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Living Environment - New York Regents August 2016 Exam

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1.
                                                  Part A
                                Answer all questions in this part.     [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1 Which sequence represents structures organized
  from most complex to least complex?
  (1) chloroplast → guard cell → leaf → oak tree
  (2) guard cell → chloroplast → leaf → oak tree
  (3) oak tree → guard cell → leaf → chloroplast
  (4) oak tree → leaf → guard cell → chloroplast
Answer: 4

2.
2 Autotrophs differ from heterotrophs in that only
  autotrophs
  (1) require carbon dioxide for cellular respiration
  (2) release oxygen as a product of cellular
      respiration
  (3) synthesize nutrients using carbon dioxide and
      water
  (4) break down sugars to assemble other molecules
Answer: 3

3.
3 Burmese pythons are large snakes that have
  been introduced into the Florida Everglades
  ecosystem. Burmese pythons and alligators hunt
  the same prey. One likely effect of the
  introduction of the pythons is that
  (1) alligators will have more prey available
  (2) pythons will become native to the
      Everglades
  (3) alligator populations will decline
  (4) pythons will become an endangered species
Answer: 3


4.
4 Which activity enables humans to produce new
  genetic combinations in other organisms?
  (1) selecting and breeding the organisms for
      specific traits
  (2) increasing the number of enzymes available
      to the organisms
  (3) growing organisms that reproduce asexually
  (4) decreasing the amount of DNA in the diet of
      the organisms
Answer: 1

5.
5 Before a cell divides, an exact copy of each
  chromosome is made by the process of
  (1) genetic engineering (3) mutation
  (2) replication         (4) recombination
Answer: 2

6.
6 Some time ago, there were thousands of
  California condors in North America. Large
  numbers were poisoned from lead in bullets that
  were used to kill the animals the condors fed on.
  An effort was made to help save this large
  scavenger. There are now more than 350
  California condors in North America. The
  condors most likely increased in number
  because humans decided to
  (1) produce lead-resistant condors through
      asexual reproduction
  (2) pass laws against using lead bullets to kill
      animals used by condors for food
  (3) introduce plants that didn’t absorb the lead
      from discharged bullets
  (4) produce lead-resistant prey for the condors
      through genetic engineering
Answer: 2

7.
7 In humans, the maintenance of a stable internal
  temperature is a direct result of
  (1) detection of and reaction to stimuli in the
      environment
  (2) digestion of starches and absorption of
      protein from the internal environment
  (3) diffusion of water and excretion of glucose to
      the external environment
  (4) transport of ATP and locomotion through
      the environment
Answer: 1

8.
8 Which molecules are needed to cut and copy
  segments of DNA?
  (1) reproductive hormones
  (2) carbohydrates
  (3) antibodies
  (4) biological catalysts
Answer: 4

9.
9 Evolution can occur at different rates; however,
  for evolution to occur, there must be
  (1) variations within a species
  (2) extinction of the species
  (3) asexual reproduction
  (4) no change in the genes of an organism
Answer: 1

10.
10 The two reactions illustrated in the diagrams below often occur when a foreign substance enters the body.
The cells labeled A and B are examples of cells known as
(1) guard cells                                          (3) white blood cells
(2) reproductive cells                                   (4) specialized skin cells
Answer: 3

11.
11 The diagram below represents a protein molecule present in some living things.
This type of molecule is composed of a sequence of
(1) amino acids arranged in a specific order
(2) simple sugars alternating with starches arranged in a folded pattern
(3) large inorganic subunits that form chains that interlock with each other
(4) four bases that make up the folded structure
Answer: 1

12.
12 Three human actions that have been made possible in recent times are:
     • Doctors are able to diagnose and treat some fetal problems prior to the birth of a child.
     • Cloning can produce large numbers of plants that are resistant to drought.
     • Male insects can be sterilized with radiation to prevent them from mating successfully.
   Which statement summarizes these three actions?
   (1) Reproductive technology has medical, agricultural, and ecological applications.
   (2) Development is a highly regulated process involving mitosis and differentiation.
   (3) Reproduction and development are subject to environmental effects.
   (4) Human development, birth, and aging should be viewed as a predictable pattern of events.
Answer: 1

13.
13 Natural selection is best described as
   (1) a change in an organism in response to a
       need of that organism
   (2) a process of nearly constant improvement
       that leads to an organism that is nearly
       perfect
   (3) differences in survival rates as a result of
       different inherited characteristics
   (4) inheritance of characteristics acquired
       during the life of an organism
Answer: 3

14.
14 Which statement best describes a situation
   where competition occurs in an ecosystem?
   (1) A deer outruns an attacking wolf.
   (2) A deer, during the winter, consumes tree
       bark.
   (3) A deer and a rabbit consume grass in a field.
   (4) A deer and a rabbit are both startled by a
       hawk flying overhead.
Answer: 3

15.
15 A woman changes her hair color to red; however,
   her children will not inherit this red hair color
   because the woman does not have
   (1) genes for red hair in her skin
   (2) genes for red hair in her sex cells
   (3) proteins for red hair in the placenta
   (4) proteins for red hair in her egg cells
Answer: 2


16.
16 Fossils provide evidence that
   (1) life on Earth millions of years ago was more
       complex than life is today
   (2) the changes that will occur in species in the
       future are easy to predict
   (3) many species of organisms that lived long
       ago are now extinct
   (4) most species of organisms that lived long ago
       are exactly the same today
Answer: 3

17.
17 A male frigatebird displays to the female by
   inflating its large red throat sac, throwing its head
   back, vibrating its wings, and producing a
   “drumming” sound with its throat sac. For the
   frigatebird, this behavior has most likely resulted in
   (1) hiding from predators
   (2) greater reproductive success
   (3) locating new sources of food
   (4) reduced population growth
Answer: 2

18.
18 Plant species X lives in a hot, dry environment.
   Slowly, over hundreds of years, the climate
   becomes wetter. Fungi attack species X and cause
   the population of species X to decrease. However,
   plant species X could survive if the plants
   (1) try to mutate quickly and synthesize new
       proteins
   (2) are watered often and fertilized with extra
       nutrients
   (3) can adapt to the new conditions by mating
       with the fungus
   (4) have a few members of the population that
       are fungus-resistant
Answer: 4

19.
19 The diagram below represents reproduction in a
   yeast cell. The genes in the bud are identical to
   the genes in the parent.
This type of production of offspring is a form of
(1) sexual reproduction
(2) asexual reproduction
(3) gene manipulation
(4) genetic engineering
Answer: 2

20.
20 A human cell that contains all of the information
   necessary for the growth and development of a
   complete organism is
   (1) a sperm cell         (3) a zygote
   (2) a gamete             (4) an egg cell
Answer: 3

21.
21 When would exposure to a potentially harmful
   substance be most likely to damage many organs
   in a developing embryo?
   (1) during the last three months of pregnancy
   (2) during the early stages of pregnancy
   (3) during the formation of the zygote
   (4) during meiosis in both males and females
Answer: 2

22.
22 The human female reproductive system is
   represented below.
Within which structure does the placenta normally
develop?
(1) A                     (3) C
(2) B                     (4) D
Answer: 4

23.
23 An energy-rich organic compound needed by
   organisms is
   (1) water              (3) oxygen
   (2) salt               (4) glucose
Answer: 4

24.
24 SCIDS (Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
   Syndrome) is a disorder where a genetic
   mutation inhibits the production and
   functioning of T-cells. T-cells are special types of
   white blood cells that play a role in the body’s
   immune response. A possible symptom of
   SCIDS would be an increase in the
   (1) number of antigens produced
   (2) red blood cell count
   (3) number of infections by pathogens
   (4) ability to maintain homeostasis
Answer: 3

25.
25 An organ, such as a kidney, used for transplant
   needs to be tested for compatibility with the
   person who is to receive the organ. If this is not
   done, the
   (1) donated organ might attack the body
   (2) donated organ might attack the immune system
   (3) immune system might attack its own body cells
   (4) immune system might attack the donated organ
Answer: 4

26.
26 A researcher concludes from a 10-year study
   that the biodiversity of an ecosystem had
   increased. Which set of observations represents
   evidence for this claim?
   (1) There were more niches and greater stability
       in the ecosystem.
   (2) There were more niches and less energy lost
       as heat in the ecosystem.
   (3) There were fewer niches for decomposers
       and less stability.
   (4) There were fewer niches for consumers and
       greater cycling of materials.
Answer: 1

27.
27 The final consumers in many food webs are
   (1) autotrophs          (3) herbivores
   (2) hosts               (4) carnivores
Answer: 4

28.
28 Abandoned farmland that once grew corn is now
   covered with bushes and small trees. These
   observed changes resulted directly from
   (1) evolutionary change
   (2) ecological succession
   (3) loss of biodiversity
   (4) selective breeding
Answer: 2

29.
29 The overuse of chemical fertilizers has resulted
   in the growth of some lawns in which
   decomposers cannot live. This would interfere
   most directly with the ability of the lawn
   ecosystem to
   (1) recycle energy
   (2) recycle nutrients
   (3) maintain atmospheric pH
   (4) reduce biodiversity
Answer: 2

30.
30 On Long Island, several businesses use
   geothermal technology. This involves taking heat
   from within Earth and using it to heat buildings.
   One benefit of this technology is that it
   (1) contributes to global warming
   (2) reduces the ozone shield
   (3) reduces dependence on fossil fuels
   (4) decreases resources for many species
Answer: 3


31.
                                                 Part B–1
                                 Answer all questions in this part. [13]
   Directions (31–43): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
31 Recently, researchers from Stanford University
   have changed mouse skin cells into mouse nerve
   cells. This was accomplished by inserting genes
   that control the synthesis of certain proteins into
   the skin cells. This type of research is often
   successful in advancing knowledge regarding the
   functioning of human cells because
   (1) cells present in humans often function in
       similar ways to cells present in other
       organisms
   (2) cells from different types of organisms
       function differently when transplanted into
       humans
   (3) the cells in all complex organisms contain the
       same genes and function in similar ways
   (4) cellular research using mice can always be
       applied to human cells since all complex
       organisms produce the same proteins
Answer: 1

32.
32 In the experimental setup below, which
   substance would be used to prove that the gas
   produced by the yeast in the vacuum bottle
   could change the pH of the liquid in the flask?
(1)   an indicator
(2)   a chemical messenger
(3)   an enzyme
(4)   a salt solution
Answer: 1

33.
33 Which statement best expresses a basic scientific
   assumption?
   (1) Interpretation of experimental results has
       provided explanations for all natural
       phenomena.
   (2) If a conclusion is valid, similar investigations
       by other scientists should result in the same
       conclusion.
   (3) For any conclusion to be valid, the design of
       the experiment requires that only two groups
       be compared.
   (4) After a scientist formulates a conclusion
       based on an experiment, no further
       investigation is necessary.
Answer: 2

34.
34 The diagram below represents a cycle that
   occurs in nature.
Which phrase describes a human activity that
could have a negative effect on this cycle?
(1) a decrease in the amount of sulfates given off
    by motor vehicles
(2) an increase in recycling programs for plastics
    and metals
(3) the continued deforestation and removal of
    forest resources
(4) development of programs to conserve
    wildlife
Answer: 3

35.
    Base your answers to questions 35 through 37 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge
of biology.
            A farmer growing potatoes notices aphids, a type of insect, feeding on the plants.
         An insecticide was sprayed on the plants several times over a two-year period. The graph
         represents samples of three different generations of insecticide-resistant and nonresistant
         aphids over this time period.
35 The resistance gene was present in the aphid population as a result of
   (1) the need of the potatoes to become resistant to the insecticide
   (2) changes in the aphids’ local habitat by the insecticide
   (3) a recombination of the proteins in the potato cells
   (4) a random change in the aphids’ DNA sequence
Answer: 4

36.
36 In year three, the farmer discontinued the use of the insecticide. Which statement would best predict the
   population in generation 4?
   (1) The nonresistant aphid would become extinct.
   (2) The nonresistant aphid population would likely increase.
   (3) The resistant aphid would mutate to a nonresistant aphid.
   (4) The plants would be free of insect populations.
Answer: 2

37.
37 One negative consequence of using an insecticide is that it
   (1) selects for insecticide-resistant organisms
   (2) keeps a balance of organic compounds
   (3) encourages biodiversity in plants
   (4) gives the nonresistant aphids a survival advantage
Answer: 1

38.
38 The activity of a single-celled organism is represented in the diagram below.
Which concept is best illustrated by this diagram?
(1) The life functions performed by single-celled organisms are different from the life functions performed
    by complex organisms.
(2) Single-celled organisms carry out life functions that are essential for survival.
(3) Since single-celled organisms lack organs, they can survive only in moist environments.
(4) Single-celled organisms contain one organelle that performs all the life functions.
Answer: 2

39.
39 The chart below provides information about two scientific discoveries in the field of biology.
Which statement is the best interpretation of the material presented in the chart?
(1) Scientific explanations are built by combining evidence that can be observed with what people already
    know.
(2) Inquiry involves making judgments about the reliability of the source and relevance of the information.
(3) Science provides information, but values are also essential to making ethical decisions.
(4) Hypotheses are valuable even if they turn out not to be true, because they may lead to further investigation.
Answer: 1

40.
   Base your answers to questions 40 through 43 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
This diagram represents the roles of different parts of the human body in keeping blood sugar at a balanced,
normal level over time.
40 The diagram shows human body structures that are coordinated to maintain homeostasis. Which row
   correctly identifies the functions of these structures?

Answer: 1

41.
41 When body system X releases too much sugar into the blood, the body can maintain homeostasis by making
   (1) more hormone A, only                                (3) more hormone A and more hormone B
   (2) more hormone B, only                                (4) no hormone A and no hormone B
Answer: 2

42.
42 If organ Y becomes unable to produce enough hormone B, then homeostasis would be disrupted.
   To restore homeostasis and compensate for the lack of hormone B, one useful action would be to
   (1) increase the production of hormone A                 (3) reduce the carbohydrates in body system X
   (2) remove organ Y from the body surgically              (4) reduce the synthesis of enzymes in organ Y
Answer: 3

43.
43 If body system X temporarily stops releasing sugar into the blood, a likely response of the body would be to
   (1) stop using enzymes in body system X                    (3) start to increase synthesis of hormone B
   (2) stop organ Y from producing hormone A                  (4) start to increase synthesis of hormone A
Answer: 4


44.
                                                   Part B–2
                                  Answer all questions in this part. [12]
    Directions (44– 55): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.
   Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the information, diagram, and table below and on your
knowledge of biology.
              A concentrated starch solution was placed in a thistle tube with a semi-permeable
          membrane covering the wide opening. It was then placed in a beaker of water. The height
          of the solution in the tube was measured every 5 minutes for 25 minutes. The setup and
          the data collected are shown below.
    Directions (44–45): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid below,
following the directions below.
 44 Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks in the data, on each labeled axis. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale, without any breaks in the data, on each labeled axis.


45.
45 Plot the data for height on the grid. Connect the points and surround each point with a small circle. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data, connecting the points, and surounding each point
with a small circle.
Example of a 2-credit graph for questions 44–45:
Note: Allow credit if points are correctly plotted, but not circled.
       Do not assume that the intersection of the x- and y-axes is the origin (0,0), unless it is
       labeled. An appropriate scale only needs to include the data range in the data table.
       Do not allow credit if points are plotted that are not in the data table, e.g., (0,0), or for
       extending lines beyond the data points.


46.
46 Explain why the height of the solution in the thistle tube increased during the 25-minute period. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Water diffused (moved) into the thistle tube.
   — Water went from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
   — Osmosis took place.
   — Water diffused through the membrane.


47.
   Note: The answer to question 47 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
47 The experiment was repeated, and an amber-colored solution was added to the water in the beaker. After
   10 minutes, the water in the beaker remained amber-colored and the starch solution had turned blue-black.
   The most likely reason for this observation is that
   (1) starch molecules moved out of the thistle tube
   (2) water molecules moved into the thistle tube
   (3) amber-colored solution moved into the thistle tube
   (4) water molecules moved out of the thistle tube
Answer: 3

48.
Base your answer to question 48 on the information and diagrams below and on your knowledge of biology.
          When fish of certain species are injured, a chemical substance stored in skin cells of the
      fish is released into the water. This chemical causes an alarm response among other fish of
      the same species in the area. Nearby fish of this species become more alert and group
      together near the bottom.
48 Explain why the chemical released from the injured fish may not cause an alarm response in other fish
   species. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Other species lack the receptors for the chemical.
   — The alarm chemicals are specific to the species.
   — Other species lack the ability to sense/recognize the chemical.


49.
Base your answers to questions 49 through 51 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
   Note: The answer to question 49 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
49 The process represented in the diagram is
   (1) DNA replication                              (3) gel electrophoresis
   (2) natural selection                            (4) genetic engineering
Answer: 4

50.
   Note: The answer to question 50 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
50 The original gene for the production of a human hormone was most likely removed from a
   (1) chromosome                                         (3) mitochondrion
   (2) ribosome                                           (4) cell membrane
Answer: 1

51.
51 State one possible reason why a gene for the production of a human hormone would be placed in bacterial
   DNA. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The bacteria will produce the human hormone quickly.
   — to increase the production of insulin or some other hormone
   — The human hormone produced can be given to people who need it, and the number of
     allergic reactions will be reduced.
   — to get the bacteria to produce a human hormone


52.
  Base your answers to questions 52 through 55 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
             The lake sturgeon is a fish that often grows over six feet long and can weigh close to two
        hundred pounds. It is currently an endangered species in the Great Lakes area, although
        the species has lived in those lakes and rivers for millions of years. Now, there is a program
        to increase the sturgeon population by reintroducing lake sturgeon to areas where they have
        disappeared.
             Like the lake sturgeon, bloater fish are also found in the Great Lakes. Both find their
        food on or near the bottoms of lakes. They eat a variety of small organisms, including insect
        larvae, worms, and clams. These small organisms feed on algae.
52 Identify one population that will decrease in size after the lake sturgeon are added to the new ecosystems.
   Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying one correct population and supporting the answer. Acceptable
responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Populations of insect larvae [or clams or worms] will decrease in size because they will be
     eaten by both lake sturgeon and bloater fish.
   — The bloater fish population will decrease in size because it will have to compete with the
     lake sturgeon for food resources.
   — clams because they are eaten by the sturgeon


53.
53 Part of the food web of a lake ecosystem is represented in the diagram below. Indicate the position in the
   food web where each organism listed below would be placed, by writing the name of each in the
   appropriate box. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for:


54.
54 Identify which population, other than lake sturgeon, will increase in size after the lake sturgeon are added
   to the new ecosystems. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for algae and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not
limited to:
   — Algae, because there will be fewer organisms that feed on them.
   — More algae will survive and reproduce because populations of insect larvae, clams, and
     worms that eat the algae will decrease in size because they will be eaten by both lake stur-
     geon and bloater fish.
Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s response to question 53.


55.
55 State what the arrows in the food web represent. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The arrows show the direction of energy movement from one organism to another.
   — The arrows show the flow of energy.
   — movement of nutrients through the food web
   — what each organism feeds on



56.
                                                    Part C
                                  Answer all questions in this part.       [17]
   Directions (56–72): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.
    Base your answers to questions 56 and 57 on the information and drawing below and on your knowledge
of biology. The drawing represents a salamander. Salamanders are small amphibians that live in a variety of
environments.
             Two species of salamander inhabit an island. The habitat on each side of the island is
         different. One side tends to be wet; the other side tends to be dry. Researchers want to
         know if the salamanders will survive equally well on either side of the island. Species A lives
         on the wet side of the island, while Species B lives on the dry side of the island. Researchers
         develop two artificial habitats, one that simulates conditions on the wet side and one that
         simulates conditions on the dry side.
56 Explain why researchers would put the salamanders in an artificial environment, as opposed to
   conducting the experiment in their natural habitat. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — too hard to track in natural habitat
   — The salamanders are easier to watch.
   — The conditions the salamanders are kept in can be better controlled.
   — to eliminate the possibility of them becoming an invasive species
   — to avoid predators


57.
57 Researchers put three salamanders of each species in each of the two different artificial environments.
   Why would other scientists question the validity of the conclusions based on this setup? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The sample size is small.
   — The environment is artificial.
   — The salamanders are not in their natural habitat.
   — The experiment was not repeated.


58.
    Base your answers to questions 58 through 61 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge
of biology.
                                                 Green Roofs
             People in Albany and New York City are using “green roofs” to improve the
         environment. A green roof can be added to many buildings that have large, flat roofs.
         Green roofs have three parts: a protective layer to separate plant roots from the roof of the
         building, an absorptive layer to catch and hold rainwater, and a layer of plants. Often,
         green roofs use Sedum, a short, desert plant, because it is efficient at storing water in its
         leaves and can withstand the colder climate.
             A green roof saves energy, reduces carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and prevents
         rainwater and melting snow from overloading sewer systems. It can also protect the roof of
         a building from damage. However, green roofs can be expensive to install, and require care
         and maintenance.
58 Most varieties of Sedum are not native plants in Albany or New York City. State one reason why it may
   be dangerous to introduce a new species to an established ecosystem. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — New species might compete with native species for limited resources.
   — Native species can have their space, light, and water taken away by invasive plants.
   — New plant species could also have nonnative insects/pathogens on them.


59.
59 State one reason why a green roof reduces the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Plants take in carbon dioxide to perform photosynthesis.
   — Plants use CO2 to produce food.
   — Plants take in carbon dioxide.


60.
60 State one reason why it is important to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Carbon dioxide adds to the “Greenhouse Effect.”
   — Excessive carbon dioxide increases the temperature.
   — CO2 has been associated with global warming/global climate change.


61.
61 State one disadvantage of a green roof. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Green roofs are expensive to install.
   — Green roofs need more maintenance.
   — Green roofs might be too heavy for the building structure.


62.
62 A scientist took samples from a culture of E. coli bacteria and placed them in each of 100 petri dishes.
   Once the bacteria began to grow in the dishes, she exposed 50 of the dishes to x-ray radiation and
   50 to natural light. After five days, she examined samples of DNA from the bacteria and recorded
   any differences she found between the DNA of the two groups. State one hypothesis the experiment
   would test. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Bacteria exposed to x-ray radiation will show a greater number of mutations than bacteria
     exposed to natural light.
   — Bacteria exposed to x rays will show less DNA damage than bacteria exposed to natural
     light.
   — If bacteria are exposed to x rays, they will show more mutations than bacteria not exposed
     to x rays.
   — The DNA of bacteria exposed to x rays will change more than that of bacteria not exposed
     to x rays.
   — X rays affect bacterial DNA.
Note: Do not allow credit for a hypothesis written in the form of a question.


63.
Base your answers to questions 63 and 64 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                  Super Vaccine Could Eliminate Flu
          Every flu season, vaccine makers must bet on which strain of influenza A will pose the
      greatest threat to the public, and millions of Americans must decide whether to get a shot.
      In August, virologist Gary Nabel at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced
      progress toward a universal flu vaccine: two shots of it could provide years of protection
      from every known influenza A virus.
          “We use a prime-boost strategy, meaning that we immunize with two vehicles that deliv-
      er the vaccine in different ways,” Nabel says. In their experimental treatment, he and his
      colleagues injected mice, ferrets, and monkeys with viral DNA, causing their muscle cells
      to produce hemagglutinin, a protein found on the surface of all flu viruses. The animals’
      immune systems then began making antibodies that latch onto the protein and disable the
      virus. The researchers followed the DNA injection with a traditional seasonal flu shot,
      which contains dead viruses. This one-two punch protected the test subjects against
      influenza A viruses that had emerged in 1934 and 2007, and other experiments showed that
      the antibodies it generated successfully neutralized a wide variety of flu strains. Nabel’s col-
      leagues at the NIH are already testing similar approaches in humans.
                                                    Source: Rowe, A. “Super Vaccine Could Eliminate Flu.”
                                                                         Discover, Jan./Feb. 2011, p. 37.
 63 Identify one specific difference, other than it is a two-step vaccination, between Nabel’s vaccination and
    a traditional flu vaccine. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — protects from every known influenza A virus
   — directly injects viral DNA
   — adds years of protection
   — It makes muscle cells produce hemagglutinin.
   — It causes muscle cells to make a protein found on the surface of all flu viruses.


64.
64 Explain how injecting dead or weakened viruses into a person can help to fight against future infections
   from that virus. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Your body responds by making antibodies that protect you from future infections.
   — There are antigens on the surface of the dead virus, which then trigger the body to produce
     antibodies specific to that antigen.
   — The body makes memory cells that can fight the virus in the future.


65.
Base your answers to questions 65 through 68 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                           Bald Eagle Facts
• Bald eagles eat primarily fish, carrion (dead animals), smaller birds, and rodents. Their most important
  non-carrion food is fish, which they catch by swooping down and grabbing fish that are near the surface
  of the water.
• The number of nesting pairs in the lower 48 United States increased from fewer than 450 in the early
  1960s to more than 4,500 adult bald eagle nesting pairs in the 1990s. Today, there are an estimated 9,789
  nesting pairs of bald eagles.
• Bald eagles are found in large numbers in certain areas during the winter (known as roosts). These winter
  roosts are located in areas where prey are plentiful. Winter roosts are protected under federal law, and
  managed with a buffer zone to reduce human disturbance. As winter ends, the eagles return to their
  summer nesting/hunting areas.
                                         Bald Eagle Research
          In the winter of 2009, volunteers from an Audubon group conducted a survey of roosting
      bald eagles at four locations in an area in the lower Hudson River Valley. The data below
      show the average number of eagles sighted and the number of visits made by the volunteers
      each month. Among the other data collected were percent ice cover and percent cloud
      cover on the surface of the water. The eagles fly freely between these four sites, depending
      on a variety of conditions.
          Some of the data are shown in the table below.
65 State one reason why the percent ice cover is important to the ability of eagles to obtain food. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The access to fish is limited by the amount of ice cover.
   — They have to search for foods other than fish.
   — The ice cover might limit the number of organisms that are available for the eagles to eat.


66.
66 What inference can be made about the percent ice cover at Croton Reservoir between January and
   February 2009? Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating what inference can be made about the percent ice cover at Croton
Reservoir between January and February 2009 and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses
include, but are not limited to:
   — The ice cover was less in February because there were more eagles.
   — Since there were fewer eagles in January, there must have been more ice.


67.
67 State one reason why the number of eagles sighted showed a change at all four sites between February
   and March. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Winter is ending, so the eagles returned to their summer nesting areas.
   — As winter ended, the eagles migrated away.
   — They fly freely between the sites, so their numbers would vary.
   — The number of visits by volunteers varied.
   — There were fewer visits in March than in January or February.
   — There were more late-season storms/ice in March than February.


68.
68 State one possible reason why a popular hiking trail in this area is closed during eagle roosting
   seasons. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Winter roosts are protected under federal law and managed with a buffer zone to reduce
     human disturbance.
   — Humans might disturb the eagles.


69.
Base your answers to questions 69 through 72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                        Coral Reef Ecosystems
           There are many ecological interactions that maintain the biodiversity present in coral
      reefs. In addition to coral, microscopic algae, seaweed, sea grasses, sponges and worms,
      and a variety of fish are among the organisms that live in reef ecosystems. Ocean currents
      often link different reef systems and move organisms from one reef area to another.
      This movement is a factor in repopulating a reef that has been damaged by environmental
      changes.
           One environmental change involves an increased growth of seaweed. When the
      population of seaweed increases, the reef shifts from a coral-dominated ecosystem to a
      seaweed-dominated ecosystem. This change disrupts the relationships between the
      organisms that live there.
           Studies have shown that, as the density of seaweed in a reef area increases, the number
      of fish that eat the seaweed in that area decreases. This may be due to the presence of more
      predators, or the taste of the more mature plants. The fish move to areas where there is less
      seaweed growth. As this trend continues, the reef areas are taken over by the seaweed.
      Once this happens, it is very hard to remove the seaweed and restore the reef to a healthy
      ecosystem.
           In addition to this problem, temperature changes are threatening the ocean currents
      that connect the reef systems. A change in the currents would reduce the movement of fish
      larvae from one area to another. This contributes to the seaweed problem.
 69 State the role of the sea grasses in the reef ecosystem. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Their role is to convert inorganic (raw) materials into organic matter/food.
   — They capture radiant energy.
   — They serve as the producer in this food web/ecosystem.
   — They serve as food for fish.
   — produce oxygen


70.
70 Identify one abiotic factor that is affecting the stability of the coral reef ecosystems and state how the
   factor identified is important to the coral reef ecosystems. [1]
   Abiotic factor:
   Effect:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — temperature: causes a change in currents
   — light: used by plants for photosynthesis
   — ocean currents: carry organisms from one reef to another
   — carbon dioxide: used by plants for photosynthesis


71.
71 State one reason why it is important to maintain the stability of the coral reefs. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — in order to maintain the food webs that exist there
   — because many organisms depend on them for food or shelter
   — to maintain biodiversity
   — keep oceans healthy
   — to prevent extinction of reef species


72.
72 State one advantage of the fish larvae moving by ocean currents into a damaged reef ecosystem. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The fish larvae could repair/repopulate the damaged reefs.
   — The reef might become more stable.
   — They might keep the seaweed under control/eat the seaweed.
   — It would provide the fish larvae with food/shelter.
   — The fish larvae would have less competition.



73.
                                                   Part D
                                 Answer all questions in this part.      [13]
   Directions (73–85): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet the
number of the choice that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other
questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.
     Base your answers to questions 73 and 74 on the diagram below, which represents a process that occurs in
living cells, and on your knowledge of biology.
   Note: The answer to question 73 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
73 The process shown in the diagram is
   (1) cellular respiration                         (3) gene recombination
   (2) cellular reorganization                      (4) protein synthesis
Answer: 4

74.
   Note: The answer to question 74 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
74 Structure X is a
   (1) mitochondrion                                (3) nucleus
   (2) vacuole                                      (4) ribosome
Answer: 4

75.
Base your answers to questions 75 through 77 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
   Note: The answer to question 75 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
75 A finch that picks small insects out from cracks in the bark of trees would most likely have a beak that is
   (1) sharp and thin                                         (3) rounded and thin
   (2) sharp and thick                                        (4) rounded and thick
Answer: 1

76.
   Note: The answer to question 76 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
76 Which statement is a basic assumption from The Beaks of Finches lab?
   (1) The type of beak indicates the type of food the finch eats.
   (2) Different birds have different songs.
   (3) Birds with larger beaks can find mates more easily.
   (4) Nesting behavior of finches is an inherited trait.
Answer: 1

77.
77 State two reasons why the large ground finch and sharp-billed ground finch could live on the same island
   but not compete for food, even though they both eat mainly plant food. [1]
   Reason 1:
   Reason 2:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating two reasons. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — They have different beak structures.
   — They might eat different types of plants.
   — They might eat at different times of day or night.
   — They might live in different areas of the island.


78.
   Base your answer to question 78 on the table below and on your knowledge of biology. The table shows
which of four enzymes are present in three related plant species.
The tree diagrams below show two possible evolutionary relationships between the three species.
78 In the space below, write the number of the tree diagram that shows the most probable evolutionary
   relationship between the three species. Support your answer. [1]
  Tree diagram: _______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for tree 2 and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not lim-
ited to:
   — Species B has enzyme Y, which is not present in either species A or C.
   — Enzyme W (and/or X) is present in species A and C, but not in B.
   — A and C have enzymes W, X, and Z, but B doesn’t.
   — A and C have 3 enzymes in common: W, X, and Z.
   — A and C have more in common.


79.
    Base your answers to questions 79 and 80 on the diagram below, which represents the shrinking of a cell in
response to an increase in the concentration of a substance outside of the cell.

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for water.


80.
80 Identify one likely substance in the environment of the cell that caused this response. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — salt
   — sugar
   — seawater


81.
   Note: The answer to question 81 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
81 A student lifted weights after school and found that his muscles started to burn. He couldn’t continue to
   lift the weights after prolonged exercising. This muscle fatigue is most likely due to
   (1) the heart beating too fast and tiring out
   (2) the lungs accumulating oxygen
   (3) lack of oxygen and build up of waste in the muscles
   (4) lack of carbon dioxide in the muscles
Answer: 3

82.
    Base your answers to questions 82 and 83 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram
represents three sections of a cell membrane showing three different methods involved in the transport of
various molecules across the membrane.
   Note: The answer to question 82 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
82 Methods A and B are classified as methods of passive transport because they do not require
   (1) ATP                                                  (3) light
   (2) carbon dioxide                                       (4) DNA
Answer: 1

83.
83 Using information from the diagram, state one reason why the movement of molecules in method C
   represents active transport. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — C shows the transport of molecules from an area of low concentration to an area of higher
     concentration.
   — The molecules are moving against the concentration gradient.


84.
84 State one reason why some species might have similar body structures even if they are not closely
   related. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — They may have evolved in the same or similar environments, and these structures and traits
     were advantageous adaptations.
   — They have two separate mutations that produce the same appearance.
   — These structures might help them use similar food sources/adapt to their environment.
   — The species inhabit similar environments.
   — They occupy similar niches.
   — natural selection
   — convergent evolution


85.
85 A student went out to the school track and walked two laps, ran two laps, and then walked two more laps.
   On the grid below, draw a line that shows what most likely happened to the pulse rate of the student during
   these activities. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit.
Example of a 1-credit response:
Note: Allow credit for a graph that shows a gradual increase followed by a gradual decrease.



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