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Living Environment - New York Regents August 2017 Exam

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1.
                                                  Part A
                                Answer all questions in this part.    [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1 A fruit fly is classified as a consumer rather than
  as a producer because it is unable to
  (1) reproduce asexually
  (2) synthesize its own food
  (3) release energy stored in organic molecules
  (4) remove wastes from its body
Answer: 2

2.
2 Which change is an example of maintaining
  dynamic equilibrium?
  (1) A plant wilts when more water is lost from
      the leaves than is lost by the roots.
  (2) A plant turns yellow when light levels are
      very low.
  (3) Insulin is released when glucose levels in the
      blood are high.
  (4) A person sweats when the environmental
      temperature is low.
Answer: 3

3.
3 Organisms contain compounds such as proteins,
  starches, and fats. The chemical bonds in these
  compounds can be a source of
  (1) amino acids           (3) energy
  (2) simple sugars         (4) enzymes
Answer: 3


4.
4 Phosphorus is necessary for the growth of healthy
  plants. Scientists are developing plants that can
  grow in phosphorus-poor soil. Some of these new
  varieties, produced in a lab, make extra copies of a
  protein that helps them obtain more phosphorus
  from the soil. The process being used to develop
  these new varieties is most likely
  (1) paper chromatography
  (2) natural selection
  (3) direct harvesting
  (4) genetic engineering
Answer: 4

5.
5 Which life function is not necessary for an
  individual organism to stay alive?
  (1) nutrition             (3) regulation
  (2) reproduction          (4) excretion
Answer: 2

6.
6 Lobsters prey on sea hares, which are marine
  animals. The lobsters find their prey through a
  sense of smell. The sea hares defend themselves
  by squirting ink at the lobster, as shown in the
  photo below. The ink sticks to the lobster,
  interfering with its sense of smell.
The most likely reason the sea hare can escape is
because the sea hare ink
(1) pushes the sea hare away rapidly as the ink is
    expelled
(2) blocks a receptor on certain cells in the
    lobster
(3) causes the lobster to change its prey
(4) prevents movement of the lobster
Answer: 2

7.
7 Which statement is an accurate description of
  genes?
  (1) Proteins are made of genes and code for
      DNA.
  (2) Genes are made of proteins that code for ni-
      trogen bases.
  (3) DNA is made of carbohydrates that code for
      genes.
  (4) Genes are made of DNA and code for pro-
      teins.
Answer: 4

8.
8 The bobolink is a small blackbird that nests
  in fields of tall grass. It breeds in the summer
  across much of southern Canada and the
  northern United States. It migrates long
  distances, wintering in southern South America.
  The numbers of these birds are declining due to
  disruption of the areas where they live.
In order to save these birds from extinction, the
best course of action would be to
(1) prevent the birds from migrating to South
    America
(2) encourage farmers to let their hay fields
    undergo succession
(3) work to protect bobolink habitats in South
    and North America
(4) capture all the bobolinks and keep them safe
    in zoos
Answer: 3

9.
9 A child with cystic fibrosis has an altered protein
  in his cells that stops chloride ions from leaving
  the cells. This protein most likely affects the
  functioning of
  (1) cell membranes          (3) mitochondria
  (2) nuclei                  (4) ribosomes
Answer: 1

10.
10 Which row in the chart below shows a direct
   relationship that can exist between two living
   organisms?

Answer: 2

11.
11 Scientists have studied the return of plant life on
   Mount St. Helens ever since the volcano erupted
   in 1980. Wildflowers began colonizing the area,
   followed by shrubs and small trees. Scientists
   predict that it will likely take hundreds of years
   before the area returns to a forest dominated
   by fir and hemlock trees. These changes are an
   example of
   (1) humans degrading an ecosystem by remov-
       ing wildflowers
   (2) the loss of genetic variation in a plant species
   (3) the growth of a forest through ecological
       succession
   (4) the biological evolution of wildflowers,
       shrubs, and trees
Answer: 3

12.
12 The most likely result of completely removing
   carbon dioxide from the environment of a plant
   is that sugar production will
   (1) continue at the same rate
   (2) increase and oxygen production will also in-
        crease
   (3) increase and oxygen production will stay the
        same
   (4) decrease and eventually stop
Answer: 4

13.
13 Before a new shopping center can be built
   on previously undeveloped land, the builders
   must submit a proposal to the local government
   for approval. Which statement identifies an
   environmental concern associated with the
   development of the shopping center?
   (1) Building the center would decrease resources
       needed by local organisms.
   (2) The new shopping center would increase
       competition with already existing businesses.
   (3) Building the center would decrease the
       amount of pollution in the area.
   (4) The new shopping center would increase the
       biodiversity of the area.
Answer: 1

14.
14 Homeowners have been encouraged to learn
   how to identify invasive plants and to remove
   them if they find them. The most likely reason
   for removing invasive plants is to
   (1) allow only one type of native plant to grow
   (2) preserve biodiversity
   (3) eliminate unfamiliar food sources
   (4) increase the rate of ecological succession
Answer: 2

15.
15 Which row in the chart below correctly pairs a human activity with its impact on the environment?

Answer: 4


16.
16 The diagram below represents some steps in a procedure used in the field of biotechnology.
This bacterial cell can now be used to produce
(1) the bacterial gene for insulin that can be inserted into humans
(2) human genes for enzymes that can be inserted into humans
(3) insulin that can be used by humans
(4) enzymes necessary to treat human diseases
Answer: 3

17.
17 The graph below represents the number of brown and green beetles collected in a particular ecosystem.
The change observed in the number of green and brown beetles in the population is most likely due to
(1) natural selection                           (3) gene manipulation
(2) selective breeding                          (4) a common ancestor
Answer: 1

18.
18 A reproductive system is represented in the
   diagram below.
Which structure is correctly paired with its
reproductive function?
(1) A – pathway of gametes
(2) B – synthesis of progesterone
(3) C – production of sperm
(4) D – regulation of homeostasis
Answer: 1

19.
19 For centuries, humans have used resources from
   coastal areas and open ocean waters. An example
   of an activity that would promote the conservation
   of coastal areas and ocean resources is
   (1) harvesting large numbers of different fish
       species
   (2) allowing all-terrain vehicles access to beach
       areas
   (3) creating protected zones of natural grasses
       and shrubs in beach areas
   (4) encouraging the construction of factories
       along the ocean shoreline
Answer: 3

20.
20 Which activity would eventually result in a stable
   ecosystem?
   (1) deforestation in an area to increase space for
       the species living there
   (2) mowing a large field so it can be used for
       recreation
   (3) allowing native plants to grow undisturbed in
       an abandoned field
   (4) spraying pesticides on a field at the end of
       each growing season
Answer: 3

21.
21 Some states require shoppers to pay a deposit on
   certain beverage containers made of plastic and
   glass. When shoppers return the containers, their
   deposits are returned to them. How is this system
   intended to help the environment?
   (1) It encourages people to buy products that do
       not have a deposit.
   (2) It reduces the amount of money shoppers
       actually spend.
   (3) It reduces the amount of plastics and glass
       put into landfills.
   (4) It forces manufacturers to reduce air pollu-
       tion when they are making the containers.
Answer: 3

22.
22 The diagram below represents a food web.
Which level contains organisms that carry out
autotrophic nutrition?
(1) 1                   (3) 3
(2) 2                   (4) 4
Answer: 1

23.
23 Mad cow disease is a fatal disease that destroys
   brain tissue. Researchers have found that a prion
   protein, which is an abnormally constructed
   molecule, is responsible. Which statement best
   describes the characteristics a protein must have
   to function correctly?
   (1) A protein is a long chain of amino acids folded
       into a specific shape.
   (2) A protein is a long chain of simple sugars
       folded into a specific shape.
   (3) A protein is made of amino acids synthesized
       into a short, circular chain.
   (4) A protein is made of simple sugars synthe-
       sized into a short, circular chain.
Answer: 1

24.
24 The diagram below represents the results of the
   net movement of a specific kind of molecule
   across a living cell membrane.
The movement of molecules from side A to side
B is an example of the process of
(1) active transport
(2) chromatography
(3) cellular respiration
(4) diffusion
Answer: 1

25.
25 Several companies now offer DNA “banking
   services,” where DNA is extracted from a pet
   and is stored so that a “replacement pet” might
   be produced using cloning techniques when the
   original pet dies. Which statement best explains
   why the replacement pets that are produced in
   this way might not look or act like the original?
   (1) The new animal must get the DNA from two
       different parents, not just one cell.
   (2) Mutations could occur that change the cloned
       animal into a completely different species.
   (3) Recombination of the cells as they are cloned
       will make the resulting pet act differently.
   (4) The environment could influence how genes
       are expressed, changing how the animal looks
       and acts.
Answer: 4

26.
26 It is recommended that people avoid excessive
   use of tanning beds. Exposure to the radiation
   emitted by tanning beds can cause skin cancer.
   This cancer is the direct result of a
   (1) change in a starch molecule
   (2) mutation in the genetic material
   (3) mutation in a protein
   (4) change in a fat molecule
Answer: 2

27.
27 The diagram below represents a developing fetus
   in a human.
What would most likely happen if structure X
were damaged in the early stages of pregnancy?
(1) The genes from the mother would not be
    turned on in the fetus.
(2) The nutrients necessary for development
    would not be able to reach the fetus.
(3) The fertilized egg would not be able to travel
    from the ovary to the uterus.
(4) Development would take longer since the
    fetus would have to synthesize nutrients.
Answer: 2

28.
28 The reproductive structure in a female mammal
   that produces sex cells is the
   (1) ovary                   (3) uterus
   (2) testes                  (4) placenta
Answer: 1

29.
29 Fungi are decomposers that play an important role in the maintenance of an ecosystem. The role of fungi is
   important because they
   (1) synthesize energy-rich compounds that are directly used by producers
   (2) break down materials that can then be used by other organisms
   (3) limit the number of plants that can perform photosynthesis in an area
   (4) are competitors of other consumers such as herbivores
Answer: 2

30.
30 In 2011 and 2012, scientists working on the Banana River in Florida recorded a dramatic increase in the
   number of manatee deaths. Over the past 50 years, this area has also seen the human population increase
   by more than 500,000 people. It is believed that pollution from numerous sewage tanks leaked into the
   water, eliminating the manatees’ food source, replacing it with an alga that is toxic to the manatee. This is an
   example of
   (1) a natural cycle in an ecosystem
   (2) the effect of increased biodiversity on an ecosystem
   (3) direct harvesting in an ecosystem
   (4) human actions altering ecosystems with serious consequences
Answer: 4


31.
                                                 Part B–1
                                 Answer all questions in this part.    [13]
   Directions (31–43): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
31 A student performed an experiment to see if
   water temperature affects the level of activity in
   aquatic snails. The student set up four tanks with
   five snails in each tank. All four of the setups were
   identical in every way, except for the temperature
   of the water. In order to make the conclusions
   more valid, the student could
   (1) alter the pH of the water
   (2) change the size of the tank
   (3) carry out the experiment for a shorter period
        of time
   (4) use a larger number of snails
Answer: 4

32.
32 The following events occur during sexual
   reproduction:
Which sequence represents the correct order of
these events during sexual reproduction?
(1) A → C → B → D
(2) B → C → A → D
(3) C → B → A → D
(4) B → A → C → D
Answer: 2

33.
33 A broad body of evidence, subject to revisions,
   supported by different kinds of scientific investi-
   gations and often involving the contributions of
   scientists from different disciplines is necessary
   to develop
   (1) an inference          (3) a theory
   (2) a fact                (4) a prediction
Answer: 3

34.
34 The diagrams below represent portions of two
   genes that code for leaf structure in the same
   species of clover. Gene 1 was taken from the
   cells of a clover plant with 3 leaves and gene 2
   was taken from the cells of a clover plant with
   4 leaves.
The clover plant having gene 2 (4 leaves) was
most likely the result of
(1) an insertion          (3) a substitution
(2) a deletion            (4) normal replication
Answer: 1

35.
35 Increased concern over the number of heat-
   related illnesses among football players has led
   to a possible change in uniform design. Shoulder
   pads were designed that constantly blew cool,
   dry air underneath the shoulder pads. Tests
   showed that the use of the device during rest and
   recovery periods resulted in a reduction of body
   temperature and heart rate. This new device
   would help the athlete to
   (1) control the rate of muscle activity
   (2) increase muscle strength
   (3) maintain homeostasis
   (4) eliminate the release of heat from the body
Answer: 3

36.
    Base your answers to questions 36 and 37 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge
of biology.
                A student wanted to investigate the effect of light on the rate of ripening of tomatoes.
            She set up four pots of the same size with identical amounts of soil, water, and type of
            tomato plants. Each plant was exposed to a different intensity of light as shown in the table
            below.
36 To report the final results, which label would be most appropriate for the third column of the data table?
   (1) Height of Tomato Plants (cm)                    (3) Average Weight of Tomatoes per Plant (grams)
   (2) Average Ripening Time (days)                    (4) Acidity of Tomatoes (pH)
Answer: 2

37.
37 The independent variable in this experiment is the
   (1) type of tomato plant                           (3) color of tomatoes
   (2) amount of soil provided                        (4) light intensity
Answer: 4

38.
     Base your answers to questions 38 and 39 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram
illustrates activities taking place in the body of a human.
38 Vaccinations usually stimulate the body to produce more of
   (1) structure A, only                              (3) structures A and C, only
   (2) structure B, only                              (4) structures A, B, and C
Answer: 3

39.
39 Which structure normally stimulates an allergic response?
   (1) A, only                                        (3) C, only
   (2) B, only                                        (4) A, B, and C
Answer: 2

40.
40 Which population in the chart below has the best chance for survival in a rapidly changing environment?

Answer: 1

41.
41 The table below represents a segment of a DNA molecule found in a stomach cell, both before and after
   undergoing replication.
Which statement best describes a change that would most likely be observed in the cells formed as a result
of this mitotic division?
(1) An enzyme the cell produces might no longer function.
(2) The cells would begin to form gametes to be released.
(3) Many new hormones would be synthesized by the cells.
(4) Chloroplasts would be produced by the ribosomes.
Answer: 1

42.
    Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of
biology.
                The setup below shows four test tubes. Tube 1 contains water only. Tube 2 contains
           a live snail. Tube 3 contains a live green water plant. Tube 4 contains both a live green
           water plant and a live snail.
42 In this setup, which tubes contain at least one organism carrying on cellular respiration?
   (1) tubes 1 and 2, only                             (3) tubes 3 and 4, only
   (2) tubes 2 and 4, only                             (4) tubes 2, 3, and 4, only
Answer: 4

43.
43 Which compound that directly provides energy in living cells is being produced in every tube where cellular
   respiration is occurring?
   (1) oxygen                                        (3) DNA
   (2) glucose                                       (4) ATP
Answer: 4


44.
                                                   Part B –2
                                  Answer all questions in this part.       [12]
    Directions (44–55): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.
   Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the information and data table below and on your knowl-
edge of biology.
               The concentration of a specific antibody in the blood of an individual was measured
           at various times over a period of 50 days. The results obtained are shown in the data table
           below.
    Directions (44–45): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid, following the
directions below.
 44 Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks in the data, on each labeled axis. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale, without any breaks in the data, on each labeled
axis.


45.
45 Plot the data on the grid. Connect the points and surround each point with a small circle. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data and connecting the points.
Example of a 2-credit graph for questions 44–45:
Note: Allow credit if the points are correctly plotted, but not circled.
       Do not assume that the intersection of the x- and y-axes is the origin (0,0) unless it is
       labeled. An appropriate scale only needs to include the data range in the data table.
       Do not allow credit if points are plotted that are not in the data table, e.g., (0,0), or for
       extending lines beyond the data points.


46.
46 State one reason for the change in antibody production during the first 10 days. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The individual was exposed to a disease.
   — The individual received a vaccination.
   — The individual got sick.
   — exposure to antigens
   — immune response
   — More white blood cells were produced.


47.
   Note: The answer to question 47 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
47 The antibody level (in arb. units) of the individual on day 30 is closest to
   (1) 30                                                (3) 110
   (2) 70                                                (4) 160
Answer: 3

48.
    Base your answers to questions 48 and 49 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of
biology.
              If a Chihuahua with short hair has a hidden gene for long hair, it can produce both
          long-haired and short-haired puppies when bred to a Chihuahua with long hair.

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — breeding two dogs with long hair to produce long-haired puppies
   — selective breeding
   — cloning/genetic engineering


49.
   Note: The answer to question 49 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
49 A Chihuahua is born having a trait that is different from either of its parents. A possible explanation for the
   difference is that the Chihuahua puppy
   (1) was produced as a result of the recombination of genes during sexual reproduction
   (2) was produced as a result of the process of asexual reproduction
   (3) inherited a gene from one of its grandparents and not its parents
   (4) had a mutation that occurred after it was born
Answer: 1

50.
   Base your answers to questions 50 and 51 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
The diagram represents a technique used by scientists today to maintain the genetic makeup of an organism.
   Note: The answer to question 50 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
50 Which graph below best represents the DNA content found in each cell in each of the stages in the diagram
   above?

Answer: 2

51.
51 Describe one specific reason why scientists would want to maintain the genetic makeup of a particular
   plant. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The plants have desirable traits. This technique is a way to be sure all the offspring will have
     these traits.
   — to maintain a plant that has increased nutritional value
   — to maintain a plant that grows larger or faster
   — to produce more of a plant that is resistant to diseases or pesticides
   — to prevent extinction
   — to maintain biodiversity


52.
  Base your answers to questions 52 and 53 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                           Breast Cancer Research
              Most deaths that are a result of breast cancer occur because the cancer cells metastasize
          (spread) from the breast to other organs. As they metastasize, cancer cells travel through
          the bloodstream.
              MicroRNA molecules are involved in both the movement and control of metastasized
          cells. One microRNA, known as miR-7, shuts down a protein that helps cancer cells travel
          through the blood.
              Understanding how miR-7 interacts with cancer cells may lead to new treatments
          for certain types of cancer. Since certain levels of miR-7 expression can also stimulate
          the development of cancer cells, the use of miR-7 to treat cancer will have to be studied
          in more detail. Researchers are hoping that eventually levels of miR-7 will be used to
          diagnose, treat, and prevent the spread of cancer in an individual.
52 State one negative effect of using miR-7 as the only treatment for breast cancer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Certain levels of miR-7 expression can also stimulate the development of cancer cells.
   — miR-7 can activate/turn on some cancer genes.
   — miR-7 can cause the formation of cancer cells.


53.
53 State one way cancer cells are different from normal body cells. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — They can metastasize to other organs.
   — Cancer cells keep dividing.
   — Cancer cells can be larger/shaped differently than normal cells.
   — Some have more than one nucleus.
   — Cancer cell division is uncontrolled.
   — They have more mutations.
   — The cancer cells are deformed.


54.
    Base your answers to questions 54 and 55 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of
biology.
               Each body cell contains the same genetic information, but can differ in appearance
           and size. The diagram below shows three different types of cells found in the human
           body.
54 Identify one similarity, other than the genetic information, that these body cells have. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — All of the cells contain organelles.
   — All have a cell membrane/nucleus/cytoplasm/mitochondria.
   — They carry out life processes/respiration/mitosis.
   — They all use ATP/glucose.
Note: Do not accept answers that simply say they are body cells, since that information is given.


55.
55 Explain why differences in these human body cells are a biological advantage. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — This allows these cells to be specialized for a specific function.
   — Differences in cells are related to different functions in the body.



56.
                                               Part C
                              Answer all questions in this part.     [17]
Directions (56–72): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.
Base your answers to questions 56 through 58 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
    Federal wildlife officials plan to dispatch armed bird specialists into forests of the
Pacific Northwest starting this fall to shoot one species of owl to protect another that is
threatened with extinction. …
    …“If we don’t manage barred owls, the probability of recovering the spotted owls goes
down significantly,” said Paul Henson, Oregon state supervisor for Fish and Wildlife. The
agency’s preferred course of action calls for killing 3,603 barred owls in four study areas in
Oregon, Washington and northern California over the next four years. …
    …Mr. Henson said unless barred owls are brought under control, the spotted owl
in coming decades might disappear from Washington’s northern Cascade Range and
Oregon’s Coast Range, where the barred owl incursion [takeover] has been greatest.
    The northern spotted owl was listed as a threatened species in 1990. Barred owls are
bigger, more aggressive and less picky about food. Barred owls now cover the spotted owl’s
range, in some places outnumbering them as much as 5-to-1.
                                                               Source: Associated Press, 7/26/13
56 Describe how the barred owl population is having a negative effect on the spotted owl population. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — They are eating the same food as the spotted owls, not leaving enough for the spotted owls.
   — It is outcompeting the spotted owl for the same niche.
   — The two species are competing for the same resources, and the barred owl is more suc-
     cessful.
   — The barred owl is bigger and more aggressive, and is taking over the habitat.
   — Barred owls now cover the spotted owls’ range, outnumbering them in some places.


57.
57 Explain why it is important to protect the spotted owl from extinction. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Extinction represents the loss of genetic material and reduces the biodiversity of this
     ecosystem.
   — Biodiversity tends to keep the ecosystem stable.
   — Once the spotted owls are extinct, they cannot be brought back.
   — to protect biodiversity
   — Their prey would increase out of control.
   — They are an important part of the food chain/web.


58.
58 Certain groups oppose the plan to kill barred owls, in part because they feel it will not solve the problem.
   They recommend that the focus should be on protecting the habitat of the spotted owl. Describe the role
   that the habitat plays in the survival of an animal species such as the spotted owl. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Habitats provide the resources animals need to survive.
   — Habitats provide food and shelter.
   — The growth and survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions of their habitat.
   — The resources available in the habitat limit the number of organisms it can support.
   — The carrying capacity is dependent on the resources of the habitat.


59.
  Base your answer to question 59 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
             The 1990 Federal Clean Air Act requires New York State to conduct an emissions
         test on most gasoline-powered automobiles in order to help reduce harmful emissions.
         Vehicles that fail this test must be repaired and pass inspection before they can be driven
         on the road. Some people did not support this legislation.
59 State one advantage and one disadvantage of automobile emission testing. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating an advantage and a disadvantage of automobile emission testing.
Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   Advantage:
     — The law helps to reduce the amount of air pollution in an area.
     — The emissions from cars will contain fewer harmful chemicals.
   Disadvantage:
     — Because of the emission-control systems, cars may be more expensive.
     — Testing is expensive.
     — Repairing the automobile to pass inspection is expensive.


60.
Base your answers to questions 60 through 63 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                       Enzyme Investigation
           An enzyme was isolated from digestive juices taken from the small intestine.
       An experiment was set up to test the ability of the enzyme to break down protein. Two
       test tubes, labeled A and B, were placed in a hot water bath at 37°C, human body
       temperature.
           Test tube A contained only protein and test tube B contained protein and the enzyme.
       The chart below shows the set-up.
              After two hours, the contents of both test tubes were analyzed. Test tube A showed
          only the presence of protein. Test tube B showed the presence of the end products of
          protein digestion, indicating the enzyme had successfully broken down the protein.
60 Identify the end products of protein digestion that made up the contents of test tube B after the two hours.
   [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — amino acids
   — dipeptides


61.
61 Explain the importance of temperature in the functioning of enzymes. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Each enzyme works best within a specific range of temperatures.
   — If the temperature is too high/low, the enzyme might not function.
   — The enzyme could be denatured/change shape at some temperature.
   — The enzyme is a human enzyme and works best at body temperature.
   — Temperature affects the rate of reaction/enzyme activity.


62.
62 State what the result would be if the same enzyme that was added to test tube B was added to a test tube
   containing starch. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating what the result would be if the same enzyme that was added to test tube B
was added to a test tube containing starch and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses
include, but are not limited to:
   — Nothing, because enzymes are specific.
   — There would be no reaction with the starch because this enzyme acts only on proteins.
   — Enzymes only act on certain substances, so an enzyme that acts on protein would not act
     on starch.


63.
63 In the digestive system many large molecules, such as proteins, are broken down into much smaller molecules.
   State what happens to these smaller molecules following digestion. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — They diffuse into body cells/the bloodstream.
   — They are absorbed from the small intestine into the blood.
   — They are taken to the cells by the circulatory system.
   — The molecules are carried to the cells by the blood.
   — The products of digestion are absorbed by the villi.
   — They enter cells and are used there.
   — They are used to build muscle or other compounds/proteins and to release energy.


64.
  Base your answers to question 64–66 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                   Secondhand Smoke and Estrogen
             A fertility researcher conducted a study of pregnant women. The researcher’s
         hypothesis was that the estrogen levels of pregnant women who were exposed to daily
         secondhand cigarette smoke would be higher than estrogen levels of pregnant women not
         exposed to daily secondhand smoke.
             The researcher measured the estrogen levels of eight pregnant women each week
         throughout their pregnancy. Four of the women lived in houses with heavy smokers, the
         other four did not. The women’s ages varied from 19 to 42 years old. Six of the women
         were pregnant with girls, one was pregnant with a boy, and one was pregnant with twin
         boys. The research was submitted for peer review.
64–66 Analyze this experiment. In your answer, be sure to:
      • identify one error in the researcher’s experimental design [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying one error in the researcher’s experimental design. Acceptable
responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The sample size for the experiment was too small.
   — There were not enough women in the study.
   — The range of ages added a second variable.
   — There were fetuses of different genders.
   — There were too many variables.


65.
• identify one way, other than affecting estrogen levels, that secondhand smoke could affect a
  developing embryo [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying one way, other than affecting estrogen levels, that secondhand smoke
could affect a developing embryo. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — It could lead to miscarriages/premature labor/birth.
   — The babies born could have a lower birth weight.
   — They could have asthma/birth defects/addiction.
   — They might receive less oxygen/nutrients.


66.
• explain why the process of peer review is an important step in this research [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for explaining why the process of peer review is an important step in this research.
Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Other scientists may find errors that the original researchers did not.
   — Other scientists could repeat the experiment to confirm the result.
   — Peer review allows other researchers to evaluate the results of an experiment.
   — Peer review improves the validity of the study.


67.
    Base your answers to questions 67 through 69 on the information and passage below and on your knowledge
of biology.
                                        Snowy Owls Move to the South
                Snowy owls are large white birds that normally inhabit the cold northern regions of
            Canada. Recently, scientists and birdwatchers have sighted the snowy owls much farther
            south than usual.
                When snowy owls are in northern areas, they feed on lemmings (small rodents). When
            lemmings are not available, as in the areas further south, the owls will seek out mice or
            rabbits as their food source.
                Several snowy owls migrated into an area represented by the food web below.
67 Identify one population of organisms shown in the food web, other than rabbits or mice, that would likely be
   affected by the introduction of the snowy owls and explain why their population would be affected. [1]
   Population affected:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — snakes – The owl would compete with the snakes for the mouse population.
   — hawks – The owls feed on much of the same food as the hawks, so there would be fewer
     hawks.
   — mountain lions – The owls would compete for the rabbit population.
   — grasses – The owls would eat rabbits and mice, and there would be more grass.


68.
68 Identify one condition that might cause snowy owls to leave their usual habitat and move to another area.
   [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — lack of food
   — fewer lemmings
   — overpopulation of snowy owls
   — changes in temperature
   — loss of habitat/deforestation
   — increased competition


69.
69 State which level, A, B, or C, contains the least total available energy. Support your answer. [1]
   Level:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating level C and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are
not limited to:
   — At each level, as you go up from the plants to the herbivores to the carnivores,
     energy is lost.
   — Energy enters the ecosystem with green plants capturing energy from sunlight.
     There is less energy available as it is passed on to the consumers.
   — Energy is lost at each feeding level.


70.
Base your answers to questions 70 through 72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                            Pocket Mice
           Pocket mice are small rodents that feed mainly at night and are preyed upon by
       owls, hawks, and snakes. Scientists studied pocket mice living on dark volcanic rock in
       both New Mexico and fifty miles away in Arizona. They recorded their data in the chart
       below.
70 State one possible hypothesis that would explain the differences in the observed data between the two
   locations. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — There are few predators present in New Mexico, so fur color does not influence survival.
   — Predators can see the mice better if their fur color does not match the rock color in Arizona.
   — In New Mexico, both fur colors are equally suited to the environment, unlike Arizona.
   — If there were no owls/hawks in New Mexico, then the fur color would not matter.
Note: Do not allow credit for a hypothesis written in the form of a question.


71.
71 Dark fur color in pocket mice is the result of a mutation. Scientists analyzed the sequence of bases in the
   gene known to play a role in fur color and discovered that the mutation was identical in both the New
   Mexico and Arizona mouse populations. Explain how it is possible for these two different populations to
   have identical gene sequences for dark fur color. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The mice in the two populations evolved from the same ancestral population.
   — They evolved from a common ancestor.
   — The same mutation occurred in both populations.
   — Some of the mice migrated.
   — They are members of the same species.
   — The populations interbred.


72.
72 Explain what is meant by the statement: “While mutations are random, natural selection is not.” [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Many mutations occur by chance. Natural selection acts on traits. Depending on whether
     or not the mutation increases or decreases the chance of survival, the mutation for a trait
     might or might not be passed on to the next generation.
   — Once a mutation occurs, natural selection acts on it. Natural selection does not cause
     mutations.
   — Mutations happen by chance, but natural selection depends on mutations that exist and
     how the environment interacts with them.



73.
                                                    Part D
                                  Answer all questions in this part.      [13]
   Directions (73–85): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet the
number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.
    Note: The answer to question 73 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
 73 The diagram below represents evolutionary pathways of seven groups of organisms alive today.
Which two living species would be expected to have the most similar proteins?
(1) A and C                                      (3) E and F
(2) B and C                                      (4) H and M
Answer: 3

74.
   Note: The answer to question 74 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
74 Scientists recently discovered that three different types of squid, a marine animal, previously thought to be
   three different species, were actually all members of one species. Their earlier ideas were based on using
   squid carcasses (dead bodies). The new, more accepted classification is most probably based on an analysis of
   (1) a greater number of squid carcasses
   (2) the feeding habits of the three different species
   (3) a number of newly found squid fossils
   (4) the DNA present in the cells of squid
Answer: 4

75.
   Note: The answer to question 75 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
75 The diagram below represents a laboratory experiment involving sucrose and water molecules in a cellophane
   bag which functions in the same way as dialysis tubing.
Which statement correctly explains the rise of liquid in the tube at the end of the experiment?
(1) The concentration of sucrose molecules increased as water molecules entered the bag. This concentra-
    tion increase pushed the liquid up the tube.
(2) Water entered the bag due to the lower concentration of water inside. The extra water pushed the liquid
    up the tube as the bag filled.
(3) Sucrose indicator entered the bag and reacted with the sucrose molecules. The reaction made the bag
    increase in size and pushed the liquid up the tube.
(4) Sucrose molecules moved out of the bag and up the tube while water moved out, causing the rise of
    liquid in the tube.
Answer: 2

76.
    Base your answers to questions 76 through 78 on the diagram below that shows variations in the beaks of
finches in the Galapagos Islands and on your knowledge of biology.
                          Variations in Beaks of Galapagos Islands Finches
   Note: The answer to question 76 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
76 Which row correctly pairs a finch species with its primary nutritional role and bill type?

Answer: 4

77.
77 In certain years, the Galapagos plants produce many tube-shaped flowers rich in nectar. Identify the finch
   that is best adapted to feed on the nectar within those flowers. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for cactus finch and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are
not limited to:
   — The cactus finch has a probing bill that can reach the nectar in the flowers.
   — The cactus finch is a plant eater with a long, narrow beak.


78.
78 The number of small tree finches is increasing on an island inhabited by a large population of small ground
   finches. State one reason why the population of small ground finches has not been affected by the increasing
   number of small tree finches. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — They aren’t competing for the same food.
   — Ground finches are mostly plant eaters while tree finches are mostly animal eaters.
   — They occupy a different niche.
   — They live in different areas.


79.
79 Explain why glucose molecules can cross a cell membrane and starch molecules can not. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Starch is too large to move across the cell membrane, and glucose is smaller and can move
     across the cell membrane.
   — Starch is a bigger molecule.


80.
  Base your answers to questions 80 through 82 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                       Progressive Resistance Exercise
              Progressive resistance exercise (PRE) is a method of increasing the ability of muscles
          to generate force. The principles of PRE for increasing force production in muscles have
          remained unchanged for almost 60 years. These principles are (1) to perform a small number
          of repetitions until fatigued, (2) to allow sufficient rest between exercises for recovery, and
          (3) to increase the resistance as the ability to generate force increases. Traditionally, PRE
          has been used by young, healthy adults to improve athletic performance.
              A student decided to incorporate PRE into his exercise program. He did not know
          how to determine when he had allowed sufficient rest between exercises for recovery.
          He hypothesized that waiting for his pulse to return to normal would probably be a good
          indication.
80 Explain why allowing his pulse rate to return to normal might be a good indication that he had waited long
   enough for recovery. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — If his pulse rate were normal, it would indicate that the muscles have removed wastes and
     have enough energy available to resume exercising.
   — Normal pulse rate is the same as resting pulse rate.
   — When his pulse rate returns to normal, it indicates that there is no longer a need for more
     oxygen/excretion of excess carbon dioxide.
   — This shows that the body has returned to a homeostatic balance.


81.
   Note: The answer to question 81 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
81 Students wanted to try PRE to increase their ability to rapidly squeeze a clothespin. They thought if they
   could do this, they could challenge another class to a clothespin squeezing competition and win. Which steps
   should the students take to follow the principles of PRE?
   (1) Measure their pulse rate after squeezing the clothespin until fatigued. Then increase the resistance of
       the clothespin for the next trial.
   (2) Squeeze a clothespin until fatigued, rest, and repeat. Over time, they should gradually increase the re-
       sistance of the clothespins they are squeezing.
   (3) Measure their pulse rate, squeeze a clothespin for one minute, rest, and measure their pulse rate.
   (4) Squeeze a clothespin for as long as they can, measure their pulse rate, rest, eat some candy. Increase the
       resistance of the clothespin for the next trial.
Answer: 2

82.
   Note: The answer to question 82 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
82 Students following the principles of PRE monitored their ability to lift weights. Which observation would
   indicate that their exercise program was successful?
   (1) They could eventually lift heavier weights than when they started.
   (2) Their pulse rate increased more rapidly as they kept lifting weights.
   (3) The number of weights their group could lift during competition decreased.
   (4) Males and females could lift the same weight an equal number of times during competition.
Answer: 1

83.
83 Using the axes on the graph below, sketch a line graph showing the changes in heart rate of a person who is
   walking slowly, then begins running, and then sits down to rest for a few minutes. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for a correctly drawn graph that shows that pulse rate increases when running and
gradually decreases when resting.
Examples of 1-credit responses:


84.
84 Identify one waste product that is released during exercise. Explain how this waste product leaves the body.
   [1]
   Waste product:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying one waste product that is released during exercise and explaining
how this waste product leaves the body. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   Carbon dioxide:
      — It diffuses into the blood and is carried to the lungs, where it is exhaled.
      — As you exercise, carbon dioxide is carried to the lungs, where it is exhaled.
      — Carbon dioxide is exhaled.
   Sweat:
      — contains salts and other minerals, passes out through pores in the skin
      — evaporates, cooling off the body
      — leaves as moisture
   Heat:
      — It is radiated from the skin.


85.
85 State one way scientists could use the banding patterns produced by gel electrophoresis. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — to determine an evolutionary relationship
   — to determine parents of children/identity of a criminal
   — to screen for genetic disorders/mutations
   — to see if two organisms are closely related/have a common ancestor
   — to analyze similarities in DNA



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