and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not
limited to:
   — All of the cub’s DNA fragments match fragments found in either the female or male 1.
   — Half of the cub’s DNA fragments matched DNA fragments from male 1.
   — The cub’s DNA has two matches with male 1 and only one match with male 2.


78.
78 Some roads are salted heavily in winter. Describe one way plants growing near these roads could be harmed
   by the salt. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Salt could cause water to diffuse out of the cells of the plants.
   — The solution contains less water than was in the leaves, so water could diffuse out of the
     leaves.
   — Water could leave the plant.
   — They would dehydrate.


79.
Base your answer to question 79 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
                      Variations in Beaks of Galapagos Islands Finches
79 Several populations of finches migrated to an island that had mostly large seeds with tough outer coverings.
   Identify a finch population that would most likely survive on the island. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying the finch population that would most likely survive on the island and
supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — large ground finch, because it has a large, crushing bill
   — medium ground finch, because it has a crushing bill and eats mainly plant food


80.
80 The diagram below shows how a coverslip should be placed on a drop of pond water during the prepara-
   tion of a wet mount.
State one reason why this is the recommended procedure for placing a coverslip. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — This procedure reduces the chance of trapping air bubbles.


81.
Base your answers to questions 81 through 83 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          There are two different species of finch that live on the same small island, species A and
      species B. Both species successfully feed and reproduce on the island. Species A nests in
      pine trees and eats large seeds. Species B nests in hollowed-out dead logs and eats small
      insects.
81 Both bird species A and species B can most likely survive on the same small island because they
   (1) use different resources and, therefore, they do not compete
   (2) mate with each other, keeping both populations constant
   (3) compete for food, but do not compete for shelter
   (4) eat the same food, but feed at different times of the day
Answer: 1

82.
82 The factor most often acting as a selecting agent for the survival of a species in a particular location is the
   (1) strength of the organism                                (3) speed of the organism
   (2) new mutations within the individual                     (4) environment they inhabit
Answer: 4

83.
83 A third species of finch, species C, migrates to the island. It nests in pine trees and eats small insects.
   Predict what most likely will happen to the populations of both species A and species B if species C
   successfully survives on the island. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for predicting what most likely will happen to the populations of both species A and
species B if species C successfully survives on the island and supporting the answer. Acceptable
responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Both species A and species B will decrease in number, since species C competes with each
     of them.
   — Species A will compete with species C for nesting sites and species B will compete for food.
     Therefore, the populations of both A and B will decrease.
   — Both will survive if there are adequate resources.


84.
Base your answers to question 84 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          Biology students conducted a preliminary survey to study the relationship between
      body height and resting pulse rate. The students collected data from 10 classmates and the
      results are shown in the graph below.
84 Is there a relationship between height and resting pulse rate? Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating if there is a relationship between height and resting pulse rate and
supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — No, the data are scattered.
   — No, the data do not show a trend.


85.
85 The table below shows the number of individual molecules obtained when a DNA molecule from a
   bacterial species is broken down.
What data in the data table indicate that adenine pairs with thymine in a DNA molecule? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Adenine and thymine are present in equal numbers.
   — There is the same number of each molecule.



  Try the Quiz :     Living Environment - New York Regents August 2015 Exam


Contact Info © 1999-2017 Syvum Technologies Inc. Privacy Policy Disclaimer and Copyright
Previous
-
Next
-