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Living Environment - New York Regents January 2016 Exam

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1.
                                                  Part A
                                Answer all questions in this part.     [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1 Bacteria and humans are similar in that they
  both
  (1) contain genetic material
  (2) are single-celled
  (3) lack cell organelles
  (4) carry out autotrophic nutrition
Answer: 1

2.
2 Which cell structure is mainly responsible for
  releasing energy from food molecules in some
  single-celled organisms?
  (1) ribosome             (3) cell membrane
  (2) chloroplast          (4) mitochondrion
Answer: 4

3.
3 During gas exchange, the cell membrane of a
  single-celled organism has the same function as
  which organ system in humans?
  (1) nervous              (3) digestive
  (2) reproductive         (4) respiratory
Answer: 4


4.
4 An ecosystem is self-sustaining as long as organ-
  isms have sufficient quantities of energy, oxygen,
  minerals, and water. When organisms die, some
  of these materials are recycled back to plants in
  the ecosystem primarily through the activity of
  (1) predators             (3) pathogens
  (2) decomposers           (4) parasites
Answer: 2

5.
5 Which sequence represents structures organized
  from least complex to most complex?

Answer: 2

6.
6 Which group consists entirely of organic molecules?
  (1) protein, oxygen, fat
  (2) protein, starch, fat
  (3) water, carbon dioxide, oxygen
  (4) water, starch, protein
Answer: 2

7.
7 A scientist plans to cut a segment of DNA so that
  it can be inserted into the DNA of a bacterium,
  a single-celled organism. The scientist needs to
  use a special type of organic molecule to perform
  this cutting process. This molecule is
  (1) a lipid                 (3) an enzyme
  (2) a carbohydrate          (4) a hormone
Answer: 3

8.
8 A finite resource in the environment that keeps
  a population from steadily increasing is known as
  (1) dynamic equilibrium
  (2) a limiting factor
  (3) a reproductive enzyme
  (4) ecological succession
Answer: 2

9.
9 Human reproduction usually involves
  (1) internal fertilization and internal development
  (2) external fertilization and external development
  (3) internal fertilization and external development
  (4) external fertilization and internal development
Answer: 1

10.
10 Even though human proteins are synthesized
   from only 20 different amino acids, there are
   thousands of different proteins found in human
   cells. This great variety of proteins is possible
   because the
   (1) size of a specific amino acid can vary within
       a protein
   (2) chemical composition of a specific amino
       acid can vary
   (3) sequence and number of amino acids can be
       different in each protein
   (4) same amino acid can have many different
       properties
Answer: 3

11.
11 Aphids, small insects that feed on the sap of
   plants, undergo asexual reproduction during the
   summer months. They produce eggs that are
   formed without the separation of chromosomes.
   These eggs do not need to be fertilized, and all
   of the resulting offspring are female.
The best explanation for all of these offspring
being female is that
(1) there is not enough food to support male
    aphids
(2) asexual reproduction produces offspring
    with many mutations
(3) only the females are able to feed on the sap
    of the plants
(4) asexual reproduction produces offspring that
    are genetically identical to the parent
Answer: 4

12.
12 Potato farmers in Ireland during the mid 1800s
   all grew the same type of potato. The potato
   plants were all produced as clones of one another.
   When a fungus infected the crop, all of the
   potatoes were destroyed. This occurred because
   these potato plants
   (1) had little genetic variability
   (2) had increased biodiversity
   (3) were the product of fertilization
   (4) were the result of biotechnology
Answer: 1

13.
13 A cell is represented in the diagram below.
The coded information that the cell uses to
synthesize many different proteins is stored in
structure
(1) A                   (3) C
(2) B                   (4) D
Answer: 2

14.
14 Wildflowers grow and reproduce during the
   spring snowmelt in the desert region of Death
   Valley, California. Which environmental factor
   would most likely have the greatest influence on
   these activities?
   (1) percentage of nitrogen in the atmosphere
   (2) number of plant species in the area
   (3) variety of scavengers in the ecosystem
   (4) amount of time that water is present
Answer: 4

15.
15 Which statement best describes how a major
   change in the size of one population affects an
   ecosystem?
   (1) It will immediately affect every population
       and the physical conditions.
   (2) It will affect the physical conditions, but not
       the other populations.
   (3) It could directly or indirectly affect the
       physical conditions and any population.
   (4) It affects every population, not the physical
       conditions.
Answer: 3


16.
16 The diagram below represents a stage in the
   development of a fetus.
A major function of structure X is to
(1) produce gametes by meiosis
(2) protect the fetus from physical injury
(3) exchange materials between the mother and
    the fetus
(4) store food to provide the fetus with nutrients
Answer: 3

17.
17 Which statement is most likely correct regarding
   soil bacteria that inhabit the polar regions of
   Earth?
   (1) They do not carry out the process of respiration.
   (2) They contain enzymes that function at low
       temperatures.
   (3) They are part of the abiotic resources of that
       ecosystem.
   (4) They do not reproduce.
Answer: 2

18.
18 Some plants increase in height due to changes in
   specialized regions of cells in the tips of their
   branches. The processes that result in these
   changes include
   (1) meiosis, cell growth, and cloning
   (2) mitosis, zygote formation, and cloning
   (3) meiosis, gamete formation, and differentiation
   (4) mitosis, cell growth, and differentiation
Answer: 4

19.
19 The hormone adrenaline can affect only cells with
   (1) appropriately shaped receptors
   (2) the appropriate antibodies
   (3) ribosomes that produce adrenaline
   (4) genes that break down adrenaline
Answer: 1

20.
20 The diagram below shows part of the human
   body with some organs that help to carry out the
   removal of wastes.
The energy necessary to perform this function
comes directly from the
(1) exchange of H2O and O2 during respiration
(2) blood flowing through the organs
(3) ATP molecules produced during cellular
    respiration
(4) water that is eliminated by the organs
Answer: 3

21.
21 In living cells, chemical processes, such as synthesis,
   all require the action of
   (1) specialized antibiotics
   (2) hormones
   (3) salts
   (4) biological catalysts
Answer: 4

22.
22 Plants that live in hot, dry climates have evolved
   mechanisms to help conserve limited water sup-
   plies. One example is the closing of leaf openings
   by guard cells during the day to decrease water
   loss from their leaves. This detection of and
   response to an environmental stimulus is an
   example of
   (1) a feedback mechanism
   (2) a genetic mutation
   (3) an organ malfunction
   (4) an allergic reaction
Answer: 1

23.
23 Which sequence best represents the flow of
   energy through an ecosystem?

Answer: 1

24.
24 A student set up a small freshwater fish tank.
   The tank included water, fish, gravel, a snail, and
   plants, as represented below.
Which statement best describes an activity
performed by a student investigating an abiotic
factor using this setup?
(1) He records the temperature of the water.
(2) He feeds the fish 0.5 gram of fish food twice
    a day.
(3) He measures the growth of the plants with a
    metric ruler.
(4) He observes the snail scrape algae off the
    gravel.
Answer: 1

25.
25 Which situation is most likely to lead to ecological
   succession?
   (1) The fish populations in a large lake remain
       the same for many years.
   (2) Hunters are allowed to hunt wolves, with no
       limits, for one season.
   (3) The amount of industrialization increased in
       an area, resulting in the increased burning of
       fossil fuels.
   (4) A farmer who has planted corn for many
       years retires, and the field is left abandoned.
Answer: 4

26.
26 The diagram below represents interactions that
   occur between some organisms in an ecosystem.
Which factor would most likely cause an
increase in the number of frogs?
(1) an increase in the number of deer
(2) a decrease in the amount of grasses
(3) an increase in the number of snakes
(4) a decrease in the amount of trees
Answer: 3

27.
27 Members of a bird-watching club observed the
   activities of three species of birds for an entire
   spring and summer. They noticed that the
   different species fed at different heights in the
   same pine tree. Which ecological concept is
   supported by this observation?
   (1) Organisms that feed on different foods in the
       same area of an ecosystem fill the same niche.
   (2) Organisms that live in the same ecosystem
       can occupy different niches in the ecosystem.
   (3) Different species feeding in the same
       ecosystem will eventually compete with each
       other, eliminating all the species except one.
   (4) Different species living in the same area of
       an ecosystem usually have the same physical
       characteristics.
Answer: 2

28.
28 Which factor would be least likely to contribute
   to the development of a new species?
   (1) plentiful resources within the environment
       occupied by the species
   (2) increased genetic variation within the
       species
   (3) changes in the environment of the species
   (4) the ability of the species to increase its
       numbers by sexual reproduction
Answer: 1

29.
29 Water pollution as a result of fertilizer runoff
   from farms is harmful because it initially
   (1) changes the chemical composition of nearby
       streams and lakes
   (2) adds ozone to the atmosphere, increasing
       global temperatures
   (3) decreases the water temperature of streams
       and lakes
   (4) decreases the amount of nutrient recycling
       in lakes
Answer: 1

30.
30 Overfishing has depleted the rich harvests of fish
   from the oceans. As a solution, a large industry
   that cultivates shrimp and fish in warm coastal
   ponds has been developed. To make way for
   these ponds, mangrove forests are cut down.
   Local organisms are displaced. In order for
   people to decide if this new fish farming
   technology is a good long-term solution, they
   must consider
   (1) the risks and costs as well as the benefits
   (2) that the mangrove forests would probably
       die off someday anyway
   (3) that food production is always more
       important than any other concern
   (4) the number of fish produced in the first year
       as compared with ocean fishing
Answer: 1


31.
                                                   Part B–1
                                  Answer all questions in this part. [13]
   Directions (31–43): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
   Base your answers to questions 31 and 32 on the graphs below and on your knowledge of biology. The graphs
show the effect of sewage (human organic waste) flowing into a lake on the level of dissolved oxygen in the water
and the size of different fish populations.
                          Oxygen Content and Fish Population in a Lake
31 Which statement concerning the oxygen level in the lake can be inferred from the graphs?
   (1) Trout and whitefish require higher oxygen levels than do carp.
   (2) Carp are more sensitive to oxygen levels than are other fish.
   (3) The fish in this lake all require the same amount of oxygen for survival.
   (4) Walleye populations were highest when the oxygen levels were lowest.
Answer: 1

32.
32 Which inference can be made from the graphs?
   (1) The increase in sewage waste from 1950 to 1970 was due to a decreasing human population.
   (2) The decrease in sewage waste shows that the environmental problems associated with land pollution
       have been solved.
   (3) Sewage waste is a good source of nutrients for most fish.
   (4) Increases in sewage waste were responsible for decreasing oxygen levels in the lake.
Answer: 4

33.
  Base your answers to questions 33 and 34 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
             The emerald ash borer is an insect that was introduced into North America sometime
         in the 1990s. It probably arrived in the United States in wooden packing material carried in
         cargo ships or on airplanes coming from Asia. The ash borer was first reported killing ash
         trees in Michigan in 2002. Since then, it has spread to Pennsylvania and New York.
             Since its arrival, the insect has destroyed tens of millions of trees. One of the ways the
         ash borer has been able to spread so quickly is through the transport of wood that is infested
         with their larvae. The USDA has proposed the introduction of Asian wasps to control the
         ash borer population.
33 The best explanation for the fact the emerald ash borer is not as great a problem in Asia as it is in the
   United States is that
   (1) there are few natural predators of the ash borer in the United States, while there are many in Asia
   (2) the same pesticides that work in Asia do not work on controlling the ash borer in the United States
   (3) only healthy ash borers arrived in the United States, while many unhealthy ash borers are present in the
       population in Asia
   (4) the ash borers are not as adapted to the climate in the United States as they are to the one in Asia
Answer: 1

34.
34 One action that individuals can take to control the spread of the emerald ash borer is to
   (1) spray all the oak trees at one time with a variety of pesticides
   (2) plant only trees from Asia in yards and parks
   (3) plant more ash trees to replace those that are infected
   (4) use wood from only local sources for heating and for campfires
Answer: 4

35.
35 A news release about production of farm-raised salmon contains the following information:
    The program is mating targeted fish to concentrate key traits in Atlantic salmon stocks.
    The three-year process includes spawning, tagging, and choice of parent fish.
    The fish are weighed, measured, and monitored to identify those with the best growth rates.
    The project examines the performance of fish to determine which fish to use to produce the next
    generation.
   These statements indicate that the producers are attempting to improve salmon through the use of
   (1) genetic engineering                                  (3) selective breeding
   (2) homeostatic feedback                                 (4) natural selection
Answer: 3

36.
36 The three graphs below show the population
   changes in two species of single-celled organisms
   that have been grown separately and together in
   identical environments.
Which term is the most closely associated with
the changes in relative population size shown in
graph C?
(1) mutation
(2) artificial selection
(3) genetic engineering
(4) competition
Answer: 4

37.
   Base your answers to questions 37 and 38 on
the diagram and information below and on your
knowledge of biology. The diagram represents a
germinating bean seed that has been split open.
37 When water is available and growth begins, the
   plant embryo inside the seed secretes enzymes
   to digest the starch stored in the seed.
   The enzymes in cells of the plant embryo are
   produced directly by the
   (1) ribosomes            (3) mitochondria
   (2) nuclei               (4) vacuoles
Answer: 1

38.
38 Plants are able to continue to grow and develop
   once the starch supply in the seed is gone,
   because they
   (1) develop roots to absorb starch from the
       environment
   (2) grow leaves, which use light energy for cell
       respiration
   (3) have chloroplasts and use light energy to
       make more food
   (4) produce more seeds, which contain additional
       food reserves
Answer: 3

39.
  Base your answers to questions 39 through 41 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                               Blood Doping
            Some athletes who compete in endurance events, such as marathon runners or cyclists,
        believe that they will be more competitive if they can increase the number of red blood cells
        in their bloodstreams. One way of increasing the number of red blood cells in an athlete is
        to engage in blood doping.
            Blood doping is an illegal practice in which athletes harvest their own blood months
        before a competition, isolate the red blood cells, and freeze them. Just before the date of
        the competition, the blood cells are returned to the athlete’s bloodstream. Another type of
        blood doping involves using donated blood from another person (blood transfusions).
        In either case, the athlete will have more red blood cells available than competitors who do
        not engage in blood doping.
            Athletes who use their own blood cells to blood dope often become anemic as a result.
        Anemia is a condition caused by a lack of red blood cells and/or iron in the blood. Iron is a
        necessary part of the pigment used to carry oxygen to the cells. Athletes who use donated
        blood to blood dope also run the risk of contracting a blood-borne disease.
39 An athlete might believe that there is a benefit to blood doping with red blood cells because it
   (1) could improve the delivery of oxygen to the muscles
   (2) could increase the amount of training necessary
   (3) would help to deliver necessary nutrient molecules to the cells
   (4) would help an athlete to fight disease
Answer: 1

40.
40 Using blood doping to artificially increase the number of red blood cells in an athlete might lead to a long-
   term shortage of red blood cells because
   (1) red blood cells could stop being produced by meiosis
   (2) homeostasis could be disrupted in the athlete
   (3) red blood cells could attack and destroy the extra red blood cells
   (4) the athlete would no longer need red blood cells
Answer: 2

41.
41 An athlete who uses blood from another person for blood doping runs the risk of contracting a blood-borne
   disease because
   (1) white blood cells are not passed on through blood transfusions
   (2) blood is tested for pathogens before it is donated
   (3) pathogens can exist in the blood and be passed on through transfusions
   (4) iron is a pigment needed to carry oxygen
Answer: 3

42.
   Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology. The graph
shows the number of species that have become extinct since 1800. It also shows the change in the size of the
human population for the same period of time.
42 The graph indicates that the number of species that have become extinct
   (1) has increased with increasing human population
   (2) has decreased with increasing human population
   (3) is not affected by the size of the human population
   (4) is greater than the size of the human population
Answer: 1

43.
43 The rapid increase in human population between 1960 and 2010 is most likely the direct result of advances in
   (1) medical technology                                  (3) communication technology
   (2) space exploration                                   (4) marine exploration
Answer: 1


44.
                                                   Part B–2
                                  Answer all questions in this part. [12]
    Directions (44– 55): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.
   Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the information and data table below and on your
knowledge of biology.
              The diagram below represents a setup used in an experiment to determine the effect of
          temperature on fermentation. Fermentation is a type of respiration in yeast that produces
          alcohol and a gas. Five setups were used. Each was kept at a different temperature.
          The number of gas bubbles released in each tube was counted and recorded in the data
          table below.
    Directions (44–45): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid, following the
directions below.
 44 Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on each labeled axis. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on each labeled axis.


45.
45 Plot the data, connect the points, and surround each point with a small circle. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data and connecting the points.
Example of a 2-credit graph for questions 44 and 45:
Note: Allow credit if points are plotted correctly but not circled.
      Do not assume that the intersection of the x- and y-axis is the origin (0,0) unless it is
      labeled. An appropriate scale only needs to include the data range in the data table.
      Do not allow credit for plotting points that are not in the data table, e.g., (0,0), or for
      extending lines beyond the data points.


46.
46 State the relationship between the rate of fermentation and temperature. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The rate increases as temperature increases.
   — As the temperature decreases, the rate decreases.
   — The number of carbon dioxide bubbles produced increases with temperature.
   — Fermentation increases as temperature goes up.
   — It is a direct relationship.


47.
47 The number of bubbles produced at 27°C would be approximately
   (1) 30                                               (3) 80
   (2) 60                                               (4) 110
Answer: 3

48.
48 The number of amino acid differences in the protein cytochrome c between chimpanzees and some other
   animals is shown in the table below.
                            Comparison of Chimpanzee Cytochrome c
                                    to that of Other Animals
Explain how the data in the table can be used to determine possible evolutionary relationships. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The more closely related the organisms, the fewer amino acid differences.
   — A greater number of differences probably means that they are not closely related.


49.
Base your answers to questions 49 and 50 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          Since 1980, the vulture population in India has declined from 40 million to 60 thousand
      due to poisoning by a pain reliever used in cattle. If only 1% of the cattle carcasses fed on
      by vultures are animals that have been treated with the drug, it can lead to a drastic decline
      in the vulture population. The grim picture is that over 10% of the carcasses have been
      found to contain this drug.
          Vultures feed exclusively on the carcasses of dead animals. This helps to prevent the
      spread of diseases such as rabies and anthrax among wildlife, livestock, and humans.
      Without as many vultures present, other scavengers such as dogs have moved in and taken
      advantage of the newly available food. The abundance of these other scavengers has led to
      an increase in the number of cases of human rabies and an outbreak of tuberculosis,
      anthrax, and foot-and-mouth disease. These diseases are not spread to humans by vultures.
49 The best explanation for the increase in rabies, anthrax, and other diseases in humans is that the
   (1) decrease in the number of vultures has upset ecosystem stability
   (2) vulture population is being killed off by an increase in cases of human rabies
   (3) vultures are changing their feeding role from scavenger to decomposer
   (4) people are consuming scavengers that have eaten diseased vultures
Answer: 1

50.
Answer: 3

51.
  Base your answers to questions 51 through 54 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            Scientists will often grow bacteria in prepared petri dishes. In some experiments,
        the petri dish will also contain paper disks soaked in a particular antibiotic. The area where
        the bacteria do not grow is called the zone of inhibition, or ZOI. The diameter of the ZOI
        indicates the effectiveness of the antibiotic.
            The ZOI data collected by one scientist while trying to determine which disk (A, B, C,
        or D) is most effective at killing Streptococcus bacteria are: Disk D–9 mm, Disk B–8 mm,
        Disk C–0 mm.
51 Using the metric ruler represented below, determine the diameter in millimeters (mm) of the ZOI for
   antibiotic disk A shown below. [1]
ZOI Disk A _______ mm
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for 13 mm (+/– 2mm).
Note: Do not allow credit for a student response in centimeters.


52.
52 Insert the appropriate heading (with units) for the second column in the data table below and record the
   data from this investigation. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit.
Example of a 1-credit response:
Note: For measurement of disk A, allow credit for the student’s response to question 51.
      Do not allow credit if appropriate units are not included in the heading.


53.
53 Which disk is most likely the control for this experiment? Support your answer. [1]
   Disk: _______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for C or disk C and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are
not limited to:
   — no ZOI
   — did not kill bacteria so probably contains no antibiotics


54.
54 Identify the letter of the most effective antibiotic and explain why you selected that antibiotic. [1]
   Letter: _______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for A and explaining why the antibiotic was selected. Acceptable responses include,
but are not limited to:
   — the least amount of bacteria around the antibiotic disk
   — the biggest zone of inhibition
   — the biggest area of no bacteria
Note: Allow credit for an answer consistent with the student’s data table for question 52.


55.
55 Explain why the microbes are necessary in order for the termites to absorb nutrients that they need to
   survive. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Termites cannot digest cellulose, but the microbes can do it for them.
   — The microbes digest the cellulose into glucose, which is small enough to be absorbed by the
     termite.
   — The microbes provide the substance needed to break down the cellulose into glucose.



56.
                                               Part C
                             Answer all questions in this part.     [17]
Directions (56–72): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.
 56 For many years, health officials had encouraged using antibacterial hand soap. Today, many scientists
    recommend using hand soap with no added antibacterial substances. State one reason why using
    antibacterial hand soap may no longer be recommended. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Overuse of antibacterial agents may result in an increase in the number of resistant bacteria.
   — Some bacteria are beneficial and may also be killed.
   — Antibacterial agents kill nonresistant bacteria, allowing the resistant ones to survive and
     reproduce.


57.
   Base your answers to questions 57 and 58 on the chart below and on your knowledge of biology. The chart
shows seasonal changes in an ecosystem and the overall carrying capacity of the ecosystem.
57 State why the populations decrease between July and December. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — There is not enough food, so some die of starvation.
   — disease
   — Predators kill them.
   — hunting
   — colder weather
   — They are over the carrying capacity.
   — increased competition
   — They migrate.


58.
58 Explain what is meant by the carrying capacity of a particular population in an ecosystem. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Carrying capacity is the maximum number of individuals the environment can support over
     an extended period of time.
   — It is the largest population size that can survive in an area year-round.
   — It is the maximum population size that an area’s resources can support.


59.
Base your answers to questions 59 through 61 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                               Solid Waste Management Act of 1988
         In the Solid Waste Management Act of 1988, the New York State legislature established
      our State Solid Waste Management Policy. The solid waste management priorities in
      New York State are:
         (a) first, to reduce the amount of solid waste generated;
         (b) second, to reuse material for the purpose for which it was originally intended or to
             recycle material that cannot be reused;
         (c) third, to recover, in an environmentally acceptable manner, energy from solid waste
             that can not be economically and technically reused or recycled; and
         (d) fourth, to dispose of solid waste that is not being reused, recycled or from which
             energy is not being recovered, by land burial or other methods approved by the
             department.
 59 State one specific benefit increased recycling efforts would have on the environment in New York State.
    [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — less trash put in landfills
   — less use of raw materials/limited resources
   — reduced use of nonrenewable resources
   — less litter in the environment


60.
60 Identify one factor that would hinder recycling efforts within a community and state how it could be
   corrected. [1]
   Factor:
   Correction:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   Factor: People won’t recycle.
   Correction: Fine individuals who put recyclables in their garbage.
   Factor: lack of education about recycling
   Correction: Distribute recycling information or sponsor television and radio ads.
   Factor: too time consuming
   Correction: Companies can collect unsorted recyclables.


61.
61 State one community action, other than recycling, that could be implemented to address one part of
   the Solid Waste Management Act of 1988 and explain how this action would improve the environment
   of the community. [1]
   Community Action:
   Improvement:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   Community Action: requiring deposits on water/soda bottles
   Improvement: reduce solid waste
   Community Action: requiring reduced packaging of products or using reusable shopping bags
   Improvement: less waste produced
   Community Action: building power plants that use solid waste for fuel
   Improvement: recover energy from solid waste


62.
Base your answers to questions 62 and 63 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
           Guppies are small, tropical freshwater fish that display wide variation in coloration.
      Some have bright splotches of blue, red, and orange, while others are quite drab and dull.
      Research has shown that females prefer to mate with brightly colored males; however, this
      trait makes them more likely to be seen. Guppies, like all species, must be able to both sur-
      vive and reproduce in order to avoid extinction.
 62 Identify one process that is responsible for the variations in coloration observed in guppies. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — mutation
   — sexual reproduction
   — meiosis/crossing-over
   — recombination of genes
   — natural selection
   — sexual selection


63.
63 Both types of adaptations in coloration (bright and drab) can be considered advantageous for guppies.
   Identify one factor that could affect which color trait is selected for in a particular environment. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The absence or presence of predators determines which trait is selected for.
   — The female guppies determine which trait is selected for.
   — Colors present in the environment determine which trait is selected for.
   — type of predators present
   — the clarity of the water


64.
  Base your answers to question 64–67 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
64–67 All organisms need to reproduce for the continuation of their species. Discuss the process of
      reproduction in humans. In your answer, be sure to:
      • identify one hormone present in a female that is involved in regulating the reproductive cycle [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Note: The student’s response to the bulleted items in question 64–67 need not appear in the
      following order.
Allow 1 credit for identifying one hormone present in a female that is involved in regulating the
reproductive cycle. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — progesterone
   — estrogen
   — LH


65.
• state one way the nucleus of a sex cell is different from the nucleus of a body cell [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one way the nucleus of a sex cell is different from the nucleus of a body
cell. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — It has half the normal chromosome number/half of the genes.
   — Sex cells are haploid/monoploid.
   — 23 chromosomes in sex cells, 46 in body cell


66.
• state how the normal chromosome number for humans is maintained from one generation to the next
  [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating how the normal chromosome number for humans is maintained from one
generation to the next. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The egg and sperm each have half the normal chromosome number, and when they join, it
     restores the normal number for the species.
   — through the process of gamete production and fertilization
   — Each parent contributes half of the chromosomes.


67.
• identify one action by the mother that can influence the development of the embryo and state a result
  of that influence [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying one action by the mother that can influence the development of the
embryo and stating a result of that influence. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Alcohol use can lead to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
   — Smoking can lead to low birth weight.
   — Poor nutrition can lead to underweight babies.
   — Drug use can lead to birth defects.
   — Good nutrition can lead to a healthy baby.
   — Drinking alcohol puts the embryo at risk.
   — Proper prenatal care might detect potential problems early so they can be treated.


68.
Base your answers to questions 68 through 70 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                EVOLUTION OF THE ELEPHANT
         Today’s elephants are the result of a long process of evolution. Over millions of years,
      small changes were passed from one generation to the next. The first fossil elephant species
      were small, but over time, they increased both in size and weight. The three species alive
      today are the sole survivors of a once much more widespread group.
                                    Source: www.factmonster.com/dk/science/encyclopedia/evolution.html
 68 Explain why some elephant species did not survive. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — They lacked adaptations to the changing environmental conditions.
   — They were unable to compete for food or other resources.
   — They did not have the variations required for survival in their environment.


69.
69 Provide a possible explanation for the increase in size and weight of the elephants over millions of
   years. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Larger size made them more successful in competing for food.
   — Being larger made them better able to protect themselves.
   — Larger elephants had more offspring that survived.


70.
70 Explain why it took so long for elephants to evolve in this way, while insects and bacteria can undergo
   evolution much more rapidly. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Elephants reproduce more slowly than insects/bacteria.
   — Insects have many more offspring at one time.
   — Bacteria have a short generation time, compared to elephants.


71.
71 Identify one way in which the process of growth of a human embryo is similar to the process of
   reproduction in a single-celled organism. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — They both involve mitosis.
   — Both processes produce cells containing identical genetic information.
   — The cells are produced asexually.


72.
72 Enzymes and antibodies are molecules that have specific shapes that give them different functions.
   Select either enzyme or antibody, and explain how the shape of the molecule you chose helps it carry
   out its normal function. [1]
   Molecule:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   Molecule:
     antibody: The antibody binds to a specific pathogen
                                         or
       enzyme: An enzyme has a specific shape that must match the shape of
               the molecules with which it interacts (lock and key or
               induced fit).



73.
                                                   Part D
                                 Answer all questions in this part.      [13]
   Directions (73–85): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet the
number of the choice that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other
questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.
73 An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of activity on pulse rate. Data were collected and
   recorded in the table below.
Which activity most likely corresponds to the pulse rate of the person while sleeping?
(1) 1                                                      (3) 3
(2) 2                                                      (4) 4
Answer: 3

74.
74 The diagram below represents what occurred when an onion cell and a red blood cell were placed in
   distilled water.
The best explanation for why the onion cells do not burst, while red blood cells often do, is that
(1) the red blood cells have only a cell membrane, which does not protect them from bursting
(2) the onion cells do not have a cell wall that could protect them from bursting
(3) the onion cells have a cell membrane, which can protect them from bursting
(4) the red blood cells have a cell wall, which does not protect them from bursting
Answer: 1

75.
75 The diagram below represents the distribution of some molecules inside and outside of an artificial cell over
   a period of time.
Which statement is best supported by the diagram?
(1) Oxygen molecules entered the cell over time by active transport.
(2) Water molecules are too large to enter or leave the cell, so they remained where they were at the start
    of the investigation.
(3) Protein molecules are kept inside of the cell because the cell needs them.
(4) The protein molecules are too large to diffuse out of the cell.
Answer: 4

76.
76 A microscope slide viewed with high power can most likely be damaged by
   (1) adding distilled water                              (3) rotating the coarse adjustment knob
   (2) adding salt water                                   (4) rotating the fine adjustment knob
Answer: 3

77.
77 A student measured her pulse rate for a 15-second period, three separate times, and recorded the results.
   She then calculated her pulse rate for 1 minute. Complete the data table below by filling in the missing
   information. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for completing the data table as shown below.


78.
78 The diagram below represents a laboratory technique.
State one reason a student would use this technique during a scientific investigation. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — to add a solution to a slide without removing the coverslip
   — to add stain (or water) to a slide


79.
79 A student wished to determine the evolutionary relationships between three unidentified plant species
   (X, Y, and Z) and a known species Botana curus. Using an indicator powder to test for the presence of a
   specific chemical, the student made the observations shown in the data table below.
   In the space provided in the data table, write an observation the student would expect to make if species Y
   were more closely related to Botana curus than it was to species X and Z. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
Example of a 1-credit response:


80.
80 A student proposes that, if volunteers warm up before squeezing a clothespin for one minute, they will
   increase the number of times that they can squeeze it without tiring. He states that this is because their
   muscles will be better prepared for exercise. The data from an experiment are shown in the data table
   below.
Which trial from the chart above provides the best data to support his claim? Support your answer. [1]
Trial: _______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating which trial from the above chart provides the best data to support his
claim and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Trial 2, because more students were used.
   — Trial 2, because they squeezed more when they warmed up first.
   — Neither, because the averages were not very different.


81.
    Base your answers to questions 81 and 82 on the information in the diagram below and on your knowledge
of biology.
81 Based on the information in the chart, which statement is correct?
   (1) Finches that eat animals always have larger beaks than finches that eat plants.
   (2) Finches that eat plants all have very large beaks.
   (3) Finches with crushing bills eat only animals for food.
   (4) Finches with grasping bills usually eat animals for food.
Answer: 4

82.
82 The first species of finch to inhabit the Galapagos Islands thousands of years ago was most likely an insect
   eater. Today, finch species on these islands feed on a great variety of plants and animals. One early event
   that probably occurred that led to this feeding diversity was that
   (1) members of the ancestral finch species had to decide if they would be better off feeding on seeds rather
       than on relatively scarce insect species
   (2) some of the finch ancestors were born with beaks that were different from the beaks of other finches,
       and could eat both insects and seeds
   (3) some members of the ancestral species that fed on insects began to die off, leaving few offspring
   (4) another species of bird, a seed eater, arrived on the islands and began to breed with members of the
       ancestral species
Answer: 2

83.
    Base your answers to questions 83 through 85 on the diagram below, which shows the evolution of Hawaiian
Honey Creepers from a common ancestor. As their ancestors spread to new islands, they found a variety of dif-
ferent food sources. Gradually, behaviors and beak structures evolved that took advantage of these different food
sources, resulting in the formation of several new species.
83 Describe how the beaks of the bird species D, E, F, and J that eat fruits and seeds differ from the beaks of
   the bird species that eat only nectar. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Fruit and seed eaters have shorter, thicker beaks.
   — The nectar-eating birds have longer, thinner beaks.
   — Their beaks are shorter.


84.
84 Other types of birds arrived at the islands, but they found it difficult to compete with the many forms of
   honey creepers. Explain why the honey creepers were able to compete so successfully against the new
   arrivals. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The honey creepers were well adapted to the conditions on the islands.
   — They had evolved specific skills/structures to find food on Hawaii.
   — They were better adapted than the new arrivals.


85.
85 Some of the birds that could not compete with the honey creepers were successful living on other islands.
   State one reason why this could be possible. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — There were no honey creepers to compete with.
   — There was enough food for them on the other island.
   — They were well adapted to the conditions on the other island.



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