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Living Environment - New York Regents June 2017 Exam

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1.
                                                  Part A
                                Answer all questions in this part.    [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1 An example of recycling is
  (1) using a paper cup instead of a mug
  (2) turning off the lights when leaving a room
  (3) using plastic from a soda bottle to make a
      certain type of clothing
  (4) using two paper towels rather than five to
      clean up a spill
Answer: 3

2.
2 One characteristic of a stable ecosystem is
  (1) a high number of predators
  (2) an interdependence of organisms
  (3) a lack of biodiversity
  (4) an increase in human interference
Answer: 2

3.
3 According to scientists, ocean waves could be
  a source of energy. Devices are being designed
  to capture the energy from waves and supply
  electricity to coastal areas. A direct benefit of
  utilizing this technology to produce energy would
  be the
  (1) destruction of habitats near the devices
  (2) decreased use of nonrenewable resources
  (3) release of gases needed for photosynthesis
  (4) increased use of finite resources
Answer: 2


4.
4 The emerald ash borer is an insect that is thought
  to have been accidentally brought to the United
  States from China in shipping containers. It
  attacks ash trees, eventually killing the trees,
  destroying an important part of the ecosystem.
  The presence of the emerald ash borer in the
  United States can be used as an example of how
  humans have
  (1) purposely introduced an insect to correct a
      problem in an ecosystem
  (2) used an insect to remove one insect species
      and replace it with another
  (3) worked to increase the biodiversity in a
      particular area
  (4) altered the equilibrium in an ecosystem by
      introducing a new species
Answer: 4

5.
5 Which graph best shows the changes in global
  human population and natural resource use over
  the past 500 years?

Answer: 3

6.
6 The burning of fossil fuels has harmed the
  environment by
  (1) decreasing acid rain in the northeast United
      States
  (2) adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere
  (3) increasing biodiversity in the lakes and ponds
      of the Adirondacks
  (4) depleting the ozone shield directly over
      western New York State
Answer: 2

7.
7 Which method of collecting data would
  provide the most accurate information about
  how an ecosystem is being affected by human
  development?
  (1) The people in the neighborhood record the
       number of birds they see in the area both
       before and after the construction of a new
       building.
  (2) Deer in the area are identified before
       construction so that scientists can see where
       they go after the building is finished.
  (3) More trees are planted in the area around
       the construction site to allow the animals a
       new place to live.
  (4) The population size is recorded for each
       species present in the construction area
       before and after the building is completed.
Answer: 4

8.
8 Natural selection produces changes most quickly in
  (1) species with short reproductive cycles
  (2) individual pathogens killed by antibiotics
  (3) complex multicellular organisms
  (4) individuals that produce a small number of
      offspring
Answer: 1

9.
9 As a result of habitat destruction, the size of the
  Florida panther population has been drastically
  reduced. It is estimated that there are only
  100 to 160 Florida panthers in the wild. Which
  statement best explains why the Florida panther
  population may not continue to evolve?
  (1) There is no longer a chance of mutations
      occurring in the population.
  (2) There is a lack of competition for limited
      environmental resources.
  (3) There is no longer a chance of a trait providing
      a reproductive advantage to the population.
  (4) There is a lack of genetic variation for selec-
      tion to act upon.
Answer: 4

10.
10 Which level of the pyramid below is correctly
   paired with the type of organism that would most
   likely be found at that level in an ecosystem?
(1)   Level A – producers
(2)   Level B – carnivores
(3)   Level C – herbivores
(4)   Level D – decomposers
Answer: 1

11.
11 Which statement best describes what is most
   likely to occur if an animal population grows larger
   than the carrying capacity of its environment?
   (1) The birth rate will increase.
   (2) Both the birth rate and death rate will
       decrease.
   (3) The death rate will increase.
   (4) Neither the birth rate nor the death rate will
       decrease.
Answer: 3

12.
12 Many biotic factors affect individuals in a
   population. An example of an organism being
   directly affected by a biotic factor is
   (1) a squirrel cannot find a mate
   (2) a flood washes away a maple tree
   (3) a plant is in a dark room
   (4) a chipmunk finds a rock pile to use for a
       home
Answer: 1

13.
13 When people receive organ transplants, they
   often need to take medications that decrease
   immune responses because
   (1) transplanted organs contain antigens that can
       trigger white blood cell activity
   (2) hormones present in replacement organs
       prevent the synthesis of antibiotics
   (3) transplanted organs produce their own
       antibiotics
   (4) antigens present in these organs attack
       antibodies already present in the blood
Answer: 1

14.
14 Which structures regulate water loss and gas
   exchange in the leaves of plants?
   (1) vacuoles              (3) guard cells
   (2) chloroplasts          (4) mitochondria
Answer: 3

15.
15 Which life process carried out by a green plant is
   represented in the diagram below?
(1) respiration      (3) digestion
(2) photosynthesis   (4) replication
Answer: 1


16.
16 Scientists are developing a malaria vaccine that
   would most likely contain
   (1) weakened drugs used to treat the symptoms
       of malaria
   (2) white blood cells from the malaria-infected
       individuals
   (3) a weakened form of the malaria-causing
       organism
   (4) antibodies made from the malaria-causing
       organism
Answer: 3

17.
17 Proteins, starch, and DNA are similar in that they
   are all
   (1) organic compounds
   (2) parts of genes
   (3) made of amino acids
   (4) made of simple sugars
Answer: 1

18.
18 In response to an increasing blood glucose level,
   the human body will normally
   (1) store the glucose in cell nuclei
   (2) release a hormone that lowers the blood
       glucose
   (3) produce a hormone that destroys the glucose
   (4) use the excess glucose to make proteins
Answer: 2

19.
19 A kitten was born with black fur and green eyes.
   The fur and eye color of its parents are shown in
   the chart below.
Which statement helps explain why the kitten
has black fur?
(1) Chromosomes present on the genes code for
    the characteristics of its fur.
(2) Genetic mutations always cause the fur color
    and eye color to change.
(3) Offspring receive genetic information from
    both parents.
(4) Gene expression is changed in every genera-
    tion, resulting in evolution.
Answer: 3

20.
20 Scientists have been investigating a way to
   recreate extinct species such as the saber-toothed
   cat illustrated below.
Which technique would use DNA from an extinct
species to recreate an organism of the species?
(1) natural selection     (3) cloning
(2) differentiation       (4) selective breeding
Answer: 3

21.
21 The sequence that best illustrates the flow of
   energy through an ecosystem is
   (1) sunlight → plant → wolf → rabbit
   (2) plant → sunlight → rabbit → wolf
   (3) sunlight → plant → rabbit → wolf
   (4) wolf → rabbit → plant → sunlight
Answer: 3

22.
22 Which cellular change in an organism could be
   inherited by the next generation?
   (1) a change in the ribosomes in the pancreas of
       a squirrel
   (2) the deletion of a single DNA base in a sperm
       cell of a trout
   (3) a decrease in the size of a vacuole in a rose
       leaf cell
   (4) the transfer of a piece of a chromosome in
       the skin cell of a raccoon
Answer: 2

23.
23 A chemical was added to hand sanitizers and
   dish detergents to kill bacteria. Certain species
   of bacteria are no longer killed by this chemical.
   One likely reason for the decreased effectiveness
   of this chemical is that these bacteria have
   (1) slower metabolic rates
   (2) a mutation for resistance
   (3) been selectively bred for survival
   (4) an adaptation to a different niche
Answer: 2

24.
24 The hemlock wooly adelgid is an invasive insect
   species that is destroying native hemlock trees in
   New York State. These insects can upset natural
   ecosystems because they
   (1) provide food for native bird species
   (2) can carry diseases that can be spread to pets
   (3) increase biodiversity in New York State forests
   (4) disrupt habitats that native species depend
       upon
Answer: 4

25.
25 A shark and a dolphin have similarly shaped
   bodies and fins. However, these two organisms
   are not closely related: The shark is a fish, and
   the dolphin is a mammal. Some species may
   have similar body structures even if they are not
   related because they evolved in
   (1) similar environments and specific traits in-
        creased their chances of survival
   (2) similar environments and were exposed to
        factors that caused exactly the same muta-
        tions
   (3) different environments, but tried to adapt in
        the same ways so they could survive
   (4) different environments, but ate similar foods
        that affected their growth and development
Answer: 1

26.
26 A dog gave birth to the three puppies shown in
   the photograph below. One of the puppies has
   darker fur on its face than the other two.
Which two biological processes account for this
difference between the puppies?
(1) meiosis and recombination
(2) meiosis and cloning
(3) mitosis and differentiation
(4) mitosis and cloning
Answer: 1

27.
27 The diagram below represents a cell that produces
   digestive enzymes.
Which cellular structure would be the most likely
location for the synthesis of these enzymes?
(1) 1                      (3) 3
(2) 2                      (4) 4
Answer: 1

28.
28 Energy drinks have become increasingly popular.
   Some of these drinks contain large amounts of
   caffeine, which is known to increase heart rates
   in most individuals. This effect on the heart rate
   can be dangerous because it can lead to
   (1) a disruption in the absorption of starch
   (2) an increase in blood volume
   (3) a decrease in oxygen levels
   (4) an imbalance in homeostasis
Answer: 4

29.
29 The kidney is an organ that collects wastes and
   excess water from the blood and sends them to
   the bladder where they are stored before being
   removed from the body. Which two systems work
   together to perform this function?
   (1) immune and respiratory
   (2) circulatory and excretory
   (3) skeletal and nervous
   (4) digestive and circulatory
Answer: 2

30.
30 Scientists have recently discovered a community
   of bacteria and clams living under an ice shelf
   in Antarctica. These organisms live under 600
   feet of ice, in the absence of sunlight, and in
   temperatures considered too cold for most living
   organisms. The location where these organisms
   live is unusual because
   (1) only biotic factors control the size of the
       populations
   (2) bacteria and clams are found in the same area
   (3) of the abiotic factors found in their environ-
       ment
   (4) green plants make energy-rich compounds
       available
Answer: 3


31.
                                                 Part B–1
                                 Answer all questions in this part.    [13]
   Directions (31–43): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
31 The diagram below represents an important
   biological concept.
The concept being represented is
(1) overproduction
(2) natural selection
(3) homeostasis
(4) ecological succession
Answer: 2

32.
32 The graph below shows levels of a form of
   ultraviolet radiation (UV-B) and ozone thickness
   in Australia during December 1987 and January
   1988.
Which statement best describes the apparent
relationship between ozone and UV-B?
(1) When ozone levels are at 2550 Dobson units,
    the UV-B levels are at 250 Dobson units.
(2) The increase in UV-B reduces the destruc-
    tion of the ozone layer.
(3) When the ozone layer is thinner, more UV-B
    gets through it.
(4) If the ozone layer is thicker, UV-B levels on
    the ground increase.
Answer: 3

33.
33 In the diagram below, X represents a process that
   causes a protein to unfold and stop functioning.
Process X is most likely caused by
(1) the digestion of the amino acids that make up
    the proteins
(2) the synthesis of a protein with different
    simple sugars
(3) removal of the gene that codes for the
    production of the protein
(4) an internal factor in the body, such as a
    temperature increase
Answer: 4

34.
34 Which statement is an example of how the external
   environment can influence gene expression?
   (1) Some flowering plants that inherit a gene
        for white flowers and a gene for red flowers
        will produce pink flowers.
   (2) Some animals that inherit genes for brown
        fur will grow white fur if the outside
        temperature falls below a certain level.
   (3) In some breeds of cat, certain fur-color
        genes are found only in females.
   (4) A pea plant is short-stemmed only if it
        inherits the genes for the trait from both
        parents.
Answer: 2

35.
35 Which statement best illustrates a concept
   represented in the diagram below?
(1) Tsunamis triggered by oceanic earthquakes
    cause widespread flooding that can lead to
    large scale environmental destruction.
(2) Annual hunting laws determine the number
    of deer that can be hunted to ensure popula-
    tion stability.
(3) More individuals are purchasing hybrid
    cars that use less gasoline and produce less
    carbon dioxide.
(4) The increased use of electronics has led to
    increased mining for precious metals and
    minerals in developing countries.
Answer: 4

36.
36 The process shown below is used to
(1)   determine if a person has a genetic disease
(2)   produce human growth hormone
(3)   identify the father of a newborn
(4)   produce a hormone to regulate blood sugar
Answer: 4

37.
   Base your answers to questions 37 through 39 on the diagrams below and on your knowledge of biology.
The diagrams represent a single-celled organism and a multicellular organism.
37 Which statement correctly identifies the levels of organization for the structures indicated?
   (1) A and B are tissues; E and G are organs.
   (2) A and B are organs; E and G are systems.
   (3) A and B are tissues; E and G are organelles.
   (4) A and B are organelles; E and G are organs.
Answer: 4

38.
38 Cells from structure E and cells from structure G are similar in that they
   (1) have the same structure and function
   (2) contain the same genetic material
   (3) are identical in structure, but different in function
   (4) contain only the genetic information needed for their specific job
Answer: 2

39.
39 Rotenone is an insecticide that is toxic to humans as well as to insects. Rotenone interferes with the process
   of ATP production in the cell. Which row in the chart below correctly identifies the structure where ATP is
   produced and the reason it is affected by rotenone?

Answer: 2

40.
    Base your answers to questions 40 and 41 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of
biology.
              A student used a microscope like the one represented below to observe cell division
          in onion cells.
40 The part of the microscope that should be adjusted in order to better view the onion cells while using high
   power is
   (1) A                                             (3) C
   (2) B                                             (4) D
Answer: 3

41.
41 The student noticed that as the new cells formed, they contained rod-shaped chromosomes. It is necessary
   for onion cells to contain chromosomes because chromosomes
   (1) are composed of genes that contain the instructions for an organism’s traits
   (2) are made of carbohydrates and are needed as an energy source
   (3) direct the production of inorganic molecules within the cell
   (4) are composed of lipids that contain stored nutrients for the new cell
Answer: 1

42.
42 The diagram below indicates a few of the many
   varieties of domestic dogs thought to have
   originated from wolves that were domesticated
   thousands of years ago.
The many varieties of domesticated dogs were
most likely produced as a result of
(1) mutating the body cells of the dogs
(2) selective breeding over many generations
(3) genetic engineering with specific enzymes
(4) cloning dogs with desirable traits
Answer: 2

43.
43 The graph below represents some changes in the
   number of individuals in a particular population
   in a stable ecosystem over a period of time.
Which statement best describes the trend shown
in this graph?
(1) Ecosystem conditions will eventually cause a
    population to become extinct.
(2) In a stable ecosystem, the number of indi-
    viduals in a population is usually maintained
    within a certain range.
(3) The interactions between a population and
    various factors in an environment are always
    predictable.
(4) In order for any ecosystem to maintain a bal-
    ance, populations must be reduced to half
    their original number.
Answer: 2


    Directions (44–46): Using the information given, construct a bar graph on the grid following the directions
below.
 44 Label the y-axis on the line provided. [1]
44.
                                                    Part B –2
                                   Answer all questions in this part.        [12]
    Directions (44–55): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.
   Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the information and data table below and on your
knowledge of biology.
                                Illinois Greater Prairie Chicken on the Rise
                As pioneers moved west in the mid-1800s, the greater prairie chicken population in
           Illinois was estimated to number in the millions. Since then, their population has drastically
           declined.
                Evidence of the rapidly declining population was obtained from studying the number
           of eggs that hatched over several years. In Jasper County, Illinois, the number of prairie
           chickens fell from 2,000 to less than 50 in under 35 years. Researchers compared the
           DNA from feather samples from the living Illinois chickens to the DNA from feather
           samples dating from the year 1930 found in a museum. It was found that the living Illinois
           chicken population had a very low level of genetic diversity.
                In 1992, researchers attempted to increase genetic variation by transporting more
           than 500 healthy prairie chickens into Illinois from the states of Minnesota, Kansas, and
           Nebraska. The data table below shows the changes in the percent of eggs that hatched
           from samples taken in different years. Researchers documented that this increase in the
           percent of eggs that hatched was not influenced by environmental events.

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for correctly labeling the y-axis “Percent of Eggs Hatched.”
Note: Do not allow credit if percent or % is not included in the label.


45.
45 Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks in the data, on the y-axis. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for correctly marking the scale, without any breaks in the data, on the y-axis.


46.
46 Construct vertical bars to represent the data. Shade in each bar. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for constructing vertical bars to correctly represent the data.
Example of a 3-credit graph for questions 44–46:
Note: Allow credit if the correct data are clearly represented, even if the bars are not shaded.
       Do not assume that the intersection of the x- and y-axis is the origin (0,0) unless it is
       labeled. An appropriate scale only needs to include the data range in the data table.


47.
   Note: The answer to question 47 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
47 The scientists transported prairie chickens from three different states into the state of Illinois in order to
   (1) decrease egg hatching rate                      (3) increase egg fertilization
   (2) increase genetic diversity                      (4) develop different feather colors
Answer: 2

48.
   Base your answers to questions 48 and 49 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
The diagram shows the evolutionary history of several plant species.
48 Identify one type of molecular evidence that could have been used to determine the evolutionary relationships
   illustrated in the diagram. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — amino acid sequences
   — DNA/gene sequence
   — the results of a gel electrophoresis test
   — gene sequences
   — the results of a paper chromatography test


49.
   Note: The answer to question 49 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
49 Which biological technique could be used to obtain some structural evidence that species A and B are
   closely related?
   (1) glucose testing                            (3) genetic engineering
   (2) cloning                                    (4) dissection
Answer: 4

50.
     Base your answers to questions 50 and 51 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram
illustrates the steps in a process that occurs in the cells of many organisms.

Answer: 1

51.
51 Identify one specific molecule used to store the energy being released during this process. [1]
   Molecule:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for ATP/ADP or NADH/NAD.


52.
52 The diagram below represents male gametes from different animals.
State one way, other than the fact that they all contain DNA, the genetic content of these gametes is
similar. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — All of the male gametes in the diagram contain half the chromosome number (haploid,
     monoploid, n) compared to a body cell of the same species.
   — They all contain half of the species’ genetic information.
   — They had similar DNA sequences to a common ancestor.
   — The DNA is composed of the same four subunits (A, T, C, G).


53.
53 Part of a food web is represented below. It includes organisms located in a stream near farm fields.
   Note: The answer to question 50 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
50 Based on the diagram, the process of glycolysis most likely
   (1) begins the breakdown of glucose
   (2) produces oxygen for organisms to use
   (3) stores energy in molecules of water and carbon dioxide
   (4) recycles glucose within the cells of simple organisms
Select one type of organism, other than the crustaceans, from the food web. State how the population of
organisms you selected might be affected if the population of crustaceans in this food web were reduced due
to the use of chemicals harmful to crustaceans in the fields near the stream. Support your answer. [1]
Organism:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating how the organism selected would be affected if the population of
crustaceans in this food web were reduced due to the use of chemicals harmful to crustaceans in
the fields near the stream and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not
limited to:
   — The algae may increase because there are fewer crustaceans to eat it.
   — The insect larvae will decrease in population because fish will eat more of them.
   — The number of insect larvae will increase because there is more algae for them to eat.
   — The fish would only have insect larvae to eat because of fewer crustaceans.
   — Fewer crustaceans means less food for fish, which decreases reptile population.


54.
  Base your answer to question 54–55 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
             Indian blue peacocks live in dense forests and scrubland. Males use their colorful
         eye-spotted tail feathers and strutting display along with a loud mating call to attract
         females. This behavior, known as a hoot-dash, is made by the male before dashing toward
         a female to mate. Few species of other animals use loud courtship calls as the call attracts
         predators and uses energy.
54–55 Discuss the use of the hoot-dash by male peacocks. In your answer, be sure to:
      • state one advantage of the hoot-dash [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one advantage of the hoot-dash. Acceptable responses include, but are
not limited to:
   — The hoot-dash helps to locate a mate.
   — The hoot-dash attracts a mate.
   — It increases chances of reproduction.


55.
• state one disadvantage of the hoot-dash [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one disadvantage of the hoot-dash. Acceptable responses include, but are
not limited to:
   — The hoot-dash can attract predators.
   — The male may be heard and be eaten by a predator.
   — The call uses energy.



56.
                                               Part C
                              Answer all questions in this part.     [17]
Directions (56–72): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.
Base your answers to questions 56 and 57 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
           The placenta secretes progesterone and estrogen during pregnancy.
           Progesterone is responsible for the following functions:
           • maintains the lining of the uterus
           • inhibits (interferes with) contractions of the uterus
           • inhibits the production and release of eggs
 56 Describe one likely result if the placenta became damaged and could not maintain progesterone levels.
    Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for explaining what would happen during pregnancy if the placenta became
damaged and could not maintain progesterone levels and supporting the answer. Acceptable
responses include, but are not limited to:
   — If adequate progesterone levels are not maintained, the lining of the uterus will not be
     maintained.
   — The fetus might be born prematurely because the lining of the uterus will not be
     maintained and contractions of the uterus will not be inhibited.
   — The woman will go into labor because uterine contractions will begin to occur.
   — Production of eggs would not be inhibited.
   — miscarriage
   — The fetus may die.


57.
57 Explain how the release of additional eggs is prevented during pregnancy. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The presence of progesterone secreted by the placenta inhibits egg production.
   — Progesterone inhibits egg release.


58.
Base your answers to questions 58 and 59 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            “Cancer is a disease of genes gone wrong. When certain genes mutate, they make cells
       behave in odd ways. The cells divide swiftly, they hide from the immune system that could
       kill them and they gain the nourishment they need to develop into tumors.…”
                                                     Source: Carl Zimmer, NY Times, February 6, 2014
 58 Explain why the body of a person infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, would have a different
    immune response to the presence of cancer cells than a person not infected with HIV. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — HIV/AIDS attacks the immune system directly and the body is unable to deal with the
     invaders.
   — AIDS damages the immune system so it does not respond as effectively.
   — AIDS damages the immune system so it cannot produce antibodies/enough antibodies to
     fight disease or cancer.


59.
59 Explain why certain chemicals and radiation sources are risk factors for cancer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Mutations are sometimes a cause of cancer and exposure to radiation increases the
     occurrence of mutations.
   — Radiation, such as UV, can cause cells to mutate and cause skin cancer.
   — Certain chemicals may increase the rate of mutations.
   — Radiation can alter the genetic information in cells.
   — Radiation weakens the immune system.


60.
60 Scientists have learned that when a pregnant woman smokes, one of the chemicals absorbed, nicotine,
   can narrow the diameter of her blood vessels that lead to the placenta. Explain why narrowing the
   diameter of these blood vessels can result in low birth weight babies. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The amount of food that can pass from these vessels to the placenta and to the embryo will
     be less than if the vessels are normal in diameter.
   — Less food and oxygen will reach the embryo.
   — The developing embryo will not receive enough food for normal development since not as
     much blood will flow through the placenta.


61.
Base your answers to questions 61 through 63 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
           In an experiment to test the effectiveness of a new vaccine, 50 rats received an injection
       of equal doses of the vaccine and 50 other rats received an injection of equal doses of a
       weak salt solution. Two months later, all of the rats received injections that contained
       equal doses of live, disease-causing organisms.
           The experimental results are shown in the chart below.
61 Was the vaccine effective in preventing the disease? Use the information in the data table to support
   your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating whether or not the vaccine was effective and supporting the answer with
       information from the data table. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Yes, a much smaller number of rats receiving the vaccine developed the disease.
            — Since seven out of fifty got the disease, the vaccine may not be effective.
            — Yes, since 86% of vaccinated rats did not get the disease.


62.
62 State one possible reason why two of the rats did not get sick even though they did not receive the
   vaccine. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The rats may have had a natural immunity to the disease.
            — Those rats that did not get sick had a variation that protected them.
            — They may have already had the disease and are immune.
            — Their immune system fought off the virus.


63.
63 Do the results of this experiment indicate that the vaccine is ready for human testing?
   Support your answer with information from the table. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for indicating whether or not the vaccine is ready for human testing using
       information from the table. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — No, seven rats getting sick is too many out of a total of 50.
            — A larger sample should be tested before testing on humans.
            — Only 100 rats were tested, so a larger sample size should be used before testing on humans.
            — Yes, because most rats did not develop the disease.


64.
Base your answers to questions 64 through 66 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                       Saving Florida Oranges
           A disease that affects orange trees has led to the destruction of numerous orange trees
       in Florida. Orange growers have unsuccessfully tried to stop the spread of the disease by
       cutting down infected trees and using a variety of pesticides on the insects that spread the
       disease. The growers fear that if nothing further is done, entire crops could be wiped out
       in the near future. In hopes of saving Florida’s orange industry, scientists are attempting
       to alter the DNA of orange trees by inserting DNA, that codes for disease resistance, from
       a different plant species.
 64 State the name of the specific technique that is used to alter the DNA of orange trees. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — genetic engineering
            — gene manipulation
            — gene splicing
            — gene modification
        Note: Do not allow credit for biotechnology; it is a field of science not a technique.


65.
65 Explain why growing oranges with disease resistance is better for the environment than using pesticides
   to control the spread of the disease. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Use of pesticides can have a negative impact on other species in the area.
            — Pesticides can pollute the groves.
            — Pesticides could harm people.
            — Pesticides could kill beneficial insects.
            — The disease organisms could become resistant to pesticides.


66.
66 Identify a trait, other than disease resistance, that the orange trees could have that would be beneficial
   to the growers. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — drought resistance
            — insect resistance
            — freeze tolerance
            — faster growth rate
            — larger fruit
            — juicier fruit/better tasting/more nutritious


67.
67 The diagram below represents two energy pyramids. Each pyramid represents the productivity of one
   acre of land.
Based on the concept of energy transfer, explain why one acre of land can produce more vegetables for
human consumption than beef for human consumption. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Energy is lost as heat at each feeding level, and pyramid B has fewer levels.
            — Consumers that feed directly on plants have more energy available to them than consumers
              feeding on other consumers, since energy is lost at each level.
            — Raising cattle on the land is not as productive because energy must be transferred from
              plants to the cattle and then to people. Much energy will be lost as heat.


68.
Base your answers to questions 68 through 72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
     Nature Will Have to Clean Up Hawaii Molasses Leak That Killed Thousands of Fish
          A massive spill of thick molasses has turned Honolulu Harbor into a watery wasteland
      where thousands of fish have been suffocated – a disaster that officials say Mother Nature
      will have to clean up.
          “There’s nothing alive there at all,” diver Roger White told NBC affiliate KHNL after
      making a seven-minute video of dead sea life blanketing the bottom of the harbor.…
          …“Unlike with an oil spill, it’s a sugar product so it will dissipate on its own,” Matson
      spokesman Jeff Hull told NBC News on Thursday. “There’s not an active cleanup.”
          “The molasses is not toxic but it’s heavier than water so it’s spreading around on the
      sea floor, displacing the oxygen-rich water down there, and the fish are suffocating,” said
      Keith Korsmeyer, a professor of biology at Hawaii Pacific University.
          The die-off also could lure predators like sharks, barracuda and eels to the harbor and
      neighboring Keehi Lagoon, experts warned.…
          …Korsmeyer said marine life would probably repopulate the harbor, after the low-
      oxygen water moves out, but that could take months or even years.…
                                      Source: http://www.nbcnews.com/news/other/nature-will-have-clean-
                                                 hawaii-molasses-leak-killed-thousands-fish-f8C11137030
 68 Explain how the molasses spill caused many of the animals to die off. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The molasses displaced oxygen-rich water and the fish suffocated.
            — As fish died, the predators had less food available and died.
            — Molasses turned the harbor into a water wasteland where fish were suffocated.


69.
69 State one reason why the die-off could attract sharks, barracuda, and eels to the harbor and lagoon.
   [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — They would come into the area to feed on the dead and dying animals.
            — They were attracted by the scent of dead organisms.


70.
70 Identify one group of organisms responsible for the recycling of dead sea life that is not mentioned in
   the article. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — fungi
            — decomposers
            — bacteria
        Note: Do not accept humans, as they are mentioned and there is no active cleanup.


71.
71 Explain why it is important to preserve the biodiversity of the Honolulu Harbor ecosystem. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Biodiversity increases the chances that at least some organisms will survive in the event of
              environmental change.
            — Biodiversity increases the stability of the ecosystem.
            — Biodiversity increases the variety of genetic material present in an ecosystem.
            — Humans rely on the ecosystem for fishing, food, and tourism.


72.
72 Predict what will most likely happen to this ecosystem in 20 years if no other disasters occur. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Marine life would repopulate the harbor.
   — The ecosystem would recover on its own.
   — The ecosystem might not recover due to the degree of destruction that occurred.
   — It would recover due to ecological succession/reach a climax community.



73.
                                                      Part D
                                   Answer all questions in this part.        [13]
   Directions (73–85): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet the
number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.
    Note: The answer to question 73 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
 73 On various Galapagos islands, finch species have different diets: seeds, insects, flowers, the blood of seabirds,
    and leaves. This is evidence that each species has a different
    (1) mating behavior                                  (3) niche
    (2) nesting material                                 (4) predator
Answer: 3

74.
   Note: The answer to question 74 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
74 A person’s pulse rate generally goes down while sleeping. One reason for this decrease is
   (1) the body is producing more carbon dioxide when a person is sleeping
   (2) a person is not using energy while sleeping
   (3) a person requires less oxygen when sleeping
   (4) the body is using more nutrients while asleep
Answer: 3

75.
Base your answers to questions 75 through 77 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          Unique populations of giant tortoises live in the Galapagos Islands. This is the same
       group of islands where Darwin studied his famous finches. It is thought that the original
       ancestors of today’s giant tortoises came from the mainland of South America. These
       animals left and drifted in the ocean to the islands where they began to live, reproduce,
       and evolve. Each of the islands has a different habitat. Each species varies in shell shape
       and body structure. Information about two of these species of giant tortoises and their
       habitats is found in the table below.
   Note: The answer to question 75 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
75 Which statement best explains the differences observed in the tortoises on each island?
   (1) Each tortoise adapted to its environment during its lifetime.
   (2) Sudden mutations changed the appearance of all of the tortoises.
   (3) The tortoises grew different structures based on the available food.
   (4) Different adaptations gave some tortoises a better chance of survival.
Answer: 4

76.
   Note: The answer to question 76 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
76 When the saddle-backed tortoises extend their long necks out of the shell, they are unprotected from attack.
   Scientists hypothesize that during the evolution of this tortoise, they had few predators. Which statement
   best supports this hypothesis?
   (1) Competition between the predators and the tortoises would have resulted in a greater number of long-
       necked tortoises.
   (2) The number of predators was greater than the number of tortoises.
   (3) Saddle-backed tortoises were not a part of the food chain.
   (4) Predators would have killed the tortoises with long necks, leaving more tortoises with shorter necks.
Answer: 4

77.
77 If a group of saddle-backed tortoises were brought to an island inhabited by dome-shaped tortoises, could
   both species survive? Circle yes or no and support your answer. [1]
   Circle one: Yes or No
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for indicating if both species could survive if a group of saddle-backed tortoises were
       brought to an island inhabited by dome-backed tortoises and supporting the answer. Acceptable
       responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Yes, because they have long necks and can reach food that the dome-shaped tortoises
              cannot reach.
            — Yes, if there is enough food for both species of tortoises.
            — Yes, if they have different niches.
            — No, because they would compete for food and one species would win.
            — No, if the saddle-backed tortoise is not adapted to live in the new environment.
            — No, if certain predators are present, they may not.


78.
78 During the laboratory activity The Beaks of Finches, you obtained food under two conditions: with competition
   and with no competition. State one way the results obtained from these two conditions differed when you
   did this activity. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — More seeds were collected with/without competition.
            — It was easier to get food without competition.
            — The greater the competition, the fewer the survivors.


79.
79 An investigation was carried out to determine the effects of exercise on the human body. Identify one body
   system, other than the circulatory system, that becomes more active as a result of exercise. State one change
   the system you identified will undergo as a result of becoming more active. [1]
   Body system:
   Change:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            Body system: respiratory: The person will breathe faster.
            Body system: excretory: The person will sweat more.


80.
Base your answers to questions 80 through 82 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
           A student designed an experiment to investigate a claim that athletes would have lower
       heart rates than nonathletes during exercise. After the students classified themselves as
       an athlete or a nonathlete, their resting pulses were determined. Then all the students
       performed the same exercise for four minutes and their heart rates were determined by
       recording the pulse rate in beats per minute. The students continued to measure their
       pulse rates for an additional four minutes. The average heart rate per minute for each
       group was determined. The data were recorded, as shown on the table below.
80 State one appropriate hypothesis for this experiment. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        — If athletes perform the same exercise as nonathletes, then the athletic students will have a
          lower heart rate during exercise.
        — Athletic students have a lower heart rate during similar exercise than nonathletic students.
        — Nonathletes have a higher heart rate than athletes when exercising.
    Note: Do not allow credit for a hypothesis in the form of a question.


81.
   Note: The answer to question 81 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
81 Which statement is best supported by the data in the chart?
   (1) After exercise, the nonathletic students had a lower heart rate than the athletic students.
   (2) After exercise, the heart rates of the athletic students returned to resting pulse in four minutes.
   (3) During exercise, both groups of students had the same increase above their resting pulse.
   (4) During exercise, the athletic students had a higher heart rate than the nonathletic students.
Answer: 2

82.
   Note: The answer to question 82 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
82 To improve the validity of the conclusion reached in this experiment, the students should repeat the
   experiment
   (1) disregarding any data that don’t fit the hypothesis
   (2) with a larger number of athletes and nonathletes
   (3) comparing the heart rates and breathing rates of males and females
   (4) with the athletes doing different exercises than the nonathletes
Answer: 2

83.
Base your answer to question 83 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
           A student added glucose indicator to a beaker of an unknown liquid. Starch indicator
       was added to a different beaker containing an equal amount of the same unknown liquid.
       The color of the indicator solutions before they were added to the beakers and the color of
       the contents of the beakers after adding the indicator solutions are recorded in the chart
       below.
83 State one conclusion the student would make about the unknown liquid based on the results. Support your
   answer with information from the data table. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating one conclusion the student would make based upon the results and
       supporting the answer with information from the data table. Acceptable responses include, but are
       not limited to:
            — The unknown liquid has starch in it, but not glucose. The glucose indicator showed no
              change but the starch indicator did.
            — There is no glucose in the unknown liquid—the glucose indicator did not change.
            — There is starch in the unknown liquid—the indicator turned blue-black.


84.
84 While getting ready to perform the Making Connections lab, a teacher did not have enough of the old
   wooden clothespins she was handing out to the students to squeeze in the lab. The teacher opened a bag of
   new plastic clothespins and handed them out to the students who had not received a wooden clothespin.
   Explain why using new clothespins for some students and not others was an error in the experimental
   procedure. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Not using the same type of clothespins is introducing a new variable.
            — New clothespins might have stronger/weaker springs.
            — New clothespins would produce different results.


85.
Base your answer to question 85 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
           An unknown sample of DNA found at a crime scene was compared to DNA samples
       taken from three individuals. The results of the technique used to compare the samples
       are represented below.
85 What factor causes the DNA fragments to move in this technique? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — electricity
            — electrical charge
            — attraction between opposite electrical charges



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